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Irs Prominent Men and Pioneer 

[of its Several Townships and Villages 


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V\\STOR r 




Illustrations # Biographical Sketches 


Some of its Prominent Men and Pioneers.,. -^^ 


Maps of its Several Townships and Vffiages 







HHI 111 H WWmmm &\ O 3 i ; ^ ; i { ^ } i e 

Collection of Native North American Indian Booki 
Historical Books, Atlases, plus other importanUffc 
thors and family heirloom books. 
As Of 12-31-93 

W\f ; 

Earl Ford McNaughton 


IN the preparation of this work, it has been the purpose, not so much to make a book as to present, for the consideration of interested readers, 
a carefully digested review of the successive steps of the discoverers and explorers of the North American Continent. To accomplish this 
satisfactorily and leave no doubts on the question of authenticity, it has been tho aim to consult only' the best authorities within reach. The result 
of these consultations has been the development of a large amount of new matter, tending to establish greater antiquity in the date of the first visi- 
tations by white men, at the primitive village of Ke-ki-ong-a, the ancient capital of the Twa'twas or Miamis. Heretofore, it was generally accepted 
as a fact that the present site of Fort Wayne had been little known by white men, if at all, prior to the beginning of the seventeenth century. Now, 
in the light of recent investigations, when the avenues to new fields of research have been opened up, opinion has been changed, and it is made to 
appear that, certainly as early as 1669, but probably at a much earlier date — 1647 — if, indeed, the probability does not extend back as far a s 
1611-12, to the period when Champlain was making his tour of the lakes, and visited territory along the borders of the larger streams flowing into 
Lake Erie, and between that lake and "Le lac des Ilinois." These dates, given as applicable to probable visitations at this point, are not mere 
speculations, but, on the contrary, are fair and legitimate deductions from the accounts of actual visitants at points immediately adjacent. Evidences 
substantiating these as matters of fact are found in the transcripts of original official papers on file in the national archives of France, Holland and 
England; the correspondence between the Home officers of these governments, respectively, and their colonial dependencies on this side of the Atlan- 
tic. Much of this class of material is found in the collection of Mr. Broadhead, as Agent of the State, and of the Historical Society of New York, 
embraced in eleven ponderous volumes, whicli have, for this purpose, been carefully consulted. Such authority can scarcely be controverted. 

Again, in the interest of historical research, M. Pierre Margry, at the instance of the United States Government, has been diligently 
employed in recovering from oblivion a large mass of documents relating to the early discoveries by the French in North America, during the six- 
teenth and seventeenth centuries. The results of his labors, in part, have recently been given to the public in " Decouvebtes et Etaiilissements 
des Francais, dans L'Ooest et dans le Stjd de Amerique Septentrionale" — embracing, more especially, an account of the discoveries of 
Robert Cavelier de La Salle and his immediate predecessors. In this work, a large amount of valuable information relating to discoveries and settle, 
ments in this portion of North America, hitherto unknown, except to those who participated in or were connected with the enterprises which were 
the sources of their information. The authenticity of these papers cannot be gainsayed, and will constitute the basis of much of the remote history 
of this country, hereafter to be written. 

In addition to these two valuable works, to which especial reference has been made, there are other authorities, of almost equal value, that 
deserve to be noticed in this connection. Among these, we cite Parkman's " La Salle," "Jesuits in America," "Pioneers of France in the New 
World," " Fronteuac," "Old Regime in Canada and Conspiracy of Pontiac;" " Encyclopedia Britannica," last edition; Chambers' "Encyclopedia;" 
Sheldon's "History of Michigan ;" Bancroft's " History of the United States," Centennial edition ; " Magazine of American History;." "Western 
Annals," by Albach ; Dillon's "History of Indiana;" Tuttle's "History of Indiana;" Colden's " History of the Five Nations;" Schoolcraft's 
" Indians of North America ;" Thatcher's " Indian Biography ;" Drake's " North American Indians ;" Drake's " Tecumseh ;" Burnett's " Notes on 
the Northwestern Territory ;" Victor's " American Conspiracies ;" Price's " History of Fort Wayne ;" Knapp's " History of the Maumee Valley ;" 
American archives and American State papers ; Statesman's Manual ; McAfee's " History of Indian Wars in the Northwest ;" Collins' " History of 
Kentucky ;" Butler's " History of Kentucky ;" " Clarke's Expeditions ;" Law's " Vincennes." Information has also been received from Dawson's 
" Notes on the Early History of Fort Wayne;" notes of Charles B. Lasselle, Esq., of Logansport, Ind.; address of Hon. Jesse L. Williams, and 
from numerous other documentary sources, due credit for whicli has been generally given in the body of the work. 

Individually, the editor is under special obligations to Hon. James W. Borden, Col. R. S. Robertson, Hon. Jesse L. Williams, A. P- 
Edgerton, F. P. Randall, I. D. G. Nelson, and many others not now remembered, for the favor, counsel and suggestions in pursuing lines of 
investigation and research which have tended to the development and preservation of facts and incidents appertaining to the early history of Fort 
Wayne, of great moment in the preparation of a work of this magnitude. To the county and city officers, for favors rendered and facilities afforded 
in the examination of the public records of the county and city, the editor here tenders his recognition and acknowledgment. 

There are many others, also, who have rendered essential service in collection and preparation of material, especially pertaining to the modern 
history, embracing persons in the several townships, but whose names are not now at hand. To such, while we cannot make individual mention of 
them, their reward will he manifested in the presentation, in appropriate departments, the particular facts furnished by them. In the department of 
Township History, Mr. Newton has done well, and his work will be duly appreciated. Concerning the work in its entirety, the editor is ple.ised to 
say, of all who have been engaged with him in its preparation, that they have performed their part faithfully. Finally, asking charitable criticism 
for all errors that may have been unconsciously committed in any department of our work, it is commended to the careful examination of an intelli- 
gent public. T. B. HELM. 

December, 1879. 



Routes Traversed by ilic Scaniliiiaviiins, Welsh, Portuguese and Kleiuish- 
Traffic of French Traders with the'Indians 



Me-che-cun-na-quah, or Little Turtle 

Jean B. Richeville, 

Francis La Fontaine, 

Me-te-a, Chief, 

Wau-bun-see, Chief, 

Wey-a-pier-sen-way, or Blue Jacket, 

Cat-ahe-kaska, or Black Hoof, 

Capt. Logan, .... 

Nicholas Conspiracy, 

Conspiracy of Pontiac, 


CHAPTER I— Washington's Policy Toward the Indians— Harmar's 
Expedition— His Defeat — Details of the En- 
gagement, ....... 

II— St. Clair's Expedition 

Ill — Wayne's Preparation — His Victory — Building Fort 
Wayne, etc., ...... 

IV — Indian Treaties at and Affecting Fort Wayne, 
V — Anthony Wayne, 


APTER I— Physical Geography and Geology of Allen County— 

Pre-historic Remains — The Mound- Builders 
— Retrospective View — Conclusions, . 44 

II — Organization — Selection of Officers Chosen — First 
Meeting of the Board Doing County Busi- 
ness, etc., ...... 46 

III — Early County Legislation — County Finances and 

Their Condition During Primary Period, . 48 
IV — Judiciary — Circuit Court Organized — First Circuit 

and Associate Judges — Court Officers, etc., 50 
V — Public Buildings — Court House — County Jail — 

County Asylum, ..... 52 

VI — Agricultural Society, .... 54 

VII — Old Settlers' Celehration, ... 56 

VIII— Wabash & Erie Canal, .... 56 

IX — Ferries and Ferry Boats, .... 58 

X — Early Roads, 58 

XI — Railroads — Legislation of the County on the Ques- 
tion — Stuck, Suli-criptiuiis lor — Other Action, 50 
XII— Sketch of Gen. John Tipton, .... 60 


Allen County in the Mexican War, . .• . . . " 

Allen County in the War of the Rebellion, i 


Governors of Indiana — United Stairs Representatives— Miinrelhmcous Offi- 
cials from Allen County — Members of General Assembly, etc., I 

County Officers from 1824 to 1880— Township Trustees from 1859 to 
1880, . . . 

Principal Officers of the City of Fort Wayne from 1840 to 1880, . I 


Wayne and City of Fort Wayn 

Adams, .... 


Cedar Creek, 

Eel River, . 




La Fayette, 

Marion, . 


Milan, . 
St. Joseph, . 


Argo, Martin E., 134 

Archer, John 179 

Bass, John H., 133 

Borden, Hon. James W. 127 

Brenton, Hon. Samuel, .... . . Between 9S, 99 

Bruebach, George T., M. D., Between 98, 99 

Bond, Charles D 128 

Baker, William D. 163 

Burner, Adam, . . . . . . . . .177 

Comparet, Francis, . . . . . . . 131 

Cooper, Henry, .......... 131 

Clem, Andrew J., 162 

Cook, Thomas, . . . 174 

Cosgrove, F. K„ Sr., M. D * .176 

Dawson, Hon. Reuben J BetWeen 134, 135 

Depew, William 149 

Dalman, John, .......... 171 

Edgerton, Hon. Joseph K., 124 

Edgerton, Hon. A. P., 128 

Evans, Edwin 139 

Fay, Hon. James A., 130 

Fleming, Robert E 130 

Fleming, Oliver E., 130 


Griswold, Mrs. Emeline, 
Greenwell, George, 

Diedrioh W., 

Hillegass, .lorry. 

I till, i I b, 

Humphrey, Col. George, 

ntarpi i Capt. -1 es, 

Horin, D E IV. 
Hollopetei Capl W C . 

Ilium,, A. 

Hcflclnnaer, Jorry, 
Hall, Alvin, 

II„ r, William T. 

Hatfield, Boojainin 

Hatfield, Tl ins, 

.I..1,,, too, Wesley, 
Ki-i i , linn Peter, 
B amm, .1 .1 ., . 

Kariger, San I. 

Koerdt, Rev. F., 
Lipes, David U., 
Lip, John W., 
Uohti nwalter, S. M., 
Manson, Charles \ . 

M,. i. Joseph, Jr., 

Huhlor, Charles, 
McDowell, 11. C 
Metcalf, Vaohel, 

Monroeville Public Sol I 

Notcstine, Peter, 
. , i n , Daniel, 
O'Rourke, Judge lv. 

"in Jl mi. . 

i ►'Brien, Dennis, 
Peltier, Louis, 
Page, Taylor* Co., Fort 
I rker, II n Christian, 
Poioseit, John S.. 
i. .,,..,ii Hon. F. P., . 
Robertson, Col. R. 8. 
Reed, Col HughB., . 
B ii I,. Rev. B., 
Ridenonr, Lewis, . 

Spe :r, Martin V. B., 

Sohmctaer, 51. F„ 
Swincheart, David, . 
Sohlattier, C J . ■ 
Stnrgeon, A. T., 
Taylor, John M.. . 

M. D, 

Wayne />, 


.1 ., Conrad 

Turner, Harvey lv., 
Taylor, A. J., . 

ilc B.. . 
\ iberg, C. II.. 
Valentine, Mrs. Susanah, 
Valentine, Jackson, 
Williams, Jesse L., 

Wood, II ! .' B 

Wilt. John M.. . 
Whin Capt. J. B., 
Withers, W. H.. . 

V , ,, It r. H. Tim,,.. 
Whittern, diaries, 
Zollare, Urn. Allen, 
Zollinger, Christian, 
Zollinger, Henry C, 
Zollinger, Col. Charles A 

Facing 12ti 

. 139 
14(1, 141 
i 126, 12T 


. 129 

Facing 140 

Between 120, 127 

1 L L U S T It A T I O N S ; 


Allen County Jail Facing 89 

Court House ( Double Page) Between 90, 91 

Bond, Mrs. Lavioio, residence of, . . . . Facing 114 

Church, Parsonage and School Building Evangelical 

Lutheran Emanuel's Congregation, . . . Between 98, 99 

in, residence of, ....... Facing 98 

Robert K., residence of, .... Between 122, 12J1 

Kiel Brothers, residence of, Between 106, HIT 

Lowry, Hon. Robert, residence of, .... Between 90, 91 
Morris, Judge J., residence of, . . . . Between 100, 107 

Muhler, Charles F.. residence of, ...... Facing 122 

"Old Fort Wayne," 

Or!T. John, residence of, .... . 

Randall, F. P., residence of, .... . 

Sentinel Building, 

St. Paul's Lutheran Church, Parsonage and School Buildii 
Wood, Mrs. G. W,, residence of, ... . 

. Between 111,11 

Between 98, 99 

Facing 115 

. Facing 107 

, . Between 98, 99 

Between 100, 107 


County Asylu 

Swincheart, David, residence of, 

Hartman, Henry, residence of, 
Lun/., John George, residence of, 
Trier, Conrad, residence of, . 
Zollinger, Henry C., residence of, 


Depcw, William, residence of, 
Hanim, Adam, residence of, 
Motestinc, Daniel, residence of, 
Notestinc, Peter, residence of, . 
Schlatter, C. J., residence of, 
Viberg, C. II., residence of, 


Heflelfinger, Jerry, residence of, . 
Johnston, Wesley, residence of, 
Lipes, David H., residence of. 
Sturgeon, A. T., residence of, . 
Shilling. Da\ id, residence of, 
Taylor, John M., residence of, . 
Valentine, Jackson, residence of, . 

Bolyard, Samuel W., residence of, 


en 144 


Between 144 




Between 144 





en 108 







in 174 


Between 152 



en 152 







•Tl 152 


Between 152 





St. Patrick's ( 
Miller, Willia 




Fogwell, Will 

id Parsonag 
ice of. . 




Between 150, 15 


Drage, Christ inn. residence of, ..... Between 162,162 

Lichtenwaltcr, S. M., residence of, Facing 157 

Lipes, John W., residence of, .Facing 15S 

Spangler, George W., residence of, ... . Between 158, 159 
Turner, Harvey IS., residence of, .... Facing 159 

Zollinger, Frederick, residence of. .... Between 158, 159 

Clem, Andrew J., 
Jones, Thomas, re 
Niezer, J. B. | Mo 
Public School Mi 

Ridenour, Lewis, i 
Whittern, Charles 



. Between 162, 163 

Between 102,103 

. Between 162, lint 

■ Facing 102 

able Page), Between 102, 103 

Between 162, 103 

, M. E.. farm property, 

Asbton, Ambrose, reside. 

Bleke, Charles F, residence of, 
Hunter, William T., residence of, 
Hillegass, Jacob, residence of, 

lining 168 



Church, Parsonage and School Building, St. Aloysius' Congregation. Facing 171 
Dalman, John, residence of, ..... . Facing 91 

Robison, Willinm S., residence of, Between 170, 171 

Taylor, A. J., carriage factory. . . (Double Page), Between 170, 171 



Antrup, F. W., residence of. 
Cook, Jacob, resideuce of, 
Guegleiu, Jacob, residence of. 


, residence of, 
W., residence of, 

of, . 
Kasiger, Samuel, residence of, . 

Poinsett, Jobn S., residence of, 

St. Vincent De Paul's Church and Pi 

Withers, W. H., residence of, 


. ( Double Pi 

Battle of Pittsbu 

nding, April 6. 1862, 44th Rogt 


Argo, M. E 

Archer, John, and Wife, 
Andrews, T. M., 
Bass, J. H. (Steel Plate), 
Borden, Hon. James W., . 
Brenton, Hon. Samuel, 
Bruebaoh, George T.. M. D., 
ISrackenridge, C. A.. . 
Baker, William D., ' 



Conover, A. V. D, . 
Comparet, Francis, .... 
Dawson, Hon. Reuben J.. 
Devilbiss, Allen, ... 
Edgerton, Hon. Joseph K. (Steel Plate), 
Edgerton, Hon. A. P. (Steel Plato), 
Fay, Judge James A. (Steel Plate), . 
(lloyd, George B., 

Griffin, A. C, 

Greenwell, George, .... 
Griswold, Emeline, .... 
Hillegass, Jerry (Steel Plate). 
Humphrey, Col. George, 
Harper, Capt. James, . 
Hollopeter, Capt. W. C, . 
Hall, Alvin, .... 

Herin, D. E. 0., and Wife, . 
Hunter, William F., and Wife, . 
Hamm, Adam, and Wife, 

Kamm, J. J., 

Kariger, Samuel, . 
Kiser, Hon. Peter, 
Koerdt, Rev. F., . 
Little Turtle, Indian Chief, . 
Liehtenwalter, S. M., and Wile, 
Lipes, David H., and Wife, . 
Lipes, John W., and Family, . 
Mommer, Jr., Joseph, .% 

Munson, Charles A., 

Metealf, Vachel C ' 

McDowell. B. C. M. D.. 
Notestine, Daniel, and Wife 
O'Rourke, Judge E., ' 

O'Brien. Dennis, 

Page, William 1)., 

Peltier, Louis, . 

Parker, Hon. Chris 

bin, and Wife. . 

Poinsett, John S.. 

ad Wife, 

Robertson, Col. 1(. 

S. (Steel Plate), 

Reed, Col. Hugh 1 

. (Steel Plate 1, 

Roche, Rev. B., 
Bins, John, 

Between 152, 153 
Between 172, 173 
Between 172, 173 

Between 174, 175 

Between 180, I si 

e) Between 178, 17!) 

Between 17S, 179 

Between 178, 17!) 


; 18(1 

Facing 18] 
Between 180, LSI 

Facing 134 

Between 180, 181 

Facing 167 

. Facing 133 

Facing 127 

Between 98, 99 

. Between 98, 99 

Between 134, 135 

Between 134, 135 

Facing 177 

Between 126, 127 

Between 90, 91 

Between 134, 135 

Between 134,135 

Facing 124 

. Facing 128 

Facing 130 

Facing 1-67 

Facing 167 

Facing 167 

Between 140, 141 

Facing 139 

. Between 90, 91 

Retween 90, 91 

Between 134, 135 

Between 134, 135 

. Facing 99 

: 169 

Between 168, 169 

Facing 126 

Between 178, 17:i 

I let vein 134, 135 

. Facing 171 


lacing 157 

I let wen, 152, [03 

Facing 158 

. Facing 134 



Facing 151 

I let ween 90, «1 

, Facing lis 

Facing 1 27 

Between 90,91 

Between 126, 127 

Between lilt, 14] 

Between 172, 173 

. Facing lsn 

Facing 136 

. Facing 132 


acing I si 
134, 135 

Spencer, M. V. B., . 
Sehmetzer, M. F., 
Swinehart, David, and Wife 
Sturgeon, A. T., and Wife, , 
Taylor, James F„ , 
Taylor, John M., 
Taylor, A. J„ and Wife, . 
Trier, Hon. Conrad, and Will-, 
Turner, Harvey K„ and Wile, . 
Vogel, Frank R. (Steel Plate), 
Valentine, John, 
Valentine, Susanah, 
Wayne, Gen. Anthony, . 
Williams, Jesse L. (Steel Plato), 
White, Capt. J. B. (Steel Plato) 
Wolkc, F. H. (Steel Plate), 
Wilt, John M., 
Wilken, Rev. H. Theo., 
Zollinger, Christian, and Wife 
Zollinger, Col. C. A, . 
Zollars, Judge Allen, 



Allen County, ......, or Fort Wayne from 1697 to 1824, 
Fort Wayne and Vicinity 


Cedar Creek, 

Eel River, 


Jackson, . 

Lake, . 

La Fayette, 


Monroe, . 






St. Joseph. 


^cipio, . 



Cedarville, . 




Ivim Liberty 

Hesscn Cassel 

Hoagland, . 




Maysville, . 
Maples, . 
New Haven 
Wallen. . 

W Ilnilii 



Faoing 1 I.". 

. Facing 15 

Between 126, 127 

. Facing i:;i 

Between 1711, 171 

Facing 1 I I 

Facing 159 

Between 138,139 

Facing 99 
Failing 99 

Facing 123 
Facing 135 
Pacini: 138 
Facint I I" 

Between [54, loo 
Facing 99 

Between 126, 127 
. 136 

Between Mil, I II 

Between 144 I I.. 

Facing Mi, 

Faoing I.)" 

Between 152, 153 

Faoing 153 

Facine 154 

Facte 156 

Between 15(1, I 57 

Facing 160 

. Facing! Ill 

Bi i «. rn 164, 165 

. Facing Ml 

Faoing 166 

. Facing 170 

Facing 172 

Facing 174 

Facing 176 

Faeine 88 

Between 16 [65 

Between 176. 177 
Mil. Ml 
Between 17D, 171 
Between 170, 171 
Between 17n, 171 
lictwj n I III. Ml 
i. Mil, 141 


. Faeine 111" 

Bol ween 176, I 77 
Bert • - 176. 177 
Bi >»-. en Mil, 141 

Facing 161 

! 74, 175 

Between Mil. Ml 

Between IT". 171 

Facing 160 

17", 171 

i iii, i n 

Mil, Ml 
I !6. 1 CI 

176 171 




As preliminary to the history of any locality, custom, the precursor of law, 
has made it necessary to present a generous outline of what may be examined in 
detail in the body of the work. If it were necessary in previous experiments, it 
is proper in this. Frequently it happens that the introduction requires, or at 
least receives, more elaboration than that which is introduced. In this instance, 
however, the labor and research bestowed in the preparation of the body of the 
work must compensate for any lack that may be observable in the presentation of 
the reflexive epitome thereof which precedes If what has been written in the 
following pages is found, upon examination, to possess sufficient merit to justify 
a re-perusal, the introductory part will have been found to be extraneous matter, 
occupying space that might have been more judiciously appropriated in giving 
place to additional facts that, had they been utilized instead, might have given 
more interest in their recital and more satisfaction to their perusal. 

The history of Allen County, abounding as it does with incidents of more 
than ordinary moment, is properly divisible into four great periods; the first 
embracing the Period of Discovery, made up of tracings from the earliest naviga- 
tors who have visited this country, especially such as came under the authority of 
the French Government, in which the objective is plainly indicated — a western pass- 
age to China, Japan and the Indies, I he discovery of the American Continent being an 
incident to that end. While this discovery, for a time, delayed the progress by the 
presence of an interposing continent, the ideal point was kept continually in view 
by subsequent explorers who labored to establish a direct line of communication 
between this and the countries still to the westward beyond the Pacific. In 
pursuing this ideal, their course being to the westward, it was but natural that 
the line of discovery was along the connecting lakes that found an outlet in the 
Gulf of St. Lawrence, presuming that away to the westward, perhaps, at the 
head of this great chain of lakes, was another outlet, whose channel connected the 
ocean beyond. The result of efforts to this end was the discovery of intermedi- 
ate points, the establishment of trading -posts and the founding of missions among 
the natives. Movements in this direction commenced with the earliest voyagcurs 
and only terminated in the discovery that the course of the Great Father of 
Waters, the Mississippi, instead of extending to the Vermilion Sea, debouched 
into the Gulf of Mexico. In the mean time, the energies of all were bent toward 
utilizing the advantages attainable in giving direction to trade, in developing the 
latent elemeuts of prosperity, in Christianizing and civilizing the savage natives.' 

To evolve trade, agencies were put in motion to penetrate the deep forests, trav- 
erse rivers, lakes and swamps, to secure the articles of traffic upon which their 
lucrative trade so much depended. Traders extended their search into all the 
avenues through which valuable returns were likely to flow back. Money was 
not so much a consideration with the Indian, for what he had to sell, as knives, 
hatchets and guns, adapted to their needs and uses, and triukets for purposes of 

Priests, filled with the novelty of adventure, anxious to gratify such ambi- 
tion and exhibit their devotion to the cause of Christian civilization, generally 
alone and on foot, left the society of white men and mingled with savages, hop- 
ing, by such self-sacrifice, to sow among them the seeds of exemplary discipline. 
In the furtherance of these objects, they became willingly instrumental in advan- 
cing the interests of discovery and strengthening the inpulsea of trade, whereby 
advantages accrued to the Crown and to the Church. These examples of devo- 
tion and self-denial have left an impress on the society of to-day, though more 
than two centuries have passed since their presence in this region round about 
first heralded the advance of civilization. 

" The Aboriginal Period " .occupies the second place, following, niturally, the 
period of Discovery, which, while it had a prior existence, did not become known 
until the advent of discovery. It embraces, first, the principal generic features 
of the race, then the great family divisions, based upon a similarity of the lingual 
elements, taking the Algonquin as the primitive type. This family is noticed 
with reference to its peculiarities and distinguishing characteristics, mentally and 
physically. A subdivision into tribes, whose history is more or less intimately 
connected with this locality, follows, in which the purpose has been to trace the 
migrations and transmigrations from the period of the first discovery of them to 
their removal beyond the limits of this State, or their blotting-out from the 
galaxy of distinct and separate tribes. As an addenda to the tribal history, short 

biographies of some of the noted chiefs and representative men who have figured 
more or less extensively in our immediate vicinity. An appropriate conclusion 
tb this period is presented in a review of the conspiracies preceding and following 
the overthrow of French power in the territory of the Northwest, The first being a 
development of the Indian opposition to French control, the other an expression 
of the combined Indian and French opposition to the ascendancy of the English, 
in the original dominion of New France. 

A new order of things having been inaugurated in the organization of the 
United States Government, after the close of the American Revolution, " The 
Semi-Savage Period" succeeds the " Aboriginal, 1 ' and introduces the reader to 
the transactions incident to the struggle fur the mastery between the Indians and 
pioneersmen, in which the latter acquire dominion here and lay the foundations 
of permanent settlements and subsequent prosperity, the fruits of which are being 
enjoyed after the lapse of nearly two centuries and a half from the advent of 
white men in the Maumee Valley. 

When the problem of permanent settlements was demonstrated, and pio- 
neersmen, desiring to become citizens, moved to be clothed upon with the habili- 
ments of legislative authority to enjoy and maintain civil and religious liberty, as 
a separate jurisdiction, then "The Period of Civilization and Law" were fully 
developed, and Allen County became an integral quantity in the political econ- 
omy of the State of Indiana. Under this bead may be found the germs of 
organic life with a careful digest of the proceedings incident to the development 
and growth of our body politic, with the progressive transitions from the embryonic 
to the mature state. Following this, the local history of Fort Wayne, our central 
city, with the changes, modifications and improvements which time has wrought, 
and the present elements of prosperity, including the various industries which 
mark a distinctive era in its advance toward supremacy. Then the separate town- 
ships have been treated historically, in which will appear the dates of settlement, 
organization and subsequent growth, with the names of the settlers and their 
connection therewith, followed by biographical sketches of individual citizens of 
local and general notoriety, who have left their impress upon society from time to 
time as they have appeared and still appear on the theater of active life. To the 
preparation of this latter department, Mr. L. H. Newton has given his especial 

As introductory to the distinctively local history of the county, we give an 
elaborate article on Its physical geography, with the geological features apparent, 
followed by a descriptive account of the mounds and arcb;eologi<-al remains discovered 
by the industrious research of Col. R. S. Robertson, by whos^ hand the articles in 
question have been prepared. To be appreciated, they need only to be carefully 

Again, immediately preceding the Township History, will be found a very 
complete and well digested outline of our military history, from the pen of Col. J. 
B. Dodge, to whose energy and skill the people of Allen County are and will be 
especially indebted for the preservation of these mementos of war. 

Appendatory to the preceding divisions also, the reader will find a fund of 
miscellaneous and statistical matter, which, not comiug under any other specific 
head, is nevertheless of such momentous value that its omission would be almost 
criminal, since it embodies facts, figures and references so thoroughly digested 
that our work would he incomplete without them. 

And last, though not least, of consequence in this introductory review, is 
the department of " Illustrations," which includes the maps, portraits, home 
views, landscapes and historical representations — mementos of the pftst, designed 
to extend into the future, reflexes of the antecedents of coming general ions. 

These results have only been attained by the patient, effective labor and untiring 
energy, appropriated by those having in charge the conduct of the several depart- 
ments of their work. In the preparation of the maps, Messrs. Ellis Kiser and 
J. A. Johnson, Engineers, have done themselves credit in the complu 
racy and finish which characterize their productions. As an artist, Mr: Charles 
H. Radcliff has acquitted himself with honor, which entitles him to high rank 
in his profession, as the effusions of his pencil fully attest. And, finally, not 
only the editor and proprietors, but the citizens of Fort Wayne especially, and of 
Allen County generally, owe much to the thoroughness and efficiency of the 
labors of Mr. Kiser in collecting the details of business and historical miscellany 
of the city and county, than whom no one, in the opinion of the editor, could 
have more faithfully and satisfactorily performed the task. 




Willi, nit discussing further what may li 
am ,ng the aborigines of this cduptry, or what 

vailing triln ■* occupied, from period to period in ll 
the fact that America was not destined In be tl 
maD, in the light of the nineteenth century, '" 
of the age, new actors appear 

i the status of civilization 
s of the continent the pre- 
ations and transmigrations, 
trial inheritance of the red 
dmitted. In the progress 
the scene, whose advent heralded the depart- 
u ,„ of the' aboriginal race's to habitations beyond the setting sun. In this con- 
nection, therefore, it will not be out of place to recite briefly the progress of "the 
star of empire" westward bound. . 

" The discovery of a continent, so large that it may be said to have doubled 
the habitable world, is an event so much the more grand and interesting, that 
nothin" parallel to it can ever occur again in the history "I mankind. America 
had of course, been known to the barbarous tribes of Eastern Asia for thousands 
of years ■ but it is sin-ular that it should have been visited by one of the most 
enterprising' nations of Europe five centuries before the time of Columbus, with- 
,,,t awakening the attenlion of either statesmen or philosophers." 

Vb„iit the middle of the ninth century, the spirit of European adventure is 
known to have directed its course to the westward, across the Atlantic. In the 
year 860 A. D., the Scandinavians discovered Iceland, and in 874-75, colonized it ; 
and less than one hundred years later, they discovered and colonized Greenland. 
[Enc. Brit. I, 706 ; Cham. Enc. I, 198.] 

On the authority of M. Rafn, a Danish historian, well versed in the narra- 
tives of these early voyagenrs, it is stated, also, that America was discovered by 
them in A. D. 985; shortly after the discovery and colonization of Greenland. 
That early in the following century, and repeatedly afterward, the Icelanders 
visited the embouchure of the St. Lawrence, the Bay of Gaspe being their prin- 
cipal station ; " that they had penetrated along the coast as far south as Carolina 
and that they introduced a knowledge of Christianity among the natives." 
[Note.— En. Brit., 706.] , . . 

■ Tins account, though meager, is distinct and consistent. Its authenticity 
,an scarcely be disputed ; and it" is almost equally obvious that the country it 
refers to, under the name of Vinland, is in the vicinity of Rhode Island. A 
conclusion resting on such strong grounds scarcely requires to be supported by 
the high authority of Humboldt and Malte Brun." [Same.] 
"Subsequently to the Scandinavian di; 


d previous to that of 
>een visited by a Welsh Prince. 
Madoc, son of Owen Gwynnedd, 
a small fleet, aud, after a voyage 
nt, both iu its inhabitants and 

Columbus, Ami 

|„ Canine'.- Hi.-ti li of Cambria.' 
Prince of Wales. set sail westward 
of several weeks, lauded in a regii 
productions, from Europe. Mad 
Virginia." [Cham. Enc. I, 198.] 

However the facts may have been, as stated in these several accounts, it is 
apparent that the period had'not elapsed when the Old World, ripe with the experi- 
ence of the past, was ready for the appropriation of the New ; hence, it was 
reserved for the enterprise of the fifteenth cenlury to transmit the civilization of 
that aae to the new continent across the Atlantic. 

One of the primary inducements for the voyage of Columbus, and his pre- 
decessors as well, was the desire to find a more direct route to the East Indies 
and China by sailing westward. These were the objective points in all the voy- 
a"es of discovery during the centuries preceding, to which European enterprise 

EM igin. With this purpose in view, Christopher Columbus, a Genoese, 

under the patronage of the united kingdoms of Castile and Leon, on the 3d of 
August, 14H2. slarted on the voyage which resulted in the discovery of the 
North American continent. " It was toward the East that his hopes directed bis 
western course, hopes whose supposed fulfillment still lives in the misapplication 
to the New World of the terms Indian and Indies. Much of our subsequent 
knowledge of America has been owing to the same desire of reaching the East 
Indies that led to its discovery." [Cham., Enc, I, 198]. 

In the summer of 15(11. Manuel, King of Portugal, sent out an expedition 
for WesI and Northwest discovery, under the command of Gaspar Cortereal. 
This expedition traversed the coast of North America for six or seven hundred 
miles, till, somewhere to the south of the fiftieth degree of north latitude, it was 
stopped by the ice. " The name of Labrador, transferred from the territory 
south of the St. Lawrence to a more northern coast, is a memorial of his voyage, 
ami is, perhaps, the only permanent trace of Portuguese adventure within the 
limits of North America." [Bancroft, Hist. U. S., I, 13]. 

The French were among the first to compete for the prosecution of discov- 
eries in the N,w World. As early as 1504, and, indeed, anterior to that 
date, the fisheries of Newfoundland were known and visited by the hardy mar- 
iners of Brittany and Normandy. These fishermen, in remembrance of their 
home, gave the name of Cape Breton to an island adjacent. [Bancroft, Hist., 
I. p. IB]. A map of the Gulf of St, Lawrence was drawn in 15011, by Denys, a 
citizen of HonhVur. 

Tlii- fad is further stated by Judge Martin in the introduction to his 
history of Norlh Carolina: "The French made several attempts to establish 
permanent settlements on the continent of North America. As early as 1506, 
ope of their Norman navigators sailed from Kouen, visited and drew a chart of 
Sulf and a part of the River St. Lawrence, and Thomas Aubert, of Dieppe, 
iu the year 1508. sailed up the River Si. Lawrence. And it is known that as 
early as He- year 1504, the Basque whalers and fishermen from Brittany and 
il id Os shores," [Vol. I, 2], 

A letter to Henry VIII, from an English Captain, written at St. John, 
Newfoundland in August, 1527, says that there was at that date in one harbor, 
eleven sail of Normans and one Breton engaged in the fishery. " About the 

,.,„„. ,i " says Martin, just cited, " the French had growing establishments in 

Canada for fishing and trading in furs with the natives." In their traffic with 
the Indians of that locality, the Iroquois, and others, the French, in exchange 
for the furs obtained from the natives, gave them knives, hatchets and 
other utensils of iron and brass adapted to their use, with trinkets and other 
articles for ornamentation. To the natives, these articles of European manufact- 
ure possessed more than a mere commercial value, and hence were treasured up 
as mementos of fortunate possession, and were transmitted to succeeding gener- 
ations with characteristic ceremony. Three-quarters of a century later, some of 
these same articles were discovered by Capt. Smith, in his voyage up the Chesa- 
peake iu possession of the Susqu'ehannoeks, who obtained them from the 
Iroquois. Many of these also passed into Other hands, and found their way to 
territories farther to the westward, traversed by the Iroquois in their numerous 
warlike expeditions against the Ottawas and other tribes. That some ot these 
found their way round the borders of the lakes even to the head-waters of the 
ancient Ottawa (Omee or Maumee), would not be out of the natural order of 
things. The Kc-ki-ong-a of the primitive Miami's, and their predecessors, was 
the center or radial ing point, also, for the numerous kindred bands to the north 
and .south of the great lakes, and is known to have been visited by some of the 
original recipients "of those articles exchanged for furs on the banks of the St. 
Lawrence Indeed, numerous members of the Algonquin family resident on the 
north of the.St. Lawrence at the date when the traffic with the French traders 
was being envied on be"an to migrate westward toward Lake Michigan, to the 
west and" south of Lake Erie, whence they were accompanied by traders still 
ambitious to open and extend the avenues of trade to localities rich in furs and 
bilherto unoccupied by white men. These traders not unfrequently intermarried 
with the natives as a means of securing greater confidence and better opportuni- 
ties to advance their pecuniary interests. 

Subsequently, Jacques Carrier, on a voyage of discovery, sailed from St. 
Malo in France, April 211, 1534. The result of his first voyage was the discovery 
and r'econnaisance of the Northern Coast of Newfoundland. Having done this, 
he returned, and made port (St. Malo") on the 15th of September, of the same 
year The prestige acquired in his first voyage induced a second. For this 
purpose three vessels were fitted out duriug the winter of 1534-3o, and, on the 
15th day of May, of the latter year, he embarked again from the .same port to 
pursue his ideal of discovery under the patronage of the French Government. 

Enterin" the broad gulf at the mouth of the St. Lawrence River, he sailed 
up that stream as far as the Island of Orleans, in the month of September. A 
little later lie ascended to the site of the present city of Montreal, where induce- 
ments were offered by the natives to go farther to the westward, the country 
abounding in great stores of gold and copper 
of fresh water so large that 

that there were three great lakei 
found the end." On the 

ily different, both in its inhabitants and ; „„,) „ ,,,, of fresh water so large mat no man nau evei lounu ■uiu.u. ^ w„ v..„ 
supposed to have reached the coast of 5th of October, he left Montreal, and returning, wintered on the St. Croix River, 
and the following summer went back to France. 

Five years after, in the year 1540, a charter was granted to Francis de la 
Roque Sehmeur de Ruberval, investing hiui with the supreme power over all ter- 
ritory north of the English settlements. Under this charter, a squadron of fine 
vessels, commanded by Admiral Carrier, and supplied with all the necessaries— 
men and provisions— for forming a colony, bore Ruberval to his new possessions. 
Irion their arrival a fort was erected with Carrier as Commandant, and a colony 
planted under favorable auspices. Subsequently, in 1603, an expedition fitted 
out by a company of Rouen merchants, with the objective purpose of speculation 
in the fur trade," was sent over to the same territory, in charge of .Samuel Cham- 
plain, a member of the company. One of the results of this expedition was ihe 
founding of the city of Quebec, in 1608. 

The great profits realized from the fur trade were inducements for still 
.. renter adventure, and the extension of settlements farther westward into the 
Indian country. These inducements were accepted, and numerous traders and 
other adventure-loving spirits found their way to the extensive domain of New 
France Among these, of course, members of the society of Jesuits were found, 
and, in 1611, a mission had been established among the Indians of that region. 
From that time forward, vigorous efforts were made for the furtherance of trade 
in connection with the establishment of missions for the conversion ol ihe Indians. 
By means of the assiduous perseverance of the French traders and priests, these 
efforts were generally attended with success. As a result, it is stated that up to 
1621, 500 convents of the Rccollets had been established in New France. In 
1635 a Jesuit college was founded at Quebec. During that year, Champ, am. 
the first Governor of New France, died, and with him, much of the zeal. incident 
to prosperous settlements.* , 

The immediate successor of Champlain as Governor, was Chasteaufort, who 
was superceded by De Montmagiiy, in 1036. With this latter appointment, a 
change in the affairs of the Government was noticeable, the fur trade becoming 
the principal object of attention. A consequence of this policy was Ihe explora- 
tion of other new territory to enlarge the arena of trade. "Rude forts were 
erected as a means of defense to the trading-houses " and a protection to the trade. 

Not far remote — a nevei 
mounted by a cross. "| 

Gradually, these exp! 
margin of the lakes Jnd t! 
up. Anterior, however. I 
tration of Gov. Champl 
River as far as Lake nu 

* Sltclilon'B Hist., Midi, p. •• 


the chapel of the Jesuit, 

ins extended westward and southward along the 
rilnil arics, and the avenues of trade wen- opened 
progress of events just noted, during the aduiinis- 
•in"l611 and 1612,J he ascended the Grand 
ailed the Fresh Sea ; he went thence to the Petun, v- 

JN. V. Col. mm. 



Nation, next to the Neutral Nation and to the Mascoutins, who were then resid- 
ing near the place called the Sakirnan (between the head of Lake Erie and the 
Saginaw Bay) ; from that he went to the Algonquins and Huron tribes, at war 
with the Iroquois. He passed by places he has himself described in his book, 
which are no other than Detroit and Lake Erie." 

In 1640, when Charles Rayrubault and Claude Pijart were appointed' to mis- 
sionary work among the Algonquins of the North and West, " their avenue to 
the West was by the way of the Ottawa and French Rivers, so that the whole 
coast of Ohio and Southern Michigan remained unknown, except as seen by 
missionaries from the stations in Canada."* From this, it would be readily inferred, 
that these localities had been visited previously, though by a different route, 
perhaps, than the one proposed, which was no doubt the fact, because, at a date 
more than twenty years in advance of this, explorations hod been made to locali- 
ties but little to the northward, for where the missionaries went the traders bad 
gone before. 

From 1640 to 1654, coutinued advances had been made in extending the 
avenues of trade, and_ the domain of the missionary enterprise was enlarged also. 
f " In August (6th), 1654, two young fur traders, smitten with the love of adven- 
ture, joined a band of Ottawas or other Algonquins, and, in their gondolas of 
bark, ventured on a voyage of five hundred leagues. After two years, they 
re-appeared, accompanied by a fleet of fifty canoes. * * * They 
describe the vast lakes of the West, and the numerous tribes that hover round 
them ; they speak of the Knisteneaux, whose homes stretched away to the North- 
ern Sea ; of the powerful Sioux, who dwelt beyond Lake Superior ; and they 
demand commerce with the French, and missionaries for the boundless West." 

" The remote nations, by the necessity of the case, still sought alliance with 
the French. The Mohawks and their confederates, receiving European arms 
from Albany, exterminated the Erics, and approached the Miamis and the Illi 
nois. The Western Indians desired commerce with the French, that they 
might gain means to resist the Iroquois; and, as furs were abundant there, the 
traders pressed forward to Green Bay." These traders were followed by mission- 
aries sent out by the Bishop of Quebec. The charge fell upon Father Mesnard 
to visit Green Bay and Lake Superior. This mission was established in 1660. In 
August (8th), Father Claude Allouez embarked on a mission to the far West. 
He returned to Quebec, two years afterward, and urged the establishment of 
permanent missions, to be accompanied by colonies of French emigrants. Suc- 
cess attended his efforts, and he was accompanied on his return to the mission by 
Claude Dablon and James Marquette, then recently from France. Their field of 
labor embraced the region of country entending from Green Bay to the head of 
Lake Superior, and southward to the countries of the Sacs, Foxes, Miamis and 
Pottawatomies, whither, also, the traders had preceded them. 

Again, Father Marquette, in 1671,t "gathered the remains of one branch 
of the Huron Nation round a chapel at Point St. Ignaee, on the continent north 
of the peninsula of Michigan." The year following, " the countries south of 
the village founded by Marquette were explored by Allouez and Dablon, who 
bore the Cross through Wisconsin and the north of Illinois, visiting the Mascou- 
tins and the Kickapoos, on the Milwaukee, and the Miamis, at the head of Lake 

In May, 1669, M. Talon, Intendant of Justice, Police and Finance, 
under the appointment of Louis, the French King, for the Province of New 
France, having then recently returned from a conference with his sovereign at. 
Paris, in carrying out the instructions received, to extend the domain of his dis- 
covery iu the New World, appointed Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle, a person 
nergy and discretion, with instructions " to penetrate further than has 
r been done, to the southwest and south ; " to 

rnal of his adventures in all instances, and, on his return, to reply to 
i instructions embraced in his commission. These instructions required, 
also, that he take possession of all the new territory discovered, in the King's 
name, displaying the arms of France, and issuing proces verhaux to settlers to 
serve as titles. Reporting this appointment to the King, he remarked : "His 
Majesty will probably have no news of him before two years from this, and when 
I shall return to France." At the same time, with like instructions, Sieur de St. 
Luisson was appointed to penetrate to the west and northwest. 

Subsequently, in February, 1671, M. Colbert, the King's Secretary, in a 
communication addressed to the Intendant, says : "The resolution you have 
taken to send Sieur de La Salle to.vard the south, and Sieur de St. Luisson to the 
north, to discover the South Sea passage, is very good ; but the principal thing 
to which you ought to apply yourself in discoveries of this nature, is to look for 
the copper mine." 

As a part of the annual report to the King, in November of the same year, 
he makes this announcement : " Sieur de La Salle has not yet returned from his 
journey to the southward of this country. But Sieur de Luisson is returned, 
after having advanced as far as five hundred leagues from here [Quebec], and 
planted the Cross and set up the King's arms in presence of seventeen Indian 
nations, assembled, on this occasion, from all parts, all of whom voluntarily sub- 
mitted themselves to the dominion of His Majesty, whom alone they regard as 
their sovereign protector." This meeting was held at the Falls of St. Mary, 
north of Lake Michigan. He reports, also, that, "according to the calculations 
made from the reports of the Indians and from maps, there seems to remain not 
more than fifteen hundred leagues of navigation to Tartary, China and Japan. 
Such discoveries must be the work either of time or of the King." 

The route pursued by La Salle in this adventure is, to some extent, a matter 
of conjecture, since no record made by himself is now known to be extant, except 
so much as relates to his starting out on such an expedition with Messrs. Dollier 
and Gallineo ; and, becoming dissatisfied with the proposed plans of these two 

'Bancroft, II, p,30B. j-Banoroft, II, i>P- 320,821. [Bancroft, n, pp. 327, S2fl. 

[had] ev< 
keep a jot 

the writle 

gentlemen, to his pursuing a route more in accord with his own judgment. Hav- 
ing thus separated from them, after a short period of silence, we hear ..!' liiui a 
few leagues to the southward of Lake Eric, approaching the head-Waters of the 
principal tributary of the Ohio, the Alleghany, no doubt, which he descends until 
met by a great fall in the river, understood to be the Falls of the Ohio, at Louis- 
ville. Here the direct narrative ends, and we are left to a consideration of perti- 
nent circumstances for tracings of him during the succeeding two or three years. 
This was in the fall of 1669, and he was the bearer of a commission from the 
French Government by which he was clothed with authority and directed to make 

discoveries to the southwest and south of the countrie 

tiun then extended, " and to penetrate in those directi 

been done," keeping a journal, and reply 

tions given—" in all cases to take posscssi 

up proces vcrbeavx, to serve as titles. 

government officials, from time to time, du 

he had not yet returned. Indeed, it. was stated 

i' which their jurisdic- 



nd draw 

ee of the 

iod of his absence, show that 

the beginning that his return was 


not expected until the expiration of two years, at least ; and that he returned 
accordingly — all these fact tending to show that his movements were fully known 
by the authorities aforesaid, and in compliance with instructions. Such being 
tlie conditions, let us examine, from the context, whether he retraced his steps, as 
some have affirmed, or took a different route to reach the point contemplated. 
This objective purpose was to find the outlet of the great river supposed to run to 
the southwest or south and fall into the Vermilion Sea (Gulf of California), on 
the western border of the continent. Animated with a desire to accomplish his 
mind's ideal of a more direct route to Cbina and Japan, such as seemed to control 
his actions about the time of his separation from his companions in the vieiuity of 
Lake Erie, it is not presumable, even, that lie was so easily discouraged as to 
turn back after having reached the Falls of the Ohio, almost in direct line with 
his contemplated route. The less objectionable probability is that he either con- 
tinued tbence down the Ohio River to the Missisvppi, 6he great " Father of 
Waters," or started overland toward the line of northern lakes, which might dis- 
charge an outlet to the westward. Or, again, he may have so farf retraced his 
steps as to enable him to ascend one of those larger tributaries of the Ohio, the 
Scioto or Miami, toward the western extremity of Lake Brie, whence, proceeding 
northward, he may have traversed the strait to Lake Huron, and along the eastern 
boundary of the peninsula of Michigan to the Strait of Micbilimackinac ; 
thence, passing to the westward around Green Bay and down the west side of 
Lake Michigan to its southern border. Leaving tins point, his route seemed to 
lay in the direction of the Illinois, crossing which, he is said to have traced its 
course to the Mississippi, aod, perchance, descended its muddy ebannel. This 
route is, in part, conjectural, but not wholly so, since the nearest approach to an 
account of his travels yet produced, incidentally refers to that portion of, his 
travels after leaving Lake Frio, at a period suKm-h (iirnl in bis jiiissa^e down the 


Taking into consideration all the facts pertinent to the issue, thus far devel- 
oped, the more probable route, after leaving the Falls of the Ohio, at. Louisville, 
was down that river to he mouth of the Wabush, since, on a manuscript map, 
drawn in 1673, and still etxtant, exhibiting the area of discovery at that date, the 
Mississippi River is not shown, but the Ohio is traced a short, distance below the 
Falls, and a part of Eastern and Northern Illinois delineated thereon. From 
this, the inference is naturally and reasonably drawn that, with the information 
manifestly in the possession of the compiler of that map, and who must have 
been, at the same time, cognizant of the movements oi' M. de La Salle, if not a 
companion, it is highly probable that, if the Mississippi had been then discov- 
ered, or La Salle bad descended the Ohio below the mouth of the Wabash, these 
additional areas of discovery would have been represented also. "And this," 

his account of M. de 

nilicating the extent 

to be little 


, to the 

says Mr. Parkinan i who is the possessor of this map) 
La Salle's proceedings at that time, " is very signibVaul 
of La Salle's exploration of the following year, 1670." 

Accepting this probability as true — and there a 
to doubt it — that he ascended the Wabash, where did he leai 
stream ? The obvious answer is, that if he subsequently embarked 
western extremity of Lake Erie, and ascended the Strait to Lake St. CI 
beyond, as we have seen, he must have traversed it to "the carrying-pl: 
"La Riviere de Portage," or Little River, and thence, by the portage 
river " de la Roche " (Maumee), at " Ke-ki-ong-a," and down that river until it 
debouches into Lake Erie. This is the more probable, too, in view of the further 
fact that, being a trader as well as a discoverer, the greater inducement was in 
favor of the central or chief village of the Miamis, not only the principal arena 
of trade, but the great converging point of all the sources of information, as 
stated by Little Turtle in his address to Gen. Wayne at the treaty of Greenville, 
and his statement was not mere speculation, but founded on the traditions of his 
fathers from time immemorial. Hence, the route was practical, since it offered 
the means of acquiring more complete and accurate information than was obtain- 
able from any other source, concerning what he most desired to know. 

As an objective point, also, Ke-ki-ong-a may have been, and very likely was, 
visited at an earlier period by adventurers or traders, seeking new sources of traf- 
fic, or by priests, desiring to extend the area of civilization by in^rm-tin- tb. 
natives in a knowledge of the duties imposed by the teaching of the Qrfeat Spirit 
whom they ignorantly worshiped. In support of the proposition that this point 
had been previously visited by white men, it maybe stated as a feet that, as early 
as 1611-12, Champlain, during a series of voyages up the Ottaway to Lake 
Nipissing, Georgian Bay, Lakes Huron and St. Clair, to the Strait [Detroit 
River], thence he descended the channel to Lake Erie, and. passing around Its 
western extremity, he examined the coast to the southward along the lower extrem- 
ity of the peninsula of Michigan im his return voyage. Accompanying this 

nber of French traders and hunters, who 



ventured to greater distances from the shore, in search of game or to gratify 

About the same time, also, the adventure loving and persevering Jesuits had 
formed a part of numerous emigrating bands, spreading over the entire area of 
New Fraoce.'und, by their earnest, active zeal, were establishing missions among 
the savages wherever they went, the number of converts, prior to 1 62 1 , amount- 
in" to 500. The following year, additional priests were sent from France to aid 
in the work, and, in 1635, a Jesuit College was founded at Quebec. With tho 
facilities thus afforded, the cultivation of new fields of labor was prosecuted with 
vigor, extending over the vast domain appropriated by the French King, the 
establishment "f missions depending upon the success with which their labors were 

Again, in 163(5, upon the incoming of the successor of Cbamplaine, M. de 
Montmagny, the interests of the fur trade were especially promoted, and greater 
activity manifested in that department by sending out into remote districts per- 
sons adapted to the wants of the situation. Hunters and traders were induced 
by official recognition to penetrate far into the country of the natives, to negotiate 
lor and secure the trade of distant tribes not before visited, and to carry with them 
such articles of traffic as would he adapted to the wants of the people where they 
might temporarily sojourn. By this means, the Indians, in exchange for the furs 
and peltries, could supply themselves with hatchets, knives and guns, and the 
opportunities so presented of securing those necessary articles, operated as encour- 
agements to the Indians to greater effort in procuring the furs required by the 
traders. Borders of lakes were visited and the larger streams flowing into them 
were traversed by these adventurers, in pursuit of these commodities of trade. 
These traders, as we have seen, were either accompanied or followed by priests. 
For purposes of defense, and for the protection of their stores against ravage, rude 
forts or stockades^were erected at every head-center of trade. The line of travel 
was generally BQggested by the ascertained haunts of fur-bearing animals. Hence, 
the margin of lakes and rivers bordered by lowlands, were considered the best 
points, and offered the greatest inducements to these fur hunters and traders. It 
bad been early ascertained that the margin of Lake Erie, and Lake Michigan as 
well, were bordered by lowlands, especially on the south and west. Where the 
Mauniee enters Lake Erie, and for many leagues above the mouth of that stream, 
both sides, as long as 1 60 years ago, at least, were bordered by one vast swamp, 
abounding at all times with game in numerous variety. Farther up, at the Glaise, 
and in the vicinity, buffaloes were always to be found. Much of the country, also, 
between the two lakes, was of the same character, and, as a consequence, was fre- 
quently visited in search of the class of furs usually found in such localities. 

When Raynibault and Pijart were appointed to missionary work among the 
Algonquins of the North and West, in 16d0, their avenue to the West was by 
the.way of the Ottawa and French Rivers, and " that the whole coast of Ohio and 
Southern Michigan remained unknown, except as seen by missionaries from their 
stations in Canada." The presumption follows, then, that even at that early date, 
and before, this locality had been traversed by these missionaries, and by traders 
also, for it is generally conceded that where missionaries have gone the traders 
have gone before. Indeed, the country lying but a little to the north of this, bad 
been explored more than twenty years in advance of this date. Of this there can 
be but little doubt, if we accept the statement of Champlain in his narrative of 

Returning again to the consideration of the question whether La Salle, dur- 
ing the period of his two years' absence, from 1669 to 1671, ascended the Wabash 
to this point, in making connection between the Falls of Ohio and the west end 
of Lake Erie; as stated above, let it be observed that in an official account of his 

the Fa! 


xplorations, the following passages occur: 

i; Sieni de La Salle caused a ship and lar»e bouse to be built above 
iagri ' within three or four leagues of Lake Erie, * * * which, 
ted io 1 1 1 7 T . about the feast of St. John the Baptist, was con- 
ted with merchandise, into the said Lake Erie, and thence passed 
through the Detroit. [Strait], * * * navigated Lake Huron as far 

as Missiliniackanack.and thence through that of the Illinois or Missagan beyond 
the Huron Islands; which said bark was constructed for the greater convenience 
of trading with the French, who inhabited the said place of Missilimakinak for 
more than forty years [1637]. * * * For the continuance of 

which trade, be caused a fort and buildings to be erected -and a bark to be begun, 
at a place called Crevecceur, in order to proceed as far as the South Sea, 
two-thirds of which bark only were built, the said Sieur de La Salle having after- 
ward employed canoes for this trade in said countries, as he had already done for 
several years, in the rivers Oyo, Ouabach and others in the surrounding 
neighborhood, which flow into the said river Mississippi, whereof possession was 
taken by him in the King's name, as appears by the relations made thereof. The 
countries and rivers of the Oyo or Abache and circumjacent territory were 
inhabited by our Indians, the Chaouanons, Miauiis and Illinois." [N. If. Col. 
Doc. IX, 182,183.] 

If he had traversed the Wabash and traded along it in canoes several years 
prior to 1G76, at what time is it probable these voyages were made and the 
trading done? At what other time than' in the fall of 1669, and during the 
years 11170 and 1671 ? If not within that period, when? for we have no account 
of his having done so between the years 1672 and 1676, the date at which the 
above account commences. Furthermore, if he was trading at that time on the 
Wabash, then his articles of Iraffic passed up La Riviere de Portage, were trans- 
ported over "the carrying-place " to the St. Mary's, reshipped and taken down 
the Maumee to Lake Erie. What more probable route? What more natural 
point for the location of a fort, palisaded according to the necessities for protec- 
tion and defense, than that at the head of the "portage," on the St. Mary's? 
Without direct proof to the contrary, the propositions will be accepted as true, 
that he traded along the upper Wabash in 1669-71, visited Ke-ki-ong-a 

frequently during that period, and caused the old fort to be erected there about 
the year 1670. 

Count de Frontenac was appointed Governor General of the province of 
New France in 1672, and with his appointment at that period commenced an 
epoch jioted for the energy manifested by him in reviving the spirit of discovery, 
and for the judicious management of the affairs of the province. " His first efforts 
were directed to the extension of the French interests in the region of the great 
lakes. Under his guidance and encouragement, the posts of Michiltnackinac and 
Sault Ste. Marie were established, former explorations perfected, and conciliatory 
treaties made with the immense hordes of Indians, who roamed through that 
far-off wilderness." The perfection of discoveries to which reference is made 
extended not only over territory since known as Canada, but over the entire 
domain of New France, including the valley of the Maumee and St. Mary's, and 
the great valley of the Wabash, for all this was a part of the dominion of France 
in North America. 

As early as 1611-12, French priests of the Franciscan and Jesuit Orders 
be"an to extend their missionary work far to the westward. It was not until 
many years later that we find any trace- of them among the Miamis of this vicin- 
ity. In 1632, the shores of Lake Huron had been visited by Father Sagard. 
Nine years later, Fathers Raymbault and Jogues penetrated as far as Sault Ste. 
Marie, but Rene Mesnard, in 1660, ami Claude Allouez, in 1666, appear to have 
been first to establish missions as far to the westward as the Bay des l'uans. 
The mission at Sault Ste. Mario was permanently established in 1668, and, the 
year following, Father Marquette having succeeded Allouez at. La Pointe, the lat- 
ter then established himself at Green Bay, whence that earnest Father began to 
enlarge his field of labor, visiting the countries to the southward and westward of 
Lake Although we have no direct account of the exact period when 
the mission was established among the Miamis, yet, in view of the direction pur- 
sued by Allouez about this time, it is fair to presume that Ke-ki-ong-a was vis- 
ited by one or more of these priests as early as 1669 or 1670, for, in May. 1671, 
a grand council of all the adjacent tribes, including the Miamis, previously vis- 
ited or communicated with, was held at Sault Ste. Marie, in whose presence and 
with whose consent the Governor General of New France took " possession, in 
the.namc of His Majesty, of all the lands lying between the east and west, and 
from Montreal to the south, so far as it could be done." 

Meanwhile, Allouez had been pursuing his labors among the Miamis, and 
extending the beneficent influence of his holy faith ; but it appears to have been 
reserved to Marquette to establish a mission among them, and erect there the 
standard of the Cross, in the year 1673. On the 18th of May, 1675, Marquette 
died on the river that has since taken his nume, near the margin of the lake, in 
southwestern Michigan. Allouez died also, soon after, in the midst of his labors 
among the Miauiis. According to the account given by Hennepin, of the pro- 
gress made in Christianizing the Indians, it. appears that the mission on the St. 
Joseph of Lake Michigan, was not established until 1679. The following is his 
account of the establishment of a post at the mouth of the river, afterward 
called Fort Miami : 

" Just at the mouth of the river Miamis, there was an eminence, with a 
kind of platform, naturally fortified. It was pretty high and steep, of a trian- 
gular form— defended on two sides by the river, and on the other by a deep 
ditch, which the fall of the water had made. We felled the trees that were on 
the top of the hill, and, having cleared the same from bushes for about two 
musket-shot, we began to build a. redoubt of eighty feet long, and forty feet 
broad, with great, square pieces of timber, laid one upon another; and prepared 
a great number of stakes, of about twenty-five feet long, to drive into the 
ground, to make our fort more inaccessible on the river side. We employed the 
whole month of November (1679), about that work, which was very hard, 
though we bad no other food but the bear's flesh our savage killed. These beasts 
are very common in that place, because of the great quantity of grapes that 
abound there ; but their flesh being too fat and luscious, our men began to be 
weary of it, and desired to leave to go a-hunling and kill some wild goats. M. 
de La Salle denied them that liberty, which caused some murmurs among them ; 
and it was unwillingly that they continued the work. This, together with the 
approach of the winter, and the apprehension that M. de La Salle had that his 
vessel (the Griffin) was lost, made' him very melancholy, though Ire concealed it 
ss much as he could. We made a cabin wherein we performed divine sen ice 
every Sunday; and (Father Gabriel and I, who preached alternately, took care to 
take such texts as were suitable to our present circumstances, and fit to inspire 
us with courage, concord and brotherly love." 

This same Father, the year following, visited the villages of the Miamis in 
the vicinity and on the Illinois River, in his experiences, learning much of the 
habits and mode of thought of their people, of whom he said : " There were 
many obstacles that hindered the conversion of the savage; but, in general, the 
difficulty proceeds from the indifference they have to everything. When one 
speaks to them of the creation of the. world and of the mysteries of the Christian 
religion, they say we have reason, and they applaud, in general, all that we say 
on the great affairs of our salvation. They would think themselves guilty of a 
great incivility if they should show the least suspicion of incredulity in respect 
to what is proposed. But, afier having approved all the discourses upon these 
matters, they pretend likewise, on their side, that we ought to pay all possible 
deference to the relations and reasonings that they may make on their part." 
Superstition, he says, is one of the great hindrances to conversion, and the cus- 
tom of traders, in common with themselves, to make the most of the bargain by 
cheating, lying and artifice, to promote personal gain, thus encouraging fraud and 
injustice. On the other hand, " the best accounts agree that it was through 
the agency and persevering exertions of missionaries, combined with the active 
and enterprising movements of traders, that amicable relations and a moderate 
trade were brought about between the colonists of Canada and the Miami Indians 



in the seventeenth century. The Indian trade," says Mr. Dillon,*" was carried 
on by means of men (coureurs des bois), who were hired to manage small vessels 
on the lakes, and canoes along the shores of the lakes and on the rivers, and to 
carry burdens of merchandise from the different trading-posts to the principal 
villages of the Indians who were at peace with the French. At those places, the 
traders exchanged their wares for valuable furs, with which they returned to the 
places of deposit. The articles of merchandise used by the French traders in 
carrying on the fur trade were, chiefly, coarse blue and red cloths, fine scarlet, 
guns, powder, balls, knives, hatchets, traps, kettles, hoes, blankets, coarse cottons, 
ribbons, beads, vermilion, tobacco, spirituous liquors, etc. The poorest class of 
fur traders sometimes carried their packs of merchandise by means of leather 
straps suspended from their shoulders, or with the straps resting against their 
foreheads. It is probable that some of the Indian villages on the borders of the 
Wabash were visited by a few of this class of traders before the French founded 
a settlement at Kaskaskia. It has been intimated, conjecturally, bya'learned 
writer (Bishop Bruttf). that missionaries and traders, before the cto=e of the sev- 
enteenth century, passed down from the river St. Joseph, left the Kankakee to 
the west, and visited the Tippecanoe, the Eel River and the upper parts of .the 

Consequent upon the changes occurring in the administration of Canadian 
affairs, from the death of Champlain, in 1635, to the year 1672, when Count de 
Frontenac was appointed Govern or- General, a manifest want of judicious manage- 
ment was apparent in the conduct of administrative officers and subordinates 
intrusted with the direction of under colonial affairs. The effect of this was to 
create distrust, induce insubordination, and retard the operations incident to the 
prosperity of frontier settlements. At this latter date, and subsequently, there 
was an advance in the regulatory system, and greater activity in the extensions of 
trade and settlements. Military posts were established and garrisoned, as a means 
of protecting those engaged in them, at the principal points designated, as war- 
ranted by the demands of these developing interests. As early as 1672, a con- 
siderable trade had grownup among the Miamis and their allies, in the territory 
watered by the St. Joseph and Maumee Rivers, adjacent to Lake Eric, which, in 
a not very remote period in the future, would demand the attention of the colon- 
ial authorities to protect and encourage. In common, therefore, with other points 
of no greater commercial value, a military post was established here and maintained 
by the Government. 

As we have already shown, a fort was built by La Salle, in 1679, at the 
mouth of the St. Joseph's of Lake Michigan, ostensibly for the purpose of pro- 
tecting trade, but, without doubt, for another purpose, then quite as apparent, 
defense against the incursions of warlike bands of the Iroquois, especially, who, 
at that time and for two years or more, had been engaged in a war with the Illi- 
nois and Miamis, a circumstance, also, tending to show why he had not continued 
at the head of the Miami of Lake Erie in line of most direct communication 
between the lakes and Mississippi trade, which had been discovered and traversed 
by him and his associates for some time previously. 

Count Frontenac, in a communication to the French King, dated November 2, 
1681. speaking of the relations existing in his depart men t, between the Iroquois and 
the Western tribes, he says : " The Mohawks have done nothing in violation of 
the promises of the ambassadors whom they sent last autumn ; but the Onoo- 
dagas and Senecas have not appeared, by their conduct, to be similarly minded 
and disposed." 

"The artifices of certain persons, to which the English, perhaps, have united 
theirs, have induced them to continue the war against the Illinois, notwithstand- 
ing every representation I had made to them. They burnt one of their villages, and 
took six or seven hundred prisoners, though mostly children and old women. 
What is more vexatious is, that they wounded, with a knife. Sieur de Tonty, who 
was endeavoring to bring about some arrangement between them, and who had 
been left by Sieur de La Salle in this same village, with some Frenchmen, to pro- 
tect the post he had constructed there. A Recollet Friar, aged seventy years, 
was also found to have been killed whilst retiring. So that, having waited the 
entire of this year to see whether I should have any news of them, and whether 
they would not send to offer me some satisfaction, I resolved to invite them to 
repair next year to Fort Frontenac to explain their conduct to me. 

'•Though of no consideration, they have become, Sire, so insolent since their 
expedition against the Illinois, and are so strongly encouraged in these senti- 
ments, in order that they be induced to continue the war, under the impression 
that it will embarrass Sieur de La Salle's discoveries, that it is to be feared they 
will push their insolence farther, aud, on perceiving that we do not afford any 
succor to our allies, attribute this to a want of power, that may create in them to 
come and attack us." 

Some time during- the following year, La Salle, in a letter t3 the Governor 
General of Canada, mentioned the fact of the existence of a shorter route to the 
Mississippi than that usually traveled, from Lake Erie up the Maumee, to the 
Portage ; thence down the Wabash to the Ohio and the great Father of Waters, 
which he had previously discovered ; notwithstanding which, it has been the cus- 
tom of explorers and traders "to go round by the lakes, sometimes descending by 
Green Bay and the Fox and Illinois Rivers, or by the head of Lake Michigan, up 
the St. Joseph's of the lake, to the present site of South Bend; thence by port- 
age to the Kankakee, and down that river." Why this most direct route should 
have been so long ignored, and the other one so long used, apparently with the 
idea that there was no other, is satisfactorily answered by M. de La Salle him- 
self, in a letter bearing date October, 1 682 : " Because I can no longer go to the 
Illinois but by the Lakes Huron and Illinois, the other ways which I have dis- 
covered, by the head of Lake Erie and by the southern coast of the same, becom- 
ing too dangerous by frequent encounters with the Iroquois, who are always upon 
these coasts." [" Parceque je ne pourrois plus aller aux Islinois, que par les 
lacs Huron et Islmois, les autres chouims, que j'ay descouverts par le haut dulac 

Erie et par la coste mcridionale du mesme lac devenant trop dangereux par les 
rencontres frequentes des Iroquois, qui sont tousjours de cos costezla."] 

These conditions continuing to surround the village of the Miamis at the 
head of the Maumee, as long as hostilities existed between those parties, no steps 
appear to have been taken toward the erection of a fort there other than that 
probably built by La Salle, while he occupied the place as a Irading-post, until 
there was a temporary suspension, at least, of warlike operations among the bel- 
ligerent elements. In 1685, the French Governor began to adopt positive meas- 
ures for the protection of the Miamis; yet. with greater or lesser activity on the 
part of the combatants, the warfare continued for a series of years, bein* allayed 
only by treaty, about 1695. Notwithstanding this temporary interruption of 
trade along the short route to the Mississippi, it was. neverthlecs, resumed soon 
after the obstructions were removed, if not before that time, and the necessary 
defenses erected for its maintenance. This becomes manifest when it is shown 
that a commandant was appointed by the French Government, and provided with 
the requisite outfit. In an account of the occurrences in Canada from the 1st 
of November, 1696, to the 15th of October, 1697, appears the following item 
concerning appointments in the military department: 

" Count de Frontenac. after having taken the advice of the principal officers 
of this country, ordered D'Argenteuil to place himself at the head of the soldiers 
about to proceed to Missilima'ckinac and the Miamis. Sieur de Vincennes was to 
command at the latter post. These officers and soldiers have precisely, only what 
is necessary for their subsistence, and are very expressly forbidden to trade in 
Beaver." And this appointment carries with it the very reasonable presum'ption 
that a fort had already been built, which was necessary to be supplied with officers 
and men. No change appearing to have been made in the mean time, in a like 
annual report of the occurrence of the preceding year, bearing date of November 
16, 1704, was the following statement of appointments made : 

" Dispatched Father Valliant and Sieur de Joncaire to Seneca, and I sent 
Sieur de Vinsiene to the Miamis with my annexed order and message to be com- 
municated to them. 

"Sieur de Vinsiene, my lord, has been formerly Commandant at the Miamis 
(1697), by whom he was much beloved; this led me to select him in preference 
to any other to prove to that nation how wrong they were to attack the Iroquois 
— our allies and theirs — without any cause; and we — M. do Bcaucharnois and I 
— after consultation, permitted said Sieur de Vinsiene to carry some goods and to 
take with him six men and two canoes." 

Again, in a communication from Vandrueil to Pontchartrain, dated October 
| 19, 1765, the following further statement occurs: "I did myself the honor to 
inform you last year that I regarded the continuance of the peace with the 
! Iroquois as the principal affair of this country, and, as I have always labored on 
| -that principle, it is that also which obliged me to send Sieur de Joncaire to the 
! Senecas and Sieur de Vinsiene to the Miamis." [N. Y. Col. Doc. IX, 696, Trill. 766], 

In addition to what has already been shown in reference to the discovery and 
use of t]ie line of communication practically by water from the lakes to the 
Mississippi, the reader is referred to the following testimony : 

" It is evident from Father Hennepin and £a> Salle's travels that the com- 
munication between Canada and Mississippi is a very late discovery; and, 
perhaps, such a one as no nation less industrious than the French would have 
attempted; but it must he allowed that they have a great advantage over us in 
this particular, to which even the nature of their religion and government du 
greatly contribute, for their missionaries, in blind obedience to their superiors, 
spend whole years in exploring new countries ; and the encouragement the late 
French King gave to the discoverers and planters of new tracts of land, doth far 
exceed any advantage, your Majesty's royal predecessors have hitherto given to 
their subjects in America. * * * * From this lake (Erie) to the Missis- 
sippi ihey have three different ^routes. The shortest by wateC is up the river 
Miamis or Ouamis,on the southwest of Lake Erie, on which river they sail about 
one hundred and fifty leagues without interruption, when they find themselves 
stopped by another landing of about three leagues, which they call a carrying 1 
place, because they are generally obliged to carry their canoes overland in those 
[daces to the next river, and that where they next embark is a very shallow one, 
called La Biviere de Portage; hence they row about forty leagues to the river 
Onabach, and from thence about one hundred and twenty leagues to the river 
Ohio, into which the Ouabaeh falls, as the river Ohio does about eighty leagues 
lower into the Mississippi, which continues its course for about three hundred 
and fifty leagues directly to the Bay of Mexico." 

There are likewise two other passages much longer than this, which are 
particularly pricked down in Hennepin's map, and may be described in the fol- 

" From the northeast of Lake Erie to a fort on Lake St. Clair, called Pont, 
Chartrin, is about eight leagues' sail ; here the French have a settlement, and ofteu 
400 traders meet there. Along this lake they proceed to the Straits of Michilli- 
ujaekinack, 120 leagues. Here is a garrison of about thirty French, and a vast 
concourse of traders, sometimes not less than 1,0(10, beside Indians, being a com- 
mon place of rendezvous. At and near this place the Outarwas, an Indian nation, 
are settled. 

" From the Lake Huron, they pass by the Straight Miehillimackinack four 
leagues, being two in breadth, and of great depth, to the Lake Illinois; thence 150 
leagues on the lake to Fort Miamis, situated on the mouth of the river Chigagoe ; 
from hence came those Indians of the same name, viz., Miamis, who are settled-on 
the forcmentioned river that runs into Erie. T"p the river Chigagoe, they sail 
but three leagues to a passage of one-quarter of a league, then enter a small 
lake of about a mile, and have another very small portage, and again another of two 
miles to the river Illinois, thence down the stream 130 leagues to the Mississippi. 

" The next is from Miehillimackinack, on the lake Illinois, to the lake De- 
panns 90 leagues, thence to the river Paans 80 leagues, thence up the same to a 


portage of about four miles before they come to the river Owisconsiug, thence 40 
leagues to Mississippi. 

"These distances are as the traders reckon them. but. they appear generally 
to be ujuch overdone, which may be owing to those people coasting along the 
shores of the lakes, and taking in all the windings of the rivers. 

"They have another much shorter passage from Mount Real to Lake Huron, 
by the French River, on the north of St. Lawrence, which communicates with the 
two latter routes, but it abounds with falls, and therefore is not so much used. 
Thcv have also by this rivet a much shorter passage to the upper lake, or Lake 
Superieur." [N. Y. Col. Doc. V, 6211-622.] 

Although this paper hears date September 8, 1721, it must be remembered 
that the statements are based wholly upon the reports of the travels of La Salle 
and Hennepin — with the maps delincative thereof— which were consummated 
within the period from 1GG0 and 16S5, and that the language is simply descrip- 
tive of what was ascertained and known by these voyageurs nearly a half-century 
before the paper was written. And it seems, too. exceedingly strange that many 
historians who have written upon the subject should fix the period of the discov- 
ery of this particular route in 1716, when the very testimony upon which the 
statement rests says they were so made from the travels of those two noted trav- 
elers.and not from discoveries made within a short period anterior to 1721. And 
still further, it must be understood that, the account is from English officials, who, 
necessarily, were not cognizant of the details of recent discoveries made by another 
nation not enjoying the most friendly relations with them. And. while the 
account is. in the main, just and fair, the idea should not go forth that this was 
the first enunciation of a new discovery, when, in fact, it was only a recital of 
facts long before within the knowledge of the nations. 

Of like purport with the information from which the foregoing English 
article was educed, is the statement of Father Allouez, who, in describing the 
countries bordering on the Lakes Illinois and Erie, their water-courses and the 
means of transport to and from the principal marts of trade, items of advan- 
tage proper to be known in the selections of eligible sites for future settlements, 
says , " There is at the end of Lake Erie, ten leagues below the strait, a river by 
which we could greatly shorten the route to the Illinois [country], being navi- 
gable for canoes, about two leagues nearer than that way by which they usually 
go there " — referring to that by the Mauuiee and Wabash ; but speaks of another 
route still shorter and better, by way of the Ohio, because of its being navigable 
for vessels of greater capacity than canoes, and to this latter there were objections 
not attaching to the one just cited. [Margry's Fr. Disc. Am., 2-98.] 

That this route was probably traveled at a much earlier date, even, than 
that usually claimed for it, is at least strongly suggested by a map published as 
early as 1657, drawn, no doubt, two or three years before, by M. de Sanson, 
Royal Geographer to the King of France, designed to accurately represent the 
relative situation of New France, with its numerous lakes, rivers and mountains, 
to the best advantage. By this map, a copy of which has been published in this 
country, Lake Erie is located with considerable accuracy, " with a river blowing 
into it from the southwest, for a distance, clearly representing the present course 
of the Maumee, from the site of Fort Wayne to the Lake. The St. Mary's and 
St. Joseph's are not delineated, showing that their courses had not yet been 

This, with other facts already shown, must establish beyond successful con- 
troversy, the very early visitation of this country by white men of careful and 
painstaking observation and of extensive research. 



In consider-in;: the question who were the original inhabitants of the region 
of country subsequently known as the valley of the Kekionga, it is, perhaps, of 
little consequence to the casual reader whether they were white or copper-colored, 
civilized or barbarian in their habits and instincts. Yet. in this day of ethnological 
inquiry, the historian, though his field be a local one, is expected to reflect what- 
ever liidit the developments of the age may have brought forth in that regard. It 
is not in accord with the spirit of inquiry to ignore the investigation and and dis- 
pose of the issue without comment That this country was inhabited by a race 
of people possessing a higher order of intelligence and mechanical skill than is 
generally awarded to the Indians, so called, is, perhaps, unquestioned. The evi- 
dences of this superiority exist in forms, more or less distinct, in every locality. 
In numerous localities within tie territory of Indiana, prehistoric remains are con- 
spicuous, attracting the attention of arch:eologists to an investigation of them as a 
means of determining the identity of the people cotemporaneous therewith. Of 
these remains, Allen County has her share, as ihe article discussing that topic in 
another part of this work will sufficiently disclose. With all the developments 
thus far made, the question who the Mound-Builders were, whence and when 
they came, and what was their history, is yet unanswered. True, many conject- 
ures, more or less plausible in their method of presentation, have been brought 
forward in the elaboration of opinions upon that subject. It is not, however, the 
province of this work to enlarge the field of discussion, proposing, rather, to direct 
the attention of the interested reader to the cumulative arguments of specialists. 

Passing, then, to an examination of the traditional and historical evidences 
at command pertinent to the Indian race, a wider field opens up, inviting atten- 
tion. At the time when the existence of the American continent was made 
manifest to the civilized world, it was peopled by a race who. in the absence of a 
more appropriate name, were called Indians, because of their; fancied resemblance 
to the inhabitants of the Eastern Indies, and, perhaps, for the more significant 
reason that they were found in the course of travel incident to the discovery of a 
more direct route to the Indies and China, which seems to have been the impel- 
ling motive of the early voyageurs from the Old World. Assuming that Columbus 
and his successors were the first discoverers of the continent, our knowledge of 
these aboriginal inhabitants will date from that period ; hence, what may have 
occurred, and to which attention may occasionally he directed, anterior to that 
date, should be considered only in the light of tradition, as, indeed, many other 
incidents must be which come, sometimes, in the character of deductions from 
well-established facts. 

Upon the first introduction of Europeans among the primitive inhabitants 
of this country, it was the prevailing opinion of the former that this vast domain 
was peopled by one common family, of like habits and speaking one language. 
Observation, however, soon discovered the error, at the same time establishing the 
fact of a great diversity in their leading characteristic, physiological development 

and language, this diversity sometimes arising; from one cause and sometimes 
from another, and has, within the past century especially, been the subject of 
extensive ethnological investigations and speculations. These investigations, in 
many instances, have elicited facts of vast moment in considering conditions from 
causes before unknown to science. 

Iu a brief review of this subject, the reader's attention will be directed to an 
examination of such of the features of the investigation as pertain to the tribes 
and families of the Indian race, who have, in times past, inhabited ihe immediate 
territory of Allen County, or whose history becomes incidentally connected there- 

with. Before approaching this 
idical divisions into which the i 
principal of these divisions is i 

and, indeed, 
entitled to r 
The Miamis 
to these wen 

was and Mississaui 
Ojtbwas, Santaux i 

the Pottawatomies 

name for the Dela 

probably the most 

Another divi 

the Miamis 
leof the most numen 
ik first, is the Dela* 
ere sometimes known 
the Peorias, Kaskask 
i the Illinese or Illino 

it would be well to note some of the 
has been separated by common conseut. The 
:nown as the Algonquin, or Algonkin, which 
i claimed to be one of the most perfect types, 
jus in past ages. Next to the Miamis, if not 
r ares, or Lenni Lenapees, and the Shawanoes. 
as the Omes, Omamees and Twatwas. Next 
ias, Weas and Piankeshaws, who collectively 

;ebly kn 


the Ne 

nd Chibwus. After these were th< 
)r Poux, and the Sacs and Foxes. 
rares. This is the classification g 

by Schoolcraft, and is 

the Hurons, Huron-Iroquois or Wyandots, embraced 
nearly all the remaining tribes, with whom we are interested at this time. Of 
this division the Hurons, better known now as the Wyandots, enter more 
especially into the history of this locality. The other divisions occupied territory 
so remote, that a reference to them separately would be unnecessary, further than 
by occasional incidents connecting them with those already noted. 


as a family, have been migratory in character, lor. says Schoolcraft, " we find some 
traces of this language in ancient Florida. It first assumes importance in the 
subgenus of the Powhattauese circle iu Virginia. It is afterward found in the 
Nanticokes; assumes a very decided type in the Lenni Lenapees, or Delawares ; 
and is afterward traced, in various dialects, in the valleys of the Hudson and Con- 
necticut, and throughout the whole geographical area of New England, New 
Brunswick, and Nova Scotia." 

" The term [Algonquin] appears to have been first employed , as a generic 
word by the French, for the old Nipercinians, Ottawjis, Montagnics and their 
conquerors, in the valley of the St. Lawrence. It is applied to the Salteurs, of 
St. Mary, the Maskigoes of Canada, and, as shown by a recent vocabulary, the 



Black feet of the Upper Missouri, the Saskatchawans, the Pillagers of the Upper 
Mississippi and the Crees or Kinisteooes of Hudson's Bay. Returning from 
these remote points, where this broad migratory column was met by the Atha- 
basca group, the term includes the Miamis, Weas, Piankeshaws, Shawanoes, Pot- 
tawatomics, Sacs and Foxes, Kickapoos and Illinois, and their varieties, the 
Kaskaskias, etc., to the junction of the Ohio and Mississippi." From this it 
will be seen that branches of this original family have extended to a large 
proportion of the territory now occupied by the United States and British 

Intellectually considered, the Algonquins occupy a position far above medi- 
ocrity, surpassed only by the Dakotas and Iroquois, the latter standing in the 
first rank, the cranial measurement showing an average internal capacity of 
eighty-ei^ht and a half cubic inches, the D.ikotas eighty-five and the Algonquins 
eighty-three and three-fourths inches, with a facial angle of seventy-seven 
degrees, while that of the Iroquois is only seventy-five and the Dakotas seventy- 
seven degrees. The Miamis, as a distinct branch of the Algonquin family, has 
an average facial measurement of seventy-six degrees and an internal cranial 
capacity of eighty-nine cubic inches. In point of intellectual activity, also, the 
Miamis will compare favorably with the highest types of the Algonquin or other 


ntly establish. 




.f'each of tin 
og the possible number of 
i, a fact significant of the 
peculiar sense a language 
' to the three per- 

t comparison of individualities ' 

The language of the Algonquins is euphooi 
great variety of vowel sounds capable of numerous 
lar modifications. In proof of this, it is said 
primary syllables may b<- changed fifteen times, -ho 
elementary syllables which are employed to be 1 
capacity of the language." It is said, too, to lie ir 
of pronouns. Originally there were but three ten 
sons — I, thou or you, and he or she. While these terms distinguish the first 
person with sufficient clearness, yet they convey no idea of sex. To obviate this 
difficulty, another class of pronouns is brought into requisition which should be 
suffixed to verbs ; but, since the language is without auxiliary verbs, their place 
is supplied by tonsal syllables, which extend the original monosyllables into tri- 
syllables. By this and similar means, the primary defects in the structure of the 
language arc amply supplied, and. hence, may be said to be prolific in forms of 
expression, but frequently indirect and circuitous. 

Aside from the distinctive individualities just noticed, there are few physi- 
cal peculiarities which characterize the Algonquin from the other Indian families 
of North America. "All possess, though in various degrees, the long, lank, 
black hair, the heavy brow, the dull and sleepy eye, the full and compressed lips 
and the salient but dilated nose." 

11 A similar conformity of organization is. not less obvious in the cranial 
structure of these people. The Indian skull is of a decidedly rounded form. 
The occipital portion is flattened in the upward direction ; and the transverse diam- 
eter, as measured between the parietal bones, is remarkably wide, and often 
exceed the longitudinal line.' The forehead is low and receding, and rarely 
arched as in the other races— a feature that is regarded by Humboldt, Lund and 
other naturalists as characteristic of the American race, and serving to distinguish 
it even from the Mongolian The cheek-bones are high, but not much expanded ; 
the whole maxillary region is salient and ponderous, with teeth of a correspond- 
ing size and singularly free from decay." 


The grand Indian confederacy known by the name of Iroquois, is said to 
have been composed of five of the leading nations inhabiting territory on th ■ 
south of the St. Lawrence, or more recently, perhaps, south of the line of lake.^ 
lying between the territorial limits of the United States and British America. 
" The immediate dominion of the Iroquois—" says Bancroft, " where the Mohawks, 
Oneidas, Onondagas, Cayugas and Setiecas were first visited by the trader, the 
missionary, or the war parties of the French — stretched, as we have seen, from 
the borders of Vermont to Western New York, from the lakes to the head- 
waters of the Ohio, the Susquehanna and the Delaware. The number of their 
warriors was declared by the French, in 1600, to have been two thousand two 
hundred, and, in 1077, an English agent, sent on purpose to ascertain their 
strength, confirmed the precisi n of the statement. This geographical position 
made them umpires in the contest of the French for dominion in the West. 
Besides, their political importance was increased by their conquests. Not only 
did they claim some supremacy in Northern New England as far as the Kenne- 
bec, and to the south as far as'Xew Haven, and. were acknowledged as absolute 
lords over the conquered Lenape— the peninsula of Upper Canada wis their 
hunting-field by the right of warj they had exterminated or reduced the Eries 

and the (' m."-. both tribes of their own family, the one dwelling to the 

south of Lake Erie, the other on the banks of the Susquehanna; they had tri- 
umphantly invaded the tribes of the West as far as Illinois ; their warriors had 
reached the soil of Kentucky and Western Virginia; and England, to whose 
alliance they steadily inclined, availed itself of their treaties for the cession of 
icrrit«,rios, i„ cnenurh even on the empire of France in America. 

- The Mohawks, sometimes called Wabingi, arc said to have been the oldest 
of the confederacy, and thai the 'Onayauts 1 I Oneidas) were the first that joined 
them by putting themselves under their protection. The Onondagas were the 
next, then the ' Teuontowanos ' or 'Sinikcrs' ( Senecas), then the 'Cuikguos' 
(Cayugas). The Tuscaroras, from Carolina, joined them about 1712, but wov 
not formally admitted into the confederacy until about ten years after that. The 
addition of this new tribe gained them the name of the Six Nations, according 
to most writers, but it will appear that they were called the Six Nations long 
before the last-named period." 

The government of the Iroquois was of the republican form, a confederation 
of bold tribes, guaranteeing to each tribe cautonial independence or sovereignty, 
while conced'ng general power, and at the same time awarding to each man and 
warrior his equal and individual rights, only subject to modification for the com- 
mon good. This model, it is said, furnished the elementary basis for the con- 
struction of the American Government, the copy, perhaps, being no more perfect, 
so far as equal rights and a jealousy of and verbal stipulations against hereditary 
immunities arc concerned. So well assured were they of the permanent and 
practical value of their form of government, that it is stated to be "a memorable 
fact that the Iroquois were so strongly impressed with the wisdom of the working 
of their system of confederation, that they publicly recommended a similar union 
to the British colonies. In the important conference at Lancaster in 1774, Can- 
assatego, a respected sachem, expressed this view to the Commissioners of Penn- 
sylvania, Virginia and Maryland. < Our wise forefathers,' he said, ' established 
union and amity between the Five Nations. This has made us formidable. This 
has given us great weight and authority with our neighboring nations. We are 
a powerful confederacy, and, by observing the same methods our wise forefathers 
have taken, you will acquire fresh strength and power. Therefore I counsel you, 
whatever befalls you, never fall out with one another.' " 

In his history of the Five Nations, Coldcn says they " consist of so many 
tribes or nations, joined together by a league or confederacy, like the United 
Provinces, and without any superiority of the one over another. This union has 
continued so long that the Christians know nothing of the original of it, The 
people in it are known to the English under the names of Mohawks, Oneydoes, 
Onondagas, Cayugas and Sennekas. 

" Each of those nations is again divided into three tribes or families, who 
distinguished themselves by three different arms or ensigns — the tortoise, the bear 
and the wolf; and the sachems or old men of these families put this ensign, or mark 
of their family, to every public paper when they sign it. 

"Each of these nations is an absolute republic by itself, and every castle in each 
nation makes an independent republic, and is governed, in all public affairs, by its 
own sachems or old men. The authority of these rulers is gained by, and consists 
wholly in, the opinion the rest of the nation has of their wisdom and integrity. 
They uever execute their resolutions by force upon any of their people. Honor and 
esteem are their principal rewards, as shame and being despised their punishments." 

In short, all their actions are a reflex of the expressed will of the governed. 
Hence, in their warlike expeditions, the leaders moved as the sovereigns directed. 
Warlike expeditions were not commenced until the matter, after mature delibera- 
tion, bad been fully determined upon. Then the whole nation, or confederacy, 
moved as by a common impulse, which accounts, no doubt, for their numerous 
successes. Their expeditions were directed, sometime-*, against members of their 
own linguistic family, as in the ease of the Eries and Wyandots, which were 
prosecuted with unrelaxhig vigor. 

The difficulties between the confederate Iroquois and the Eries grew out of 
the disposition to neutrality between tierce and powerful contending nations, and 
came about in this wise. In the year 1630, after the French had made rapid 
progress in their settlements north of the St. Lawrence, a great effort was made 
to civilize and Christianize the Indians of that region. At'that time, the Eries 
were visited with this object in view, when their national peculiarity was first 
brought to notice. This characteristic caused them to be designated by the 
French as the Neutral Nation. When the neutrality spoken of was established, 
the Wyandots, otherwise known as the Hurons and the Iroquois, were at war. 
The settlement of Canada by the French, was the occasion of disagreement between 
these two fraternal branches of the great Indian family, and resulted in an open 
rupture of their former alliance— the Wyandots adhering to the Freuch, and the 
Iroquois to the Dutch. "In this feud of the Iroquois, the Algonquin tribes 
(Adirondacks), who were at war with them aforetime, were glad to make allies of 
the French and Wyandots. Between, the Eries occupied a geographical position 
on the banks of the Niagara. They had already, from propinquity and habits, 
formed a close alliance with an Algonquin tribe on the west and north of Lake 
Ontario, called Mississaugies. They were nearly related to the Wyandots and 
Five Nations. Neutrality was their only salvation. It was a delicate position, 
and required great wisdom to preserve it. Neuter nations, when the period for 
action arrives, are apt to offend both sides. It was certainly so with the Eries. 
They finally offended both the Wyandots and Iroquois; but it was the latter who 
turned upon them with great fury and power, and. in a slmri and sanguinary war. 
extinguished their nationality." At first, however, the Eries were successful, by 
dint of superior bravery and management, but they were eventually overpowered 
and defeated in the year 105:!; at which time they ceased to be known as a dis- 
tinct nation. The eventual success of the Iroquois, in their fratricidal war with 
the Eries, Colden, in his history of the Five Nations, declares Erst inspired the 
confederates with courage to successfully attack the Adirondacks (Algonquins), 
the allies of the Wyandots. 

Subsequently, with the accumulating successes of the Iroquois, other Indian 
nations occupying adjacent territory were made to feel the power that subjugated 
the Erics and Wyandots. At the period of the aggressions just cited, the 
Andastes, inhabiting territory on the upper part of the Susquehanna River, were 
added to the conquests of the Five Nations. This occurred, from thftbesl data 
at command about the year 1070. Within twenty years afterward, the Lenni 
Leiiapes or Delawares as they were generally known, a powerful nation, situated 
,,ii the river of that name, were humiliated 'by the confederates, and deprived of 
their ancient position among the native races of America. 

Thatcher [Ind. Biog.^ II, p. 38]. speaking of the conquests of the Fi\x- 
Nations, says : -They exterminated the Eries, or Erigos, once living ** 




south side of the lake of their own name. They nearly destroyed the Anderstes, 
;ind the Chouanons or Showanons. They drove back the Hurons and Ottawas 
among the Sioux of the Upper Mississippi, where they spread themselves into 
bands, 'proclaiming, wherever they went, the terror of the Iroquois.' The Illinois. 
on the west, also were subdued, with the Miamis and the Shawancse. The Niper- 
eiuians of the St. Lawrence, fled to Hudson's Bay to avoid their fury. The 
borders of the Outaouis," says an historian, 'which were thickly peopled, became 
almost deserted.' The Mohawk was a name of terror to the farthest tribes of 
New England. Finally, they conquered the tribe of Vir- 

ginia, west of the Alleghanies; and warred against the. Catawbas, Cherokees, and 
in isl of the nations of the South." 

1'iii.r to ibis Mm", the Iroquois had been engaged, frequently, in expedi- 
tions against the AL^mono- and their allies, the French, with varied successes, 
-iiirtiini- aceniiiplishing by strategy what they failed to do by force. Defeats 
w re not unfrequent, as the fortunes of war are sometimes adverse to apparently 
superior power in the execution of designs at variance with justice. During the 
I i igress of these early warlike manifestations, many minor elements of discord 
v.,',v permitted to enteT into the management of the belligerent. parties, which, 

,1 ah [Qsignifieanl ftl first, grew to be the occasion of disastrous consequences. 

Among these the advantages arising from the trade in furs, especially the beaver, 
which, being □ sonrce of extensive revenue to the parties engaged in it, excited 

lii-i personal, then national jealousy, and finally war and bloodshed, involving not 
only the powerful tribes north and south of the St. Lawrence, but the French 
nation on the one hand as the allies of the Algonquins, and the English with the 
Iroquois on the other, the sequel of which is yet to be seen. 


Immediately following the Freneh .settlements in Canada, when trading-posts 
had been established, a desire to profit by the exchange of merchandise with the 
Indians for the furs and peltries which they had accumulated, was necessarily 
incident to the opportunities offered in that direction. As a consequence, there- 
fore, the French, who seemed to exercise a more healthful influence over the 
natives, secured a monopoly of the trade in beaver, the staple article of commerce, 
and a feeling of jealousy was naturally engendered in the minds of the Engli,-h 
traders, moving them to the procurement of an alliance with the Iroquois, for 
counteracting e fleet with smaller tribes, in the interest of the French, by whom 
their trade was controlled. Numerous instances have been brought to light devel- 
oping a resort to means not the most honorable to accomplish what bad not by 




Hi. [roquois, twenty years or more prior to the year 1683, having subju- 
gated all the neighboring tribes, turned their attention to trade with the English, 
the fur trade, especially in beaver, being better with the English than with the 
French, as claimed by the former; hence they sought, by every means at their 
command, to increase that trade. Thus actuated, they conceived the idea of des- 
troying the Outaouax ( Ottawas), who, for more than thirty years before, had been 
allies of the French, and secured to them alone two-thirds or more of the trade in 
beaver that was annually shipped to France. 

As a means in the accomplishment of their end, the Iroquois, as a pretext, 
raised an outcry against the Outaouax, charging them with having been instru- 
mental, a few years before, in the muni, i ■ >[ an li...pmis ('apt inn at Michilimackmac, 
near an Outaouax fort. With that a.- an incentive, the whole Iroquois family 
was soon excited, and declared war against them with the expectation of readily 
subduing them by superior prowess, and thus intercept the channel through which 
the French had secured their large and lucrative trade in beaver, and take it 

Calculating, also, that the Outaouax would be assisted by the Algonquins 
and Hurons, the Iroquois labored incessantly to win over the Hurons, who had 
formerly been subject to their influence, with the other" t allies of the French, 
Scouebache and other Huron -traitors interesting themselves, also, to induce the 
Iroquois to make war against the French. Of all these strifes, the English appear 
to have been the fomenters, instigated by a desire for the advantages likely to 
result to them from the trade in that class of furs. 

As early as 1681, it was the opinion that if the Iroquois were permitted to 
'ieir course, they would subdue not only the Ottawas, who chiefly 
-applied that department of the trade, the Hurons being already in subjection to 
them, but the Illinois, allies of the Ottawas, and thus render themselves masters 
of the situation, diwrting the fur trade into English channels. [Col Doc IX 

1 1 .'. apparent als ■». that, through the influence of the Iroquois, a half-cen- 
tury later, the Hurons were n idy to and wool 1 have massacred all the French at 
Detroit, had not a Huron squaw "Vi.-rb.-ard the plans of the, schemers and con- 
veyed the intelligenc to H. de Langueil Commandant it the post, who, being 
thus forewarned, made preparations too formidable to be readily overcome. The 
action of the Hurons in this instance, too, appear to have been the outgrowth of 
English influence, from like motives. These last occurrences were in 1746-47, the 
immediate pretext- for which are stated to have been the outgrowth of the intro- 
duction of certain English belts, by i he Iroquois, among all the adjacent tribes 
susceptible to such influence.-. 


Omamees or Twc Twees^Twa' Twas, next to the Delawares, per- 

haps, are entitled to be recognized as the leading branch of the Algonquin group. 
tracing their individuality with the Ottawas and Nipersinians, from the country 
the latter end of the sixteenth century, 

north of the river St. Lawrence, 

when the Freneh navigators and traders began first to establish posts as the ante- 
cedents of permanent settlements in New France. Whatever is true of their 
relationship to the parent stock, whether immediate or remote, it is a fact, never- 
theless, that many of the primitive characteristics of the generic group are pre- 
served in the Miami nation. 

In common with the primitive Algonquins, the language of the Miamis, in 
comparison with the Hurons, "has not so much force but more sweetness and 
elegance. Both have a richness of expression, a variety of turns, a propriety of 
terms, a regularity which astonishes. But what is more surprising is, that among 
these barbarians, who never study to speak well, and who never had the use of 
writing, there is not introduced a bad word, an improper term, or a vicious con- 
struction ; and even children preserve all the purity of the language in their common 
discourse. On the other hand, the manner in which they animate all they say, 
leaves no room to doubt of their comprehending all the worth of their expres- 
sions and all the beauty of their language." 

In preparing for war, the Miamis have a custom, peculiar to themselves. 
Says Charlevoix: " After a solemn feast, they placed on a kind of altar, some 
pagods made with bear-skins, the heads of which were painted green. All the 
savages passed this altar, bowing their knees, and the jugglers led the van, hold- 
ing iu their bands a sack which contained all the things which they use in their 
conjurations. They all strive to exceed each other in their contortions, and as 
any one distinguished himself in this way, they applauded him with great 
shouts. When they had thus paid their first homage to the idol, all the people 
danced in such confusion to the sound of a drum and a Cbeahicoue; and during 
this time the jugglers make a show of bewitching some of the savages, who seem 
ready to expire ; then, putting a certain powder upon their lips, they make them 
recover. When this farce has lasted some time, he who presides at the feast, 
having at his side two men and two women, runs through all the cabins to give 
the savages notice that the sacrifices were going to begin. When he meets any 
one in his way, he puts both his hands on his head and the person met embraces 
his knees. The victims were dogs, and one hears on every side the cries of these 
animals, whose throats they cut, and the savages, who howl with all their strength, 
seem to imitate their cries. As soon as the flesh was dressed, they offered it, to the 
idols; then they ate it and burnt the bones. All this while the jugglers never 
cease raising the pretended dead, and the whole ends by the distribution made 
to these quacks of whatever is most to their liking in all the village." 

" From the time that the resolution is taken to make war, till the departure 
of the warriors, they sing their war-songs every night; the days are passed iu 
making preparations. They depute some warriors to go to sing the war-sung 
amongst their neighbors and allies, whom they engage beforehand by secret 
negotiations. If they are to go by water, they build or repair their canoes; if it is 
winter, they furnish themselves with snow-shoes and sledges. The raquets, 
which they most have to wear on the snow, arc about three feet long, and about 
fifteen or eighteen inches in their greatest breadth. Their shape is oval, excepting 
the end behind, which terminates in a point. Little sticks, placed across at five 
or six inches from each end, serve to strengthen them, and the piece which is 
before us is in the shape of a bow, where the foot is fixed and tied with leather 
thongs. The binding of the raquet is made of slips of leather about a fourth part 
of an inch wide, and the circumference is of light wood hardened by fire. * * 
The sledges, which serve to carry the baggage, and, in case of need, the sick and 
wounded, are two little boards, very thin, about half a foot broad, each board, and 
six or seven feet long. The fore-part is a little bent upward, and the sides are 
bordered by little bands, to which they fasten straps to bind what is on the sledge. 
However loaded these carriages may be, a savage can draw them with ease by the 
help of a long band of leather, which he puts over his breast, aud which they call 

'• All things being ready, and the day of departure being come, they take 
their leave with great demonstrations. * * * Lastly, they all meet at the 
cabin of the chief. They find him armed as he was at the first day he spoke to 
ihem, and as he always appeared in public from that day. They then paint their 
faces, every one according to his own fancy, and all of them in a very frightful 
manner. The chief makes them a short speech ; then hi; conies out of his cabin 
singing his song of death. They all follow him in a line, keeping a profound 
silence, and they do the same every morning, when they renew their march. The 
women go before with the provisions, and when the warriors come up with them, 
they give them their clothes, and remain almost naked — at least as much as. the 
season will permit. 

" Formerly, the arms of these people were bows and arrows, and a kind of 
javelin, which, as well as their arrows, was armed with a point of bone, wrought 
in different shapes. Beside this, they had what they call the' head-breaker.'. This 
is a little club, of very hard wood, the head of which is round, and has one side 
with an edge, to cut. The greatest part have no defensive arms." 

Such were their customs of war, less than 200 years ago, when the use of 
firearms was far less common tliLin at the present day. They were, however, equal 
to the demands of the times, anil served well their purpts' in in'usin^ a spirit of 
stubborn brivery that, with the class of offensive and defensive weapons in use, 
was most formidable in its effects. 

Among the Miamis of the last century, also, there were classes of amuse- 
ments which commanded much of their attention, when not engaged in war or 
the chase. They had their games of straws, not unlike some of the civilized 
gam.- of chance of the present day. A bundle of straws, containing an uneven 
number, say 201, which were separated into parcels of ten each, except one, 
which contained eleven. These were divided by the chief among the players, 
promiscuously. He who selected the parcel of uneven number, a certain number 
of points, the aggregate of which was sixty or eighty. Beside this, there were 
games of bat and ball, which they played in a manner not unlike the more mod- 



concerning the Indians of Canada, as far as the Mississippi 
River, being a review of their habits and conditions, in the year 1717. prepared 
for tin- proper information of the French Government, upon the subject, the 
following reference is made to the Indians at Kekiunga, at that date. 

" The Miamis are sixty leagues from Lake Erie, and number 40(1, all well 
formed men, and well tattooed. The women are numerous. They are hard- 
working, and raise a species of maize unlike that of our Indians at Detroit. It 
is white, of the same size as the other, the skin much finer, and the meat much 
whiter. This nation is elad in deerskin, and when a married woman goes with 
another man, her husband cuts off her nose and does not see her any more. This 
is the only nation that has such a custom. They love plays and dances, where- 
fore they have more occupation. The women are well clothed, but the men use 
scarcely any covering, and are tattooed all over the body." 

Another custom, prevailed among the Miamis, is entitled to especial men- 
tion — the ceremony preliminary to the replacement of a member of the family 
removed by death. On such occasions a meeting of the family and kindred, with 
adjacent villagers, assembled at a suitable place. The process was through the 
agency of a game of chance, where there were several candidates, as was often 
the case ; otherwise, the replacement was accomplished by substitution. The 
one selected was, ever afterward, recognized as the legitimate heir, and entitled to 
receive all the effects of the deceased. The ceremony of selection was always 
followed by a replacement dauee, in honor of the occasion. 

The beggar dance was sometimes indulged in, but was not a custom among 
the Miamis, as was the case with some of the kindred tribes. lis purpose was 
rather a means to supply, from traders and strangers, the improvised wants of the 
proposer. " With no other covering on their bodies but a part of a deer or 
other skin about their waists, the rest of the body and face painted with some 
bright colors, with perhaps some gay ornament or feathers about their heads, 
often several in number, would pass from agency to agency, in front of whose 
doors they would go through with the liveliest movements of dancing, singing, 
etc., which, to the spectators, was often very amusing, and who seldom failed to 
give the red dancers some tobacco, a loaf or two of bread, some whisky, or other 
article that would be pleasing to them." 

Complimentary and medicine dances were frequent, also, and were conducted 
with reference to the gratification of ihe party to be complimented, on the one 
hand, or as an initiatory ceremony incident to the introduction of chosen candi- 
dates into the fraternity of " Medicine Men." These, as most other similar cer- 
emonies, were followed by a feast and dance, in which the " faculty " engaged 
with great zest. The candidate, having passed the ordeal, was placed under the 
instructions of the " Old Doctor, or Medicine Man," and henceforward devoted 
his life to the practice of his profession with whatever skill his application to 
business was rewarded. The music provided on such occasion, " consisted 
usually of a deer-skin entirely free from hair, which they stretched in some way, 
similar to our common drum-head, and upon which their l music man ' would 
keep time, and hum an air adapted to the Indian's style of dancing. 


At what period in their history the Miamis made the Ke-ki-ong-a their 
" Central City," is not now satisfactorily attainable, but without doubt at a time 
antedating or cotemporaneous with the early white settlements on the Atlantic 
Coast, this statement is at variance, no doubt, with the opinions entertained by 
others, who believe that from time immemorial, " when the memory of man run- 
neth not to the contrary," their typical band of the Algonquin family, had inhab- 
ited and possessed this, to them classic ground. To establish the opinion, however, 
from authentic data, or accepted traditions, will be a difficult if not an impossible 
task. On the contrary, the statement made by little Turtle, in his address to Gen. 
Wayne, at the treaty of Greenville, in August, 1795, corroborated and confirmed 
by the narratives of the early French voyageurs, as Bancroft declares, is wholly 
inconsistent with such an assumption. 

Little Turtle, one of the most intelligent and discreet of the Miami chiefs, 
thus discourses on the question. Addressing Gen. Wayne, he says : " 1 hope 
you will pay attention to what I now say to you. I wish to inform you 
where your younger brothers, the Miamis, live, and also the Pottawatomics, 
of St. Joseph, together with the Wabash Indians. You have pointed out 
to us the boundary line between the Indians and the United States; but 
I now take the liberty to inform you that the line cuts off from the Indians 
a large portion of country which has been enjoyed by my forefathers from 
time immemoiial, without molestation or dispute. The prints of my ancestors' 
houses are everywhere to be seen in this portion. I was a little astonished at 
hearing you and my brothers who are now present, telling each other what bus- 
iness you had transacted together, heretofore, at Muskingum, concerning this 
country. It is well known to all my brothers present, that my forefathers kindled 
the first fires at Detroit ; thence he extended his lines to the west waters of the 
Scioto ; thence to its mouth ; from there down the Ohio to the mouth of the 
Wabash ; and thence to Chicago, on Lake Michigan. At this place I first saw 
my elder brothers, the Shawanoes. I have now informed you of the boundaries 
of the Miamis nation, where the Great Spirit placed my forefather long ago, and 
charged him not to sell or part with his lands, but preserve them for bis pos- 
terity. This charge has been handed down to me." 

When it is understood that the Miamis are an offshoot of the Algonquin 
stock, which, at the time their separate existences became known to Europeans 
—say about the middle of the sixteenth century— occupied the territory north of 
the St. Lawrence River, and the line of lakes extending westward, beyond Lake Supe- 
rior, the Esquimaux and Hudson's Bay lying to the northward; that the 
branches proceeding from the lamily domain necessarily migrated from beyond 
the St. Lawrence, the problem will not be of difficult solution— Whence came they? 

the Miamis 

The first historical account of the tribe since 1 
the year 1669, in the vicinity of Green Bay, where they werevisited by the 
French missionary, Father Allouez, and subsequently by Father Dablon. From 
there they passed to the southward of Lake Michigan, in the vicinity of Chi- 
cago, subsequently settling on the St. Joseph, of Lake Michigan, establishing 
there a village, another on the river Miami, of Lake Erie, and a third on the 
Wabash, as we learn from Charlevoix ; 

'■ In 1671, the Miamis were settled at the south end of Lake Michigan, in 
a place called Cbieagou, from the name of a small river which runs into the 
lake, and which has its source not fat Irom the river of the Illinois. They are 
divided into three villages — one on the river St. Joseph ; the second, on another 
river, which bears their name and runs iido Lake Erie, and the third, upon the 
Ouabaohe, which runs info* the Mississippi. These last are now known by the 
name of the Ouyatenons " [Wcas]. P. 1 14. 

It is highly probable, notwithstanding, that, prior to their location near the 
Lake des Puans, having separated from their primogenitors, they first assumed 
the character of a distinct tribe at Detroit, as stated by Little Turtle, and there 
first kindled their council-fire. That they spread thence to the valley of the 
Scioto, to the Ohio, to the mouth of the Wabash and thence to Chicago, inhab- 
iting, from time to time, the vast area circumscribed by the various streams 
named, thus becoming the recoeni/ed proprietors of that extensive domain. 

In 16S0, the Iroquois, after a rest from their earlier conquests, turned their 
attention to the Illinois, the most important as well as the most accessible of the 
Western Algonquins. War was decreed in the councils of the chiefs, The 
chief town of the Miamis lay in their path and was visited by the war party and 
induced to join in the invasion of the territory of the Illinois, their kinsmen, 
notwithstanding it was the probable purpose of these new allies to make them 
their next victims. For lone: years prior to this dale, a jealous feeling had 
existed between the Miamis and the Illinois, which circumsl Ljfce had much to do 
in promoting their alliance with the Iroquois against them, ince it offered an 

opportunity to gratify their desire foi revi oge A I I Hie miJdle of September, 

the Iroquois with their allies were approaching the bord i- of ihe Vermilion 
River in warlike attitude, anxious for the fray. The Illinois, also, having been 
notified of the advance of this formidable army, manifested an anxiety to meet 
the assailants. They were in an open prairie adjacent to the thick woods on the 
margin of the river. The Iroquois were numerous, and armed for the most part 
with guns, pistols and swords. "Some had bucklers of wood or rawhide, and 
some wore those corselets of tongh twigs interwoven with cordage, which their 
fathers had used when fire-arms were unknown." On the other hand, the Illi- 
nois, about one hundred of them with guns, the rest with bows and arrows, were 
face to face with the enemy in an open prairie, advancing, seemingly anxious to 
exhibit their prowess, to the charge. They leaped, yelled and shot off bullets 
and arrows. The Iroquois n plied with similar manifestations of anxiety. Not- 
withstanding the hostile exhibitions, the BglnVbrisl- and, demonstrative at first, 
yielded to mediating exeriions of mutually interested parties, with comparatively lit- 
tle bloodshed, and the Illinois within w. Subsi quently the Iroquois crossed over 
to the Illinois side of Ihe river and took possession of their towns and erected a 
rude fort for immediate protection. Thus conditioned, they proceeded to finish 
their work of devastation and havoc at their leisure. A treaty was at length 
concluded, and soon after broken by preparations "to attack and destroy Ihe Illi- 
nois women and children in their island sanctuary." Tie- work was slow but 

destructive, and "a hideous scene was enacted at the rui 1 village of the 

Illinois. Their savage foes, balked of a living prey, wreaked their fury on the 
dead. They dug up the graves ; they threw down the scaffolds. Some of the 
bodies they burned; some they threw to the dogs; some, it is affirmed, they ate. 
Placing the skulls on stakes as trophies, they turned to pursue the Illinois, who, 
when the French withdrew, abandoned their asylum and retreated down the river. 
The Iroquois, still, it seems, in awe of them, followed them along the oppoi ' 
bank, each night encamping face to face with them ; and thus th. 
moved slowly southward till they were near the mouth of tli 
the compact array of the Illinois had held their 
suffering from hunger and lulled into security by th 

river. Hitherto, 
check ; but now, 
of the Iroquois 

that their object was not to destroy them, but ODly to drive them from the 
country, they 'rashly separated into several tribes. Some descended the Missis- 
sippi; some,' more prudent, crossed to ihe western aide. ( )ne of their principal 
tribes, the Tamaroas, more credulous than the rest, bad the fatuity to remain 
near the mouth of the Illinois, where they were speedily assailed by all Ihe l.ircc 
of the Iroquois. The men fled and a very few of them were killed ; but Ihe 
women and children were captured to the number, it is said, of seven hundred. 
Then followed that scene of torture, of which, some (wo weeks later, La Sails; 
saw the revolting traces. Sated at jenglh with horrors, the conquerors withdrew, 
leading with them a host of captives, and exulting in their triumphs over women, 
children and the dead."* 

In 1686-87, there were frequent difficulties between the Iroqums and the 
Miamis, which occasioned much uneasiness among the officials of ihe 1 nelish 
Colonial Government. So much interest was manifested by the Eeji-li Gov. rnor 
in this regard, that he called a conference witlchis Iroquois allies for the purpose 
of ascertaining the true condition of affairs. The conference was held at Albany 
on the 5th of August, 1687, when the Governor proposed to the chief sachems of 
the Five Nations that it would be better to send messengers to the Otlaw.,s and 
Twichtwichs and the further Indians, and some of the prisoners of these nations 
left to bury the hatchets and make a covenant chain with them. 

On the following day, one of the Maquase ( Mohawk I saohem 
dachsegie, made a speech to the Governor, expla: 
antes between them and those natit 

nod Sin- 
; of the disturb- 
rith the French. He said : " Wee 


are resolved to speake the truth, and all the evill we have done them is, that, 
about six yeares agoe, some of the Sinnekes and some of the Onnondages went 
aboard of a French Barke at* Onnyngaro, that was come to trade there, and took 
out of the said Barke a Caske of Brandy and cult the Cable." It occurred, also, 
that in September, of the preceding year, the Scnecas had visited the coun- 
try of the Omianics (Miamis), and in a warlike expedition had taken of them 
five hundred prisoners and lost twenty-nine killed. Iwo of them in foray, and 
twenty-seven when the Touloucks i ( hitaouaes ) ami Illinois caught them. 

Ten years later, Peter Schuvler and others, on behalf of the Senecas, in a 
communication to the English Governor, Fletcher, dated September 28, 1697, 
make this statement: "Wee are sorry to have it to tell you the loss of our 
brethren, the Sinnekes, suffered in an engagement with ye Twichtwiehts Indians; 
our young men killed several! of the enemy, but, upon their retreat, some of 
their chiefe capts. were cut off You know our customs is to condole ye dead, 
therefore, wc desire you give us some for these Beavours ; soe laid down ten 
Beavr. skins. The Wampum was immediatly given them for said skins, and the 
day following appointed tor a eonferance upon the first proposition made by them 
for powder & lead &c." Further statement is made concerning the war between 
the Five Nations and the Miamies, in Robert Livingston's report to the Secretary 
of Indian Affaire, in April, 1700, from which it would seem that the war had 
been pending between these parties for many years, taken in connection with the 
preceding statement. He recommends " That all endeavors be used to obtain a 
peace between the 5 Nations and the Bowaganhaas, Twichtwieks & other fur 
Nations of Indians whom the Governor of Canada stirs up to destroy them, not 
only the 5 Nations have been mortal] enemies to the French & true to the 
English, but because they hinder his trade with the said far Nations, trucking 
with them themselves and bringing the bevers hither." 

In a subsequent communication by the same writer, on the 29th of August 
of the same year, a better reason is given, perhaps, for the desire to induce a 
cessation of hostilities between those belligerent nations. "Brethren: You must 
needs be sensible that the Dowaganhues, Twivhtwielis, Ottawawa & Diononades, 
and other remote Indians, are vastly more numerous than you 5 Nations, and 
that, by their continued warring upon you, they will, in a few years, totally 
destroy you." 

In times past, but exactly when is not now known, the Miamis. because of 
their extensive dominion, power and influence, and of the numerous consanguine- 
ous branches acknowledging the relationship, were known as the Miami Confed- 
eracy. In 1765, the confederacy was composed of the following branches. 
situated and having warriors in number, viz.: Twightwces, at the head of the 
Maumee River, with 250 available warriors; the Ouiatenons, in the vicinity of 
Post Ouiatenon, on the Wabash, with 300 warriors; the Piankeshaws,' on the 
Vermilion River, with 300 warriors, and the Shockeys, on territory lying on the 
Wabash, between Vincecnes and Post Ouiatenon, with 200 warriors. At an 
earlier period, probably, the Miamis, with their confederates, were able to muster 
a much more formidable force, as the citation from the representatives of the 
Five Nations would seem to show. 

In 17-18, the English merchants and traders secured a limited trade with 
the Miamis, as much, it is said, in consequence of the failure of the French 
traders, who had, during the preceding century, held the supremacy, to supply 
the increasing wants of the Miamis, especially those on the borders of the Ohio 
and its tributaries. Thus a favorable influence was exerted on the part of the 
Miamis toward the English, which resulted in a treaty of alliance and friendship 
between the English and the Twightwees (Miamis) on the 23d of July of the 
same year, whereby the latter became and were recognized as " Good Friends 
and Allies of the English Nation * * * subjects of the King of 

Great Britain * entitled to the privilege and protection of 

the English Laws."' This treaty was signed by the representatives, " Deputies 
from the Twightwces i or Miamis) * * * on or about the river 

Ouabaele, a branch of the River Mississippi," three in number, the first and 
principal of whom was Aque-naek-que, head chief of the Miamis, and the father 
of Me-che-quin-no-qua i Little Turtle ), at that time and for many years previously 
a resident of the Turtle Village in this vicinity, at which, the year preceding 
| 1747 |, it is reputed that Little Turtle was born. 

' By their several treaties with the United States, the Miamis have ceded an 
aggregate of 6,853,020 acres of land. Aggregate of land given in exchange, 
44,640 acres, the aggregate value of which was $55,800,000. The aggregate 
consideration paid for these lands, in money and goods, 81,205.907 ; total con- 
sideration paid, $1,261,707, as shown by the records of the Department at 
Washington City. 


was the son of Aque-nac-que, the great war chief of the Twightwees [Miamis] 
at the beginning of the eighteenth century, who was also the principal of the 
three Deputies who represented the Twightwee nation at the Treaty of Lancaster. 
Penn., on the 23d day of July, 1748. His mother was of the tribe of the 
Mohegans, and is reputed as having been a superior woman, transmitting many 
of her best qualities to her son. Aquenaeque was of the Turtle branch of the 
Miamis, and lived i„ the Turtle Village on Eel River, some sixteen miles north- 
west of Fort Wayne. 

At this village Little Turtle was born, about the year 1747, and was the 
senior of his sister Algomaqua, wife of Capt. Holmes, by less than two years. He 
became chief at an early age.- not on account of any right by inheritance, because 
the condition of the offspring follows the mother, and not the father, and his 
mother not standing in the line of descent from hereditary chiefs, the child stood 
in the same category, but because of his extraordinary talents and adapted- 
ness for the position, which were noticeable from early boyhood. Upon the death 

of his father, therefore, he became the principal chief of the Miamis, by selec- 
tion. His first eminent services were those of a warrior, in which he distin- 
guished himself above all competitors. His courage and sagacity, in the estima- 
tion of his countrymen, were proverbial, and his example inspired others to 
unwonted achievements in. council and the field. Neighboring consanguineous 
tribes, in their operations against the whites, drew courage from his presence, and 
achieved successes under his leadership. He was in himself a host on the battle- 
field, and his counsel always commanded respect. 

At the time of St. Clair's expedition against the Wabash Indians, Little 
Turtle was the acknowledged leader, directing the movement of his people, 
which resulted in the defeat of the former, as he had previously done in the 
several actions in the campaign of Gen. Harmar. In comparison with Gen. St. 
Clair, as director of forces at Fort Recovery, his exhibitions of skill and tact in 
the management of the assault upon the white troops, were those of the more 
expert tactician. His loss in that engagement was light, while that of Gen. St. 
Clair was heavy. 

" Again, he commanded a body of Indians in November, 1792, who made 
a violent attack on a detachment of Kentucky volunteers under Maj. Adair, under 
the walls of Fort St. Clair, near Eaton, Ohio, but the savages were repulsed with 
loss. He was also at the action of Fort Recovery, in June, 1704. The campaign 
of Gen. Wayne, in August of the same year, proved too successful for the Turtle 
and superior to the combined force. Prior to the battle of Fort Miami, two miles 
below Maumee City, a council was held, when Little Turtle showed his sagacity 
and prudence by refusing to attack the forces of Gen. Wayne." 

Having satisfied himself of the impracticability of further opposition to the 
whites, Little Turtle lent his influence toward the maintenance of peace, and, in 
part consideration for his services in this respect, the American Government 
erected for him, at bis village on Eel River, a comfortable house in which to live. 
■'His habits were those of the whites, and he had black servants to attend to his 
household wants and duties. He was true to the interests of his race, and 
deplored their habits of drunkenness. In 1S02 or 1S03, he went before the Leg- 
islature of Kentucky, and, through his interpreter, made an appeal in person for 
a law preventing the sale of ardent spirits to the Indians. The like mission he 
performed before the Legislature of Ohio, but without success. He described the 
Indian traders to life, viz.: ' They stripped the poor Indian of skins, guns, 
blankets, everything, while his squaws and children, dependent upon him, lay 
starving and shivering in his wigwam.' 

" He was the first to introduce among his savage tribes the practice of vacci- 
nation for 'preventing the small-pox. and did much to prevent human sacrifice." 

From the first appearance of Tecumseh and the Prophet, in their attitude of 
manipulators of opinions directed toward the formation of an Indian confederacy, 
he opposed their movements, and in consequence, through his influence, little was 
accomplished in that direction among his people and others for a long time. 

In a communication dated at Fort Wayne, January 25, 1812, bearing his 
own signature, addressed to Gov. Harrison, be expressed himself as anxious to do 
all in his power to preserve peaceful relations between the white and red people. 
He was destined, however, to take no part in the pending conflict. " He came 
to this city, in 1812, from his residence, to procure medical aid, and was under 
the treatment of the United States Surgeon, and in the family of his brother-in- 
law, Capt. Wells, at the Old Orchard— or rather was cared for by Capt. W.'s family 
at his own tent, a few rods distant, preferring it to the more civilized mode of 
living ' in doors.' His disease was the gout, of which he died in the open air, at 
the place (Old Orchard), above described, July 14, 1812, having the universal 
respect of all who knew him. The Commandant of the fort at that time. Capt. Ray, 
the friend of Little Turtle, buried the remains of the chief with the honors of 
war. A writer says: ' His body was borne to the grave with the highest honors 
by his great enemy, the white man. The muffled drum, the solemn march, the 
funeral salute, announced that a great soldier had fallen, and even enemies paid 
the mournful tribute lo his memory.' " 

The place of his burial is near the center of the " Old Orchard," and his Indian 
ornaments and accouterments of war, a sword presented to him by Gen. Washington 
and a medal with Gen. W.'s likeness thereon, were buried with him. Some years 
ago, Cocsse, a nephew and real chief, since dead, came to Fort Wayne and pro- 
nounced a funeral oration over the remains of his uncle, full of eloquent pathos, 
which was listened to by many of the old citizens of that period. 

A distinguishing trait in the character of this celebrated chief, says Mr. 
Dawson, " was his ardent desire to be informed of all that relates to our institu- 
tions ; and he seems to possess a mind capable of understanding and valuing the 
advantages of civilized life, in a degree far superior to any other Indian of his 


Pe-che-wa, or, as he was generally known, John B. Richardville, was the 
son of Joseph Drouet de Rielieville. of French extraction, a trader at Ke-ki-ong-a, 
before and after the expedition of Le Balm, in 1780, by Tau-cum-wah, daughter 
of Aquc-na-qua, and sister of Little Turtle. He was born, as tradition has it, and 
he has himself often stated, " near the old apple-tree," in the midst of the Miami 
Village, at the junction of the St. Joseph with the Maumee, about the year 1701. 
The associations clustering around this old apple-tree, during his ehildliood days, 
gave the chief ever afterward a profound regard, approaching almost to reverence ; ■ 
hence he was instrumental in its preservation. 

" The time of his birth was locally," says Schoolcraft, " the period of the 
Pontiae war, in which the Western tribes followed the lead of that energetic and 
intrepid Algonquin, in resisting the transfer of authority from the French to the 
Kn^lish power. He was too young for any iigem-y in this war, and the event has no 
further connection with the man than as it introduced him and his people to a new 
phasis of history. Braddock had been defeated in 1755. Quebec surrendered 



in 1759, and, by the treaty which followed, France forever struck her flag in 
Canada. The long struggle was over — a struggle commencing at least ay far back as 
the days of Ohamplain, in 1609. A hundred and fifty years of battles, forays and 
blood, in which Indian sculping parties, led sometimes by French officers, performed 
no small part, and inflicted agonies on the settlements. * * The 

Indians, who loved the French, did not and would not look peacefully on such 
a transfer of sovereignty. And the efforts of Pontiac to embody their feeling 
and lead it forth, only proved his power among the Indians, but was a decided 

In connection, also, with his early history, are many incidents of thrilling 
interest, a recital of which would not fail to command attention. One of these, 
referring to an occasion which determined his election to the chieftaincy of Ins 
tribe, is repeated. 

It was less than a hundred years ago when the prevailing customs of the 
Indians were generally observed by the Miamis. A white captive had just been 
brought in, and the question was about to be submitted to the council whether 
the young man should die. The council was held, and its mandate had gone 
forth that he must burn at the stake. All is confusion and bustle in the village, 
and the features of all save the hapless victim bespeak the anxiety with which 
they look forward to the coming sacrifice. Already the prisoner is bound to the 
stake, and the fagots are being placed in position, while the torch which is to 
ignite the inflammable mass was in the hands of the brave selected to apply it. 
But hold ! the time has not yet come when the fates have decreed that the man- 
date of the council is to be executed. A chief is to be chosen to rule over the 
tribe. There are many candidates apparently alike entitled to recognition. Again 
the question of eligibility is mooted, and the usages of the ages must be observed. 
He is to be from the Hue of royal ancestors, yet an exhibition of his prowess 
will tend to hasten the issue. An anxious mother, herself the accepted ohiefesa 
and successful ruler of many years, observes the progress of preparations for the 
sacrifice with calm indifference. Her son, the cherished idol of her household, 
is by her side, a quiet observer also of the prospective torture, yet solicitous. 
He would save the young man. The torch is being extended to fire the combus- 
tible material, and all attention is directed toward the spot. At a signal from his 
mother, young Pe-che-wah sprang from her side and bounded forward, knife in 
hand, to assert his chieftaincy by the captive's rescue. Electrified by the mag- 
netic force of his mother's desire, he dashed through the wild crowd, cut the 
cords that bound him, and bid the captive go free. Surprise and astonishment, 
not unmingled with displeasure, was visible in every countenance at the unex- 
pected denouement. Yet this daring feat of voluntary heroism was the universal 
theme of exultation. He was thereafter the recognized chief. In the mean 
time, the thoughtful mother, to make the rescue complete, placed the man in a 
canoe, covering him with furs and peltries, put him in charge of friendly hands, 
and sent him down the Mauuiee to a place of safety. 

Many years after, while on his way to Washington City, through the State 
of Ohio, he was recogniz.-d by the rescued captive, who manifested his gratitude 
with all the warmth of filial affection. It is needless to say those manifestations 
were fully reciprocated. 

Pe-che-wah was present and participated, in the defeat of Gen. Harmar, in 
October, 1790, but was not characteristically warlike, being more disposed to 
exert his executive ability in attending to the interests of his people in other 

As the leading chief of his tribe, in their behalf he was present at, and 
signed the treaty of St. Mary's, on the 6th of October, 1818. Before that time, 
however, he was a party to the treaty of Greenville, in 1795, again at the treaty 
of Fort Wayne, in June, 1803, and at Vincenues, in 1805. 

"About 1827," says Mr. Dawson, in his notes, " $500 were appropriated 
by Congress to each chief, to build a residence, Richardville appropriated more, 
and built a substantial house, five miles from here, on the south bank of the St. 
Mary's, on one of the reservations referred to. A part of this building was 
standing in 1859, owned by his granddaughter (the daughter of La Blonde), 
who married James Godfrey. For many years, he kept an extensive trading- 
house in this city [Fort Wayne], on Columbia street, and in person lived there 
most of the time ; but about 1836, ho moved the goods to the forks of the 
Wabash, and continued business there for many years, his squaw and younger 
members of his family at all times remaining, till her death, at home, on the 
St. Mary's. His housekeeper at the forks of the Wabash was Madame Margaret 
La Folia, a French woman, in person graceful and prepossessing." 

In the management of the-nffairs of his tribe, he was judicious and pains- 
taking, adjusting all matters of business appertaining to them with the most 
exact discrimination and prudence. As a consequence, he was held in highest 
esteem, not only by his own people but by the Indians generally throughout the 
Northwest. " He was honored and trusted as their lawgiver, with the most 
unsuspecting confidence and implicit obedience" — always adjusting questions of 
dispute without resort to bloodshed. He was a patient and attentive listener, 
always reaching his conclusions by deliberate consideration ; hence, he seldom 
had occasion to change them. "Averse to bloodshed, except against armed 
resistance, he was ever the strong and consistent friend of peace and good 

Iu stature, he was about five feet ten inches ; in weight, about one 
hundred and eighty pounds; in disposition, taciturn; in manner, modest 
and retiring, and in his intercourse with the white people, he was affable, yet 

He died at his family residence on the St. Mary's, August 13, 1841, aged 
about eighty years. He was buried on the following day, after services by Rev. 
Mr. Clark, Irish Cutholic Priest, of Peru, held at the Church of St. Augustine, 
in this city. He was first interred on the site of the Cathedral, but the remains 
were removed to make room for the building, and now rest in the Catholic 

ument marks the spot, 

bury lug-ground south of the city. A fine ma 
upon which is the following inscription : 

East side, « Here rests the remains of Chief Richardville, principal Chief 
of the Miami tribe of Indians. He was born at Ft. Wayne, Indiana, about the 
year 1760. Died in August, A. D. 1841." 

West side, " This monument has been erected by La Blonde, Susan and 
Catharine, daughters of the deceased." 


whose Indian name was To-pe-ah, perhaps a contraction of the Pottawatomie 
name, To-pe-na-bin, was the immediate successor of Pe-che-wah [Richevillc], as 
the principal chief of the Miamis. He was the lineal descendant, of La Fontaine, 
who mingled extensively in the affairs of Canada, during the latter part of the 
eighteenth century, sent out by the French Government in connection with Pro- 
vincial management. His father was of French extraction, and at one time a res- 
ident of Detroit ; his mother was a Miami woman, but whose name does not 
appear very frequently in the history of the tribe; nevertheless, a woman of con- 
siderable force of character, as manifested in the distinctive qualities of her son. 
He was born near Fort Wayne, in 1810, and spent a great portion of his 
life in the immediate vicinity. When about the age of twenty-one years, he was 
married to Catharine [Po-con-go-qua], a daughter of Chief Ricliardville. 

In his younger days, he was noted for great strength and activity, indeed, his 
character as an athlete was quite conspicuous, being, perhaps, the most fleet of 
foot in the tribe. His residence was on the south side of the prairie, between 
Huntington and Fort Wayne, on lands granted by the treaties of October 23, 
1834, and November 6, 1838. Manifesting great interest in the welfare of his 
tribe, he became very popular, and, after the death of Chief Ricliardville, in 1841, 
he was elected principal chief of the Miamis. Subsequently, " he moved 
to the forks of the Wabash, and resided in the frame building near the road, a 
few rods west of the fair grounds — the place belongin g to his wife, who inher- 
ited it from her father." 

When, under the provisions of their final treaty with the United States, his 
tribe, in the fall of 1846, moved to the reservation set apart to them, west of the 
Mississippi, he went with them and remained during the winter. The following 
spring, he started homeward. ,( At that time, the route of travel was from the 
Kansas Landing (now Kansas City), down the Missouri and Mississippi, to the 
mouth of the Ohio ; up the Ohio to the mouth of the Wabash, and thence up 
the latter stream to La Fayette — all the way by steamboats. At St. Louis, he 
was taken sick, and his disease had made such progress that, upon his arrival at 
La Fayette, he was unable to proceed further, and died there, on the 13th of 
April, 1847, at the age of thirty-seven years. He was embalmed at La Fayette, 
and his remains were brought to Huntington, where he was buried in the grounds 
now occupied by the Catholic Church. His body was subsequently removed to 
the new cemetery. At the time of the removal of his body, so perfect had beeu 
the embalming, that but little evidence of decay was manifested." 

" He was a tall, robust, and corpulent man, weighing usually about three 
hundred and fifty pounds, and generally dressed in Indian costume. There are 
two portraits of him remaining, one painted by Freeman, and one by R. B. 
Croft. About twenty months after his death, bis widow married F. D. Lasselle, 
of Fort Wayne, but lived only a short time. Of her seven children by La Fon- 
taine, but two are now living—Mrs. Archangel Engleman, in Huntington, and 
Mrs. Esther Washington, who resides in Kansas." [Thos. Roche, Huntington.] 

- The Lenne Lenapi, better known, perhaps, as the Delaware Indians, are 
entitled to take high rank in the Algonquin family, if, indeed, they are not entitled 
to be recognized as the prototype of that most extensive division of the aboriginal 
race of America. They were originally separated into three divisions^ each of 
which was designated by an insignia or emblematic totem. These divisions were 
known as the Uhami, or Turtle branch; the Mind, or wolf, and the Umlachigo^ 
or turkev. After they crossed the Alleghanies, the whole nation was called 
Lonps, or wolves, by the French, " from confounding them with the Mohicans of 
the Hudson, who appear, in the formative tribal ages, to have been descendants 
of the wolf totem." . 

"At the beginning of the sixteenth century, this tribe occupied the banks 
of a lar«e river ^flowing into the Atlantic, to which they applied the name of 
Lenapihlttuk. This term is a compound of Lenapi, the name given to them- 
selves, and ittuk, a geographical term, which is equivalent to the fcm^hsh word 
domain or territory, and is inclusive of the specific sepu t their name for a river. 
After the successful planting of a colony in Virginia, the coast became more 
subject to observation than at prior periods, by vessels bound to Jamestown with 
supplies. On one of these voyages, Lord de La Warre put into the capes of the 
river and hence the present name of both the river and the tribe." 

" The true meaning of the term Lenapi has been the subject of various 
interpretations. It appears to carry the same meaning as Tnaba, a male, in the 
other Algonquin dialects ; and the word was probably used, nationally, and with 
emphasis! in the sense of men. For we learn, from their traditions, that they 
regarded themselves, in past ages, as holding an eminent position tor antiquity, 
valor and wisdom. And this claim appears to be recognized by the other bribes 
of their lineage, who apply to them the term of Grand Father. To the Iroqmns 
they applv the word ,u,dv, and this relation is reciprocated by the latter with the 
tern, nephew The other tribes of Algonquin lineag-. the Delaware* call i.mtbr. 
„r younger brother. These names establish the ancient rank and influence ot the 


The high position iimong the Indians tribes of the lake region and the 
neighbors of -these, in the early days of their known early history, was, espceially 
after the loss of power and of caste, a source of proud remembrance. It was looked 
upon by them as a golden period in their tribal history. During this period, 
the bravery of their warriors, the wisdom of their counselors and the brilliancy 
of their warlike exploits, were themes, in after years, of oft recounted traditions. 
Then they were allied with the Iroquois and retained I Iieil ■ ancient character for prow- 
ess and enterprise. When, however, the Five Nations confederated at Onondaga, 
and were no longer engaged in petty quarrels a g themselves, the former pleas- 
ant relations ceased, and the over-confident Delaware! were made to feel the effect 
of concentrated power and consequent arrogance of their ancient allies. The 
concentrated energies of the Five Nations, thirsting for prominence among the 
North American tribes, soon set themselves about acquiring and maintaining the 
supremacy. To do tin-, aggressions were the order and ultimate conquests the 
end of movement- thus directed. Thus the Delawares lost their native inde- 
pendence in the rise of Iroquois power, and became a subordinate nation, and 
were denied the enjoj at of their ancient rights and territory. 

At the Treaty of Lancaster, Penn.. in 1744, the Iroquois denied them the 
ri"ht to participate in the privileges incident to the treaty, and refused them 
recognition as an independent nation, entitled to sell and transfer their lands. 
Canassatego. one of the Iroquois chiefs, on that, occasion, upbraided them in pub- 
lie councif for having attempted to exercise any rights other than such as belonged 
to a conquered people. " In a strain of mixed irony and arrogance, he told them not 
to reply to his words, but to leave the council in silence. He ordered them in a 
peremptory manner to quit the section of country where they then resided, and 
move to the banks of the Susquehanna." Then it was that they left forever their 
native hunting-grounds, on the banks of the Delaware, and turned their faces 
westward, humiliated and subdued, except in proud recollection of their past 
achievements. Subsequently, in 1751, they inhabited the region about Shamokin 
inl W', ii ising, on lbs Susquehanna, threatened on the one hand by the intrusive 
tread of white settlers, and the tomahawk of the Iroquois on the other. 

Again, after a few years of mixed joys and reverses, they took shelter on 
the White Water River, of Indiana. This was about the beginning of the nine- 
teenth century, and here a missionary effort was set on foot among them, which 
in the end was broken up by the interference of the Shawanoe prophet during 
the period of his popularity as a reformer. 

On the 3d of October, ISIS, at St. Mary's, Ohio, a treaty between the 
Delawares and the United States was concluded, by the provisions of which they 
ceded all their claims to lands in the States of Ohio and Indiana, under a perpet- 
ual annuity from the latter of 84.000, to provide them with a comfortable home 
beyond the Mississippi. In this treaty, the Delawares reserved the right to 
occupy their lands in Indiana for a period of three years subsequent thereto. 


or IVaix. as they appear to have been anciently known, are a branch of the 
Chippewas [Ojibwasj and trace their ancestral line back to the primitive family 
of the Algonqutns. The name, by common repute, about the middle of the sev- 
enteenth century, was understood to be a nation of tire-makers, the present form 
of the word being derived, etymologieally, from Pa-ta-wa, to expand or inflate the 
cheeks, as in the act of blowing a fire to kindle it, and mc. a nation, hence the 
name — from the apparent facility with which they kindled the council fire. 

The first notice we have of them was in 1641, when it is stated that they 
abandoned their own country (Green Bay), and took refuge among the Cbippewas, 
so as to secure themselves from their enemies, the Sioux, who, it would seem, 
having been at war with had well-nigh overcome them. In 1660, Father Allouez, 
a French Missionary, speaks of the Pottawatotuies as occupying territory 
extending from Green Bay to. the head of Lake Superior, and southward to the 
countries of the Sacs, Foxts and Miamis, and that traders had preceded him. 
Ten years later, they returned to Green Bay and occupied the borders of Lake 
Michigan on the north. Subsequently, about the beginning of the eighteenth 
century, they had traced the eastern coast of Lake Michigan, at the mouth of the 
river St. Joseph, where, and to the southward of Lake Michigan, a large body of 
them held possession toward the middle of the nineteenth century. Their occu- 
pancy of this territory by the Pottawatomies was at. first permissive, only, on the 
part of the Miamis, but, in the course of'time, their right was acknowledged by 
giving them a voice in the making of treaties, involving also the right of cession. 
Being somewhat migratory they have acquired, as a consequence, the character of 
being aggressive, while they quietly take possession of territory, the right to which 
is subsequently acknowledged. And, while it may be true that they sometimes 
occupied territory without permission, as a rule, it is true, also, that such change 
of locality is the result of forcible retirement from their own country, as was the 
fact upon their first removal from Green Bay. 

During the progress of the Nicholas conspiracy, in 1747, the Pottawatomies 
were generally on the side of the French against the English, as were the Otta- 
was. In a communication from M. de Lougueuil, Commandant at Detroit, to 
the Canadian Governor, giving in review the situation of civil and military affairs 
in Canada in 1747, (he .-tat-mi-nt i- made that "the Pouteouataniies are. as M. 
de Lougueuil believes, the best disposed; in fact, that he has no fault to find ; 
that they are, consequently, the only persons he- can confide in."' This relation 
v. i- - -ii, r.illv. thou-jh n-ii alw.-ivs. maintained between them ; the Pottawatomies, 
like most Othl r of the Indian tribes, were susceptible, and liable to be affected by- 
gifts or the promise of them ; hence, they were sometimes temporarily under the 
influence of English belts. 

While the conspiracy of Pontiac was in process of development, the Potta- 
watomies, with other tribes heretofore occupying relations of amity with the 

French, were visited by the agents of Pontiac, or by the chief in person, to secure 
their influence in the "furtherance of his plans. It required but little to arouse 
the feelings of these people in favor of their common ally, the French, and elicit 
the deep interest incident to the former relations existing between them. A 
fresh impetus was given to the current of sentiment prevailing amongst them, in 
the act of the surrender of the French garrison at Detroit to the English, which 
occurred on the 10th of November, 1760. At that ttae, the Pottawatomies and 
Wyandots were encamped below Detroit, on the opposite side of the river, and, 
seemingly, witnessed the transfer with indifference, preferring to await the issue 
of events speedily to follow. The mutteriugs of the impending storm were dis- 
tinctly heard in the early summer of 17(51. 

Early in the spring of 1763, after the garrison at Fort Miami, on the Mau- 
mee, had been surrendered to the English, the commandant was warned of the 
contemplated uprising of the Indians. A conference of the adjacent chiefs, held 
at his suggestion, developed the true situation, an account of which was com- 
municated to the English commandant at Detroit. This latter officer, resting in 
confidence upon the quiet demeanor of the Pottawatomies surrounding the post, 
discredited the report. He was soon, however, made only too conscious of his 
criminal disbelief. In the gatherings of the tribes which followed, the Pottawat- 
omies were in the front rank, anxious to participate in the coming conflict. 

On the 25th of May, of that year, the old post at St. Joseph fell into the 
hands of the conspirators, the Pottawatomies bearing Pontiac's order for the sac- 
rifice of the garrison. No further impulse was required to insure the prompt 
execution of the order. Two days later, the same determined band, in the 
further execution of orders, captured the fort at Kekionga, by the methods used 
in Indian warfare — treachery, with the accompaniments of human sacrifice. 

Passing to the results of the expedition of Gen. Wayne, in 1794, the Pot- 
tawatomies "following the course of events, participated in the conference and 
treaty at Greenville,'" in August, 1795, and allied themselves with the promoters 
of peace along the frontiers of the Northwest. They maintained that relation, 
with few exceptions, until the period of Tecumseh's effort at. confederating the 
tribes, and his subsequent alliance with Great Britain, in 1S1 2, during which 
time their peace propensities were conveniently laid aside. 

After the close of that war, amicable relations were again resumed, and, on 
the 18th of July, 1S15, the Pottawatomies concluded a treaty or peace with the 
United States, which was agreed to be perpetual. 

was a war chief of the Pottawatomies, who, in the course of his career achieved 
a somewhat enviable notoriety. His tribe, during the greater part of the last 
I century, inhabited the region to the northward of the present site of Fort Wayne. 
About the period of the war of 1812, Metea was at the zenith of his power and 
influence, among the kindred tribes. " His villages were on the Little St. Joseph 
Kiver, one on tie table-land where Cedarville now is, near the mouth, but on the 
math side of Cedar Creek ; and the other about seven miles from Fort Wayne, 
on the north side of St. Joseph, on a section of land granted by the Miami 
Indians at the treaty held in 1826, at the mouth of the Mississinewa, at Paradise 
Springs (Wabash) to John B. Bourie, which section was described so as to 
include Chop-a tie village, perhaps better known as the ' Bourie Section.' On 
the 10th of September, 1812, when Gen. Harrison's army was forcing its 
march to raise the seige which the Indians were then holding over Fort Wayne, 
Me-te-a, and a few of his braves, planned an ambuscade tit the Five Mile Swamp, v 
where Wayne's trace crossed it, and perhaps where the present county road 
crosses it, five miles southeast of this city. Having made an ambush on both 
sides of the road, in a narrow defile where the troops would have to crowd 
together, they laid in wait for the army; but Maj. Mann, a spy of Gen. 
Harrison, with a few avant courier*, discovered it in time to save the effusion of 
blood in the army. Metea, having located himself behind a tree, left his elbow 
exposed as it laid over the breech of his rifle, resting on his left shoulder. This 
Maj. Mann discovered, and instantly took aim, and firing, broke the arm of the 
brave chief; and. discovering that he had not killed him, he sprang off in hot 
pursuit after Metea, who gathered up his swinging crippled arm, fled with 
a loud 'Ugh ! ugh !' and. by the hardest effort, escaped to Fort Wayne in time 
to advise "the besieging Indians of the approach of Gen. Harrison's army, at 
which they prepared to leave, and left that afternoon. 

" The arm of the chief healed up, but the bone never knit, which left it 
entirely useless. He often told over the incident of his wound, and chase by 
Maj. Mann, and gave him great praise for being a brave and athletic man. .It 
was supposed that if Mann's men, who were with him as spies, had been as quick 
and courageous as he was himself, that Metea would have paid the penalty of that 
ambuscade with bis scalp. 

" He was a brave, generous, and intelligent Iudian, who is described by 
those who knew him well, to have been not only an orator, but a powerful reasoner 
and practical man, especially at the treaties in which he took part. In addition 

'"*He U i'ived S 'in this vicinity, as is known, from 1800 to 1827, in May of 
which hitter year, he came to his death by poison, said to have been surrepti- 
tiously administered by some malevolent Indians who were unjustly incensed at 
him for his adherence to the terms of the treaty of 1826, made at the mouth of the 
Mississinewa. The poison was -opposed to have been the root of the Mayapple. 

He, the night before hi- death w ,- .Ii vered to have been poisoned, and, in the 

the morning, found dead, his tongue having swollen'to such an extent as to have 

protruded far through hi- t nb, filling it so as to prevent breathing. He was 

then buried on the sand-hill overlooking the St. Mary's and between where Fort 
Wayne College now stands, at the west end of Wayne street and the west end of 
Berry street. * * 


" In that unmarked spot sleeps, in an undisturbed state, all that was mortal 

of the Pottawat ie chief Metea, who, for half a century or more, it is thought, 

prior to May, 1827, had been an occupant of this soil, which had been reclaimed 
with such an indifferent spirit on the part of the whites, as that they nearly for- 
get that it was once Indian territory, and since which death, on the spot where 
stood his and the Indians' beloved Ke-ki-ong-a I blackberry patch), has sprung up a 
beautiful city. But here comes a musing spirit; their day if past, their [ires are 
out ; the deer no longer bounds before them ; the plow is iii their hunting-grounds 
the as rings through the woods, once only familiar with the rifle's report and the' 
war-whoop; the bark canoe is no longer on the river; the springs are dry; civil- 
ization has blotted out that race, 

'"And with his frail breath, hig power has passed away, 
His deeds, his thoughts, are buried with his clay.' " 

— liawmris Notes. 

was another noted chief of the P ittawatomies— noted especially for his exhibi- 
tions of cruelty and revenge. He often indulged in liquor, and when thus 
excited, his appearance and manner were those of a demon, giving loose rein to his 
vicious temper. He was, however, reputed to be a brave and efficient warrior. 

" The year 1812," says Schoolcraft, " was noted as the acme of the outburst 
of every malignant feeling which appears to have been in the heart of Western 
Iudians. The black reverse of the American arms at Detroit, Hull's surrender 
— the horrid massacre of the retiring American garrison of Chicago, who were 
butchered like so many cattle on the sandy shores of Lake Michigan— the wild 
howl of the tribes along the whole frontiers, came like the fierce' rushing of a 
tornado, which threatens to destroy entire villages. Among the elements of this 
tornado was the wild samgium, or war-whoop of Wau-bun-see. He was a war 
chief of some note at Chicago, distinguished for his ferocious and brutal character." 

An exhibition of this is given in connection with a dispute between two of 
his squaws. One of them, to gain her point, went to the chief and accused the 
other of abusing his children. The accused one was peremptorily brought before 
him. Her he ordered to lie down upon the ground on her back, and directed 
the accuser to dispatch her with a tomahawk. A single blow smote the skull. 
" There," said the savage, " let the crows eat her," and left her unburied until 
persu i.lcd to do otherwise. Then he directed the murderess to bury her. This 
she did, but so shallow that the wolves dug up and partly devoured the body. 


This nil,,. 

ne of the early types of the Algonquin family, was called Santauas 
by the Iroquois, and Shawanon, by the Delawares, meaning Southern. By the 
French they were called Chouanons, occasionally Massawomoes. They were 
erratic, and, in consequence, their location was little known prior to 1608. Mr. 
Jefferson, in his " Notes on Virginia," says that in 1608, when Capt. John Smith 
had been in America about one year, a fierce war was raging against the allied 
Mohicans residing on Long Island, and the Shawanoes on the Susquehanna, and 
to the westward of that river, by the Iroquois. Capt. Smith landed in April, 
1607. In the following year, 1608, he penetrated down the Susquehanna to the 
mouth of it, where he met six or seven of their canoes filled with warriors about 
to attack their enemies in the rear. 

In 16.42, De.Lact mentions them as being then on either side of the Dela- 
ware River. Charlevoix speaks of them, in 1672, under the name of Chaouanons, 
as neighbors of the Andastes, an Iroquois tribe, south of the Senccas, and were, 
perhaps, represented at the treaty of Kensington, Penn., in 1682. They were 
parties to the treaty at Philadelphia, in 1701, which was signed by their chiefs, 
Wa-pa-tha, Lemoytungh and Pemoyajagh. [See Proud's Hist. Penn.] 

Meantime, in 1684, the Iroquois, when complained of for having attacked 
the Miauiis. justified their conduct on the ground that the Miamis had invited the 
Santanas ( Shawanons) into the country for the purpose of making war upon them 
(Iroquois). [Coldeo's Hist. Five Nations.] 

The Sacs and Foxes, originally on the St. Lawrence, claim the Shawanoes as 
of their stock, retaining traditional accounts of their emigration South. " Their 
manners, customs and language indicate a Northern origin, and upward of two 
centuries ago, they held the country south of Lake Erie. They were the first 
tribe which felt the force and yielded to the superiority of the Iroquois. Con- 
quered by these, they migrated to the South, and, from fear or favor, were allowed 
to take possession of a region upon the Savannah River ; but what part of that 
stream, whether in Georgia or Florida, is not known; it is presumed the former." 
[Hist. Ind. N. A.] 

Mr. Gallatin fixes the date of their defeat by the Five Nations, as having taken 
place in 1672. He also places them as belonging to the Lenapi tribe of the 
North — originally to the Algonquin Lenapi nation. Prior to 1672, they were in 
Eastern Pennsylvania, on the St. Lawrence and on the southern shore of Lake 
Erie — generally, it was with some neighboring tribe. Subsequently, they were 
found South, on the Ohio River below the mouth of the Wabash, in Kentucky, 
Georgia and the Carolinas. 

In 1708, they were removing from the Mississippi to one of the rivers of 
South Carolina. Says Mr. Gallatin, there was a settlement of them on the head- 
waters of the Catawba or Santee, probably the Yadkin. John Johnston, in the 
transactions of the American Antiquarian Society, says that a large body of 
them who originally lived north of the Ohio River, for some cause emigrated to 
the Suwanee River. From there they returned, under Black Hoof, about 1750, 
to Ohio. This probably gave the mime to the Suwanee (Shawnee) River. 

In the wars that took place between the French and English, commencing 
in 1755 and ending with the declaration of peace on the 10th of February, 


1763, the Shawanoes were the allies of, and assisted the French in the contest 
rendering essential service. Notwithstanding peace had been declared between 
these two belligerent powers by the -ratification of the treaty to that end the 
Indians, being dissatisfied with some of the provisions of that instrument, refused 
to abide by the terms, and continued their depredations against the settlers on 
the border. The particularly objectionable feature appears to have been that 
whereby the Canadian provinces were ceded to Great Britain. This objection 
was greatly enlarged by the acts of the British Government in buildin" so many 
forts on the Susquehanna and elsewhere, because they were thus "gradually 
""surrounded on two sides by a cordon of forts, and were threatened' with an 
extension of them into the very heart of their country. They had now to choose 
whether they would remove to the north and west, negotiate with the British 
Government for the possession of their own land, or take up arms for its defense 
They chose the last alternative, and a war of extermination against the English 
in the Western country, and even those on the Susquehanna, was agreed Spon 
and speedily commenced. * * * The contest was continued with resolute 
and daring spirit, and with much destruction of life and property, until Decem- 
ber, 1764, when the war was brought to a close by a treaty at the German Flats 
made between Sir William Johnston and the hostile Indians. Soon after the con- 
clusion of this peace, the Shawanoes became involved in a war with the Chero- 
kees, which continued until 1768, when, pressed hard by the united force of the 
former tribe and the Delawares, the Southern Indians solicited and obtained a 
peace. For the ensuing six years, the Shawanoes remained quiet, living on ami- 
cable terms with the whites on the frontiers. In April, 1774, however, hostili- 
ties between the parties were renewed." 

From that time until the close of Wayne's campaign, in 1794, and the sub- 
sequent treaty of Greenville, in August, 17D5, there was a series of conflicts, 
involving the sacrifice of many valuable lives, not of the white people onlv, but 
of the Indians, and, not the least among the latter, Cornstalk, the celebrated 
Shawanoe chief, and his son, Elenipsico, two genuine specimens of Indian nobil- 
ity. Having united in the treaty of Greenville, with the exception of those who 
fought at Tippecanoe, the Shawanoes remained at peace with the government of 
the United States until the period of the war with Great Britain, in 1812, in 
which a considerable body of them became the allies of the English. Subse- 
quently we hear little of them in the attitude of warriors. Afterward, havin" 
disposed of their interest in the lands in this vicinity, by satisfactory treaty, they 
removed westward and settled upon " a tract of country twenty-five miles north 
and south, and one hundred east and west, bounded on the oast by the State of 
Missouri and on the north by the' Kansas River, which, in point of soil, timber and 
water, is equaled by but few tracts of the same size in any country ; though there 
is, however, hardly a sufficient proportion of timber for the prairie.' The Shawa- 
noes have become an agricultural people, their buildings and farms being similar 
to those of the whites in a newly settled country, enclosed by rail fences, and 
most of them in good form, each string of fence being straight, sufficiently high 
to secure their crops, and many of them staked and ridcred. They all live in 
comfortable cabins, perhaps half, or more, being built of good hewn logs, and 
neatly raised, with outhouses, stables and barns." [Drake's Indians. 703.] 

Among the numerous Shawanoe chiefs and warriors whose history is 
particularly identified with the history of the Maumee Valley, especial attention 
is directed to the following : 


" In the campaign of Gen. Harmar, in the year 1790, Blue Jacket, an influ- 
ential Shawanoe chief, was associated with the Miami chief. Little Turtle, in the 
command of the Indians. In the battle of August 20, 1794, when the combined 
army of the Indians was defeated by Gen. Wayne, Rlue Jacket had the chief 
control. The night previous to the battle, while the Indians were posted at 
Presque Isle, a council was held, composed of chiefs, from the Miamis, Pottawat- 
omies, Delawares Shawanoes, Chippewas, Oltawas and Seuecas, the seven nations 
engaged in the action. They decided against the proposition to attack Gen. 
Wayne that night in bis encampment. * * V The counsel of Blue 

Jacket, however, prevailed over the better judgment of Little Turtle. The battle 
was fought, and the Indians defeated." 

At the treaty of Greenville, which followed as an off;ct of this formidable 
engagement. Blue Jacket conducted himself with great dignity and moderation. 
He was not among the first to act upon Gen. Wayne's proposition. He thus 
stated his reasons : " Brother, when I came here last winter, I did not mean to 
deceive you. What I promised you I did intend to perform. My wish to con- 
clude a firm peace with you being sincere, my uneasiness has been great that my 
people have not come forward so soon as you could wish, or might expect. But 
you must not be discouraged by these unfavorable appearances. Some of our chiefs 
and warriors are here ; more will arrive in a few days. You must not, however, 
expect to see a great number. Yet. notwithstanding, our nation will be well repre- 
sented. Our hearts are open, and void of deceit." At the conclusion of the 
treaty, he spoke again, as follows : il Elder Brothers, and you my brothers present, 
yon see now present myself as a war chief to lay down that commission and place 
myself in the rear of my village chiefs, who for the future will command me. 
Remember, brothers, you have all buried your war hatchets. Your brothers, tin 
Shawanoes, now do the same good .act. We must think of war no more.'' He 
kept his word. 


I Sic 

e. entitled to the highest rank among the great chiefs of that tribe, 
i Florida, during the sojourn of his people in that country, and with 

*Drako'* Tocunui-'l 



f t j > T „ for him .mi. iJ.— »"d ap P ™.iition, and was never at a 

ation his .military plans ker The ve „. 

during the greater part of his Ion}, Mo, ana w. i; 

^r Undiant had e" er^n" and as posting" inLral and happy 
graceful ndian In h. '';'".,,. , e „ vt . rse ,, ir , the traditions of his peo- 

faeulty ut express,,,,- h - . 1 ■ ( whoS(J se[tle . 

.hem-ein ' '..f .." iueliw-l nal sltueglo against a vastly superior and hourly incrciise- 

t I No s»..« Lad W salistied himself of <histru,l,,<l,a„ he *1«|«« 

ivitli the decision which formed a prominent trait in his character. ■ He was tin 

II i ,,f the *h .w ...oc i, .lion, possessing all the influence and authority 

et. . ;;,: .«*,-, wii t,™^. „„d i,,» i.r,,i„, .,..— d 

their hoslile career, in this, Teeumsel. solicited his co-operation, but the sagacious 
chieftain refused to he allied with such an enterprise. 

Tec »> much ..f the humanitarian, also, in his composition opposing poly- 
gamy and the practice of burning prisoners, and is reported to have lived „ y 
feS with one wife, and to l„ed a _s ^ c h, dren, who b th 

lrht a tteir; wi: e,,S f :ra„Ttg-^d, r dying i. Wapakonatta, at the 
advanced age of one hundred and ten years. 


whose career as a warrior is so intimately associated with the pioneer history of 
Allen County, and especially of Fori Wayne, was the tried friend of the while 
mu and sacrificed his life in attestation of that fidelity, in the month of Novem- 
ta 1812 during the progress of the memorable siege of Fort Wayne 

' From the best authorities at hand, Logan, whose Indian name was Speroioa- 
T,wba the lied. Hon., spram: from the Maohaohac tribe ot the Miawanoes, and 
w"born a. he principal city of his tribe, on Mad River, Ohio about the year 
im He is alleged to have been the nephew of Teeumseb I his sisters son), 
out the statement's probably incorrect, There are manifest reasons for the 
statement that there was no relationship existing between them. 

The first account we have of him is from Capt. Benjamin Logan, of Ken- 
tucky who bad command of an expedition of mounted men from that State 
gSst the Shawanoes on the north side of the Oh io which destroyed he 
Machachac towns on Mad Kiver in September 1786. After the captur .and 
destruction of the village, the men were greatly annoyed by arrows shot by an 
invisible hand not unfamiliar with the use of a bow and arrow. A critical inves 
ti-ation revealed a young Indian fully equipped for the work engaged in. That 
you . was the Cap.. Logan of after years. The officer in command, being 
much pleased with the courage and address of the boy, adopted him into his 
fomily, to which he became a valuable addition. Subsequently, he was 
exchanged and permitted to return to his people, but he retained the name of 
Lo»an °and continued to be the trusted friend of the white people. 

° Because of his bravery and intellectual qualities, he was promoted to the 
position of a civil chief, and acquired considerable distinction as a counselor and 
as an executive officer. , , 

In the war against England in 1812, he joined the American army, and 
acted as one of the guides to Gen. Hull in his expedition against Detroit. 
Afterward, when it became necessary as well as expedient to remove the women 
and children in the vicinity of Fort Wayne to some place of safety in Ohm, 
John Johnston, the Indian Agent at Piqua, selected Logan as the most 
person to be intrusted with so important an enterprise. He discharged that duty 
with the utmost delicacy and kindness, removing twenty-five women and children 
more than one hundred miles, those under his charge hearing testimony to his 
uniformly humane treatment, not sleeping, it is said, during the entire journey 
from Fort Wayne to Piqua. ,„,„.• »i 

Immediately after Hull's surrender at Detroit, in August, 1812, during the 
nro-fess "f the iii'emorable siege of Fort Wayne, the place was invested by some four 
or five hundred Indians, the entire garrison consisting of less than one hundred 
persons not more than sixty of whom were fit for duty, and the commanding offi- 
cer totally inefficient. Relief was necessary, and none was more readily accessible 
than the body of Ohio troops near Piqua. These had been directed toward Fort 
Wayne but te establish communication with them and make their presence here 
quickly available was an undertaking at once hazardous and critical, requiring 
both courage and tact in its successful execution, as the sequel will show. 

On the 31st of August, it having been ascertained that the Indians, in large 
force, were on the route to Fort Wayne, it was essential that the garrison 
should be made acquainted with the situation. William Oliver (afterward Major ., 
and Thomas Worthington, with Capt, Logan and a number of trusty Shawanoes, 
undertook the difficult task of communicating with the garrison. On the follow- 
ing day, when within twenty-four miles of the fort, Oliver and Logan, with Capt. 
Johnny' and Bright Horn, all- well armed and mounted, made an effort to 


to ascertain whether our troops were still in P" '■ . 

selves, they re,,,,,,, ,o their horse, —te and H ^ b, k te thefoU, juj, ^ 
time to prevent the successful execution ot a inaneuvu oi 

! nT n ' i „„;„t to he ™ined wis to inform Worthington of the situation. Oliver 

„^^ni^M~*"^^™ fiftto . b "r ,tod J b,I Td 

,u s ,w c in ,-» Thev passed the Indian lines in safety and reached 
• , doe .e as'on hut .ovine ,„ some delays, the re-enforcements 

,-le of many days, finally abandoned the siege and wi h.liew. • tllfi ,,„„ as 

S On the morning of the 22d of November, an imputation of u»&thto 

having been cast upon him by a subordinate officer, Logan to refute an 

nation as groundless as this, attended by Capt, Johnny and Bngh Horn, 

, ■ .,1 down ll.e Maomcc ... reconooiter. Suddenly, about noon, they weie sur- 

st. rlul uown uie .1, , v „Winamac.a l'ollnwa in- chief, and 

prised by some ot the enemy, among whon.wa » , 

l.'Mintl ■■ hill'lu'ccd hoi, n ' a . ...... i, i»sioii in the Ui.tisb army. Duuguvc, 

V , ■■ taken nrisoners by the latter, who started with them to the 

powered, they we, ,,, u pit ' i i. ,; 1V orable opportunity presenting 

S ks, ^isrj siw ™S 
?S Siera^ihe ^ZiSrxtZrE 

chief seemed deeply grieved at the consequences of his unprovoked assault, 
prompted, as it certainly was, from motives of jealousy. 


The origin of this conspiracy should, perhaps, date back to a period ^ more 
than 150 years anterior to the date of its ultimate consummation. ^ short time 
subsequent to the first permanent French settlements in Canada, and the inaugu 
ation'of the systematic" trade with the Indians for the "^J^^S^^ 
source of pecuniary profit, English traders came and established \ c » m F" tIon ln 
that department, the French having long enjoyed a monopoly. To make their 
competition ava i able, it was necessary to secure the confidence of those classes of 

Ens especially ,■»»:, 1 in the procurement of such furs as commanded the 

oes pr cJ n f reig„ markets. The French having first opened avenues through 
which he Indians-could make the traffic profitable, and, by methods peculiar o 
the French people, secured their entire confidence, it was extreme , drib. ttto 
divert the trade from those original channels. Falling to succeed ra their 
alterants 10 overcome the inclination of the Indians to confide in and trade Wlttt 
Sench, MS of jealousy on the part of the English traders were naturally 
cm -odorcd, and in the course of time became productive ot results 

° The d par.ment of trade in furs most lucrative was that in beaver which 
always com, minded the readiest sales. From location and adaptation some tribes 
procured the best qualities in larger quantities and with more ce rta, nty t ,» here, 
hence thev were envied by the less .successful, and their favor courted by coru- 
p ting traders. Of these! the Outaouas (Ottawas, ^J™"™^*^. 
same time were most unyielding in their adherence to the French, thus const, 
tut.u- an almost imputable barrier to the advances of the traders. With- 
,hcs,"co,„l,ti„„s pieced.,,., jealousy on the part of other tribes, perhaps in alli- 
ance with English, on the one band, and the disposition on the part ot the 
English to secure their trade by whatever means, holding, a the ""T™^ 
comrolliu" influence over powerful and ambitious tribes on the other, the process 
most keG to suggest i Jf was to induce an exertion of that insinuating .influ- 
ence in pandering to the jealousies of circumjacent tribes, with pretexts for war 
Suoh means were speedily utilized by the English, and the Ottawa^ .were .me 
with manifestations of ill-feeling from former friends, who had been wrought 
upon to thus play their part in the game of intrigue to acquire the advantage of 

trade Ne*t to the Ottawas, The Hurons were the best fur-gatherers, and occu- 
pied an enviable position in their sphere, supplying a large proportion of he 
material necessary' to successful trade, and, with the Ottawas were ear ly in , the 
interest of the French traders, and were allies, also of the Ottawas They were 
however subject to the iolluence of the Iroquois, whose kindred they were, ihat 
inn,,,,,,-,, was e^-rted so as. eventually, to divert the trade into English channels, 
„, ,|„. de, riiueul of the French interests. This left the Ottawas, the exclusively 
large traders in beaver, adhering to the French, notwithstanding the unsuccessful 

manipulating process ado, 1 by the English agents. Meanwhile, these elements 

„!• ,l'.e„„l had iheir effect on the ihmily relations of the neighboring tribes, 
involving also the relations of the French and English subordinate governments 
Feds were e„„,„dere.l anion- the tribes, and promoted by the interference ot 
their allies respectively. In the course of lime, petty war., became frequent and 
were sources of annoyance, especially to the French, and the Hurons, from being 


warm friends of the French, came to be secret, often open enemies, through the 
agency of designing co-operators. Hence the sequel. 

The immediate pretext for the conspirary of Nicholas, the Huron chief 
while it was the outgrowth of the conditions before cited— was assumed to be 
in consequence of the circulation of English belts by Iroquois, anion" (he noi"h- 
boring tribes, as a means to that end, and Nicholas, sometimes known a" S .,u,l,,.k, ■! 
from the location of his principal villages on the bay of Sandusky— a Huron 
duet of some notoriety, who, -from some disaffection, with a few followers had 
left Detroit, a few years previously, and settled on the south of Lake Erie- 
became the self-constituted agent in the movement, and fettled at the point named 
where he had better opportunities for gratifying bis ambitious designs. 

About the time of the contemplated attack upon Detroit, five Frenchmen 
who were on their return from the post on White River, were murdered by some 
Hurons from Detroit, belonging to the band of the war chief Nicholas win, h-nl 
stolen all the furs in the possession of the murdered men. This occurred on the 
iid of June, 1747. Being wholly unaware of the presence of Englishmen anion" 
the Hurons, these men were unsuspicious of danger, and had counted upon the hos- 
pitality and friendship of the Indians. It was quickly observable, however that 
their presence was unsatisfactory to these emissaries of the En-dish who instead 
of tendering to those travelers the hospitalities due to the citizens of a kindred 
nation, encouraged the village chief to seize them and appropriate their effects 
' llns was accomplished on the afternoon of the day of their arrival." Nicholas 
assumed to be greatly irritated at the audacity of these Frenchmen, as he termed 
it, m coming to his town without his permission, and as a penalty for their 
temerity, he condemned them to death, the tomahawk executing in cold bleed 
this imperative mandate. 

At this time, also, all the Indians of the neighborhood, except the Illinois 
had entered into the design of this Nicholas party to destroy all the French at 
Detroit, on one of the holidays of Pentecost, and afterward, to go to the fori and 
subject all to 6re and the sword ; which, as wc have seen, failed because of the 
plot having been discovered. The discovery, however, does not appear to have 
been the result of Nicholas' misdirection and management, but of the too great 
anxiety of some of the young men to be first in carrying out the designs of the 
leader — striking too soon. 

The purpose of the chief becoming known to the Ootnmandant of the fort 
at Detroit, all the settlers in the vicinity were directed by him to retire within the 
fort and thus, being in a place of comparative security, be better prepared for any 
new treachery. J 

Meanwhile, as soon as the Sandusky murders came to the knowledge of the 
Canadian Governor, M. de Longucuil, Commandant at Detroit, was instructed to 
require Nicholas to surrender the murderers of the five Frenchmen, that they 
might be made to expiate the crime. Messengers were accordingly sent and 
a demand made, but the demand was disregarded, the chief nianifestin" a spirit 
of defiance. The result of this condition of affairs was preparation" for the 
prompt punishment of the perpetrators anil their defiant abettors. While steps 
were being taken by the military authorities, at Detroit, to provide for the main- 
tenance of law and order, the protection of the people and preservation of the 
interests of trade, the wily chief was not inattentive to what was going on, but 
was equally active in preparing to execute his own plans, to which reference has 
been incidentally made. It was the purpose of the chief that * •' a party of 
were to sleep in the fort and houses at Detroit, as they had often 
to kill the people where he lodged. * * * A band 
issioned to destroy the French Mission, and villages 
' i, to seize the French traders in their country ; 
at the junction of the Mi 

Detroit H 

done before, and each 

of Pottawatoinies 

on Bois Blanc Island ; the Mi 

the Iroquois to destroy the French villa: 

Joseph; the Foxes to destroy the village at Green Bay; the Sioux, Sacs .,..„ 

Sarastans to reduce Michilimackinac ; while the other tribes were to destroy the 

French trading-posts in their respective countries, seize the traders and put them to 

death. This great conspiracy, so skillfully planned and arranged, would have 

been attended with a frightful loss of life, and the utter annihilation of French 

power, but for its accidental, yet timely discovery." 

The discovery was in thiswise: A murder had been committed prema- 
turely, and some of the conspirators, being fearful of the consequences, held a 
meeting, to consider what was best to be done, in a room provided for the purpose. 
During the progress of their council, while the details of the conspiracy were being 
discussed, one of the squaws had occasion to go into the garret in search of corn? 
While there, she overheard the plans and in great haste went to a Jesuit priest and 
made a statement of the matter, which was at once communicated to M. de Lon- 
gueuil, the Commandant at the fort, who took. the precautionary steps necessary 
to insure safety. Soon an additional military force was sent by the Canadian 
Governor, which had the effect to so interfere with his plans that Nicholas aban- 
doned the project of consummating his destruction of the French power. 

In the management of his diplomatic intercourse with other Indian tribes 
to secure their alliance, Nicholas was greatly assisted by the English, who, it 
appeared, bad been furnishing supplies of ammunition and military stores at San- 
dusky, and had otherwise given their influence for furtberiu" bis desi-ns. As a 
partial return for the interest taken by the English in their operations against the 
French and their Indian allies, Nicholas, on his part, offered them all the facili- 
ties in his power for the establishment of posts all along Lake Erie as far as the 
Jliaiuis River, as a means of securing and maintaining their trading advantages, 
lhe active co-operation of the English with the movements of Nicholas, was 
further shown by assurances to the effect that the Scnecas had given an English 
belt to La Demoiselle, chief of a portion of the Miamis, allies of the KnglisC, to 
procure the assassination of Sieur Denonville, French Commandant at the Miamis 
post, and of M. de Longueuil, at Detroit, having offered a reward to whomsoever 
should carry their heads to the English Governor. 
* Brioo, p. 10. 


In addition to poisoning the minds of the Miamis, and of the other tribes 
manifesting a moderate degree of friendship for the French, he was on the alert 
to cut off means of communication between the Indians and the authorities at 
Detroit, Montreal and Quebec, intercepting messengers and diverting from 
their legitimate channels these sources of information, that, in the mean time he 
could better execute his own plans, while the French authorities might, in their 
fancied security, for the time being, be unguarded. This was especially true as 
to the Miamis who, upon the request of the Canadian Covernor, had sent a 
deputation to Montreal. This deputation was met on the way by some of Nieh 
olas emissaries and induced, upon a misrepresentation of the facts, to return. 
III! T 7, , wf -i ? CV " liCT dC P ° Jra<le ' Commandant at Post Ouyatenon, 
gives the details: While he was on his way down to Montreal, with the nations 
from the Ouabaehc, passing down the Miamis River, he learned of the treachery of 
the Hurons; that .this intelligence, conjoined to other circumstances, obliged those 
nations to return to their village, where they were pretty quiet when he left them 
to return to Detroit. 

Early in July, 1747, information from the river St. Joseph disclosed the 
situation in that quarter, from which disclosures it appeared that the English had 
been endeavoring to debauch the nations belonging to that post, as well as in the 
others, by the unfavorable impressions they were trying to insinuate among them 
through the agency of the Iroquois, who were continually employing pretexts to 
bout the destruction of the French at that and adjacent posts. As a 
id Ouyatenons, especially, were in disorder, the former hav- 
by the belts of Nicholas, who had repre- 
L - the lake tribes ; hence, that they 
With this 


result, the Miam: 

ing allowed themselves to be gained 

sented to them that Detroit had been razed 

could no longer defer killing the French who'remained among' them 

, they were ready for the commission of i 

state of feel: 

excess that might suggest itself. 

No other pretext being required, they first seized eight Frenchmen, who 
were in the fort at the Miami Village, about the last of A'u-»ust 1747 These 
they did not injure, but shortly after, impelled forward by the continued interpo- 
sition of the emissaries of the English, the French fort at Ke-ki-ong-a with the 
property belonging to the French inhabitants, was seized by the disaffected 
Miamis and their confederates. The property was appropriated by the marauders 
and a portion of the buildings adjacent, together with the fort, were partially 
destroyed by fire, in the latter part of September following. Before the consum- 
mation of this last act, however, information had been conveyed to the command- 
ant at Detroit, of the situation of affairs, who immediately sent lour French dep- 
uties with messages to the Miamis, to dissuade them from the wrong course they 
were ignorantly pursuing, and induce tbem to go to Detroit, where they might 
be accurately informed concerning what had been represented to them But 
when the deputies arrived, the blow had been struck and the property destroyed 
Notwithstanding the position of things, as ascertained by these deputies, many 
of the Miamis were prevailed upon to go to Detroit, as requested. But, in the 
mean time, Nicholas bad adopted means to offset the effort of the French Com- 
mandant to rectify the impression before given out, that Detroit had been 
destroyed. He sent other belts to the Miamis, confirmatory of the first, which 
had the effect to again disconcert the pacific measures proposed, and cause the 
Miamis to return to their village, and send only two deputies to Detroit. These 
two deputies were immediately sent back by M. de Longueuil, with messa-es cal- 
culated to disabuse the nation as to the evil speeches of Nicholas. 

When Nicholas found that no permanent advantage had been tinned by his 
strategic movements; that all his plans were eventually circumvented, and that, 
with the additional force received at the Detroit post, his destruction was inevita- 
ble, he manifested a disposition to disband, and, while the Miami deputy was at 
Detroit, he, with Orontoni and Anioton, chiefs of the Huron traitors, went there 
to sue for peace and surrender the belts which had been the cause of their 
treason. Their sincerity, however, was doubted, and the actions of Nicholas 
were deemed equivocal and not free from suspicion that other motives than those 
manifested by him had induced the display. 

Having made this bold exhibition of his intentions, steps were taken to 
enforce obedience to his promises, by war, in case of his refusal, and Miki- 
nac, a trusty Outaouas chief, with a sufficient number of faithful allies, was dele- 
gated to carry these purposes of the French Commandant into execution. 

Early in the month of February, 1748, the French Commandant at Detroit, 
with a view to maintain the advantages already acquired, and deprive the enemy 
of the liberty of seizing a post of considerable importance, sent Ensign Dubuisson 
to the Miamis, at Kckionga, with instructions " to form onlyasmall establishment 
there to winter in. He has been supplied with thirty Frenchmen to maintain 
himself there, and is accompanied by thirty others, destined for the Ouyatenon 
trade, with orders to the latter to return to rejoin Sieur Dubuisson in the spring, 
so as to returo together to Detroit. It is also further shown by the foregoing 
instructions, that Sieur Dubuisson was so sent, with a sufficient escort to keep 
possession of the fort, wdiieh had been p'trl i"//// hi:rn,>l, hut not to undertake any- 
thing." [N. Y. Col. Doc. X, 150-181.] 

"The same month," says Mr. Knapp, "La Joneairc, Governor of Canada, 
ordered M. de Longueuil to give Nicholas notice that no English traders would 
be allowed among bis people, or in the western country, and, if they were found, 
they should receive notice to quit forthwith. Agreeable to these instructions, a 
French officer was sent to Sandusky, who notified Nicholas of the wishes of the 
Governor of Canada. Fiuding several English at the towns, the officer com- 
manded them to leave the country, which they promised to do. 

" Finding himself deserted by nearly all of his allies, his power for mischief 
gone, and the activity and determination of the French to suffer encroachments 
from the English no longer, Nicholas finally resolved to abandon his towns on 
Sandusky Bay, and seek a home farther west. On the 7th of April, 1748, he 
destroyed the villages and fort, and on the following day, at the head of 119 



warriors and their families, left fur White River, in Indiana."* It has boon stated 
that he subsequently moved to the Illinois country, locating on the Ohio, near 
the Indiana line, and that he died there. This statement is probably incorrect, 
as it is pretty well settled that lie remained on White River, and died near the 
forks of that stream, not far from the Wabash, in the fall of 1748, at about the 
age of fifty-eight years. 

Tims closed one of the most gigantic conspiracies of the eighteenth century, 
considered in the light of the influence brought to bear through the ingenuity of 
this chief, second, perhaps, only to that of Pontiac, which occurred a few years 
later. The result, too, is probably as much owing to the unyielding conduct of 
M. de Longueuil toward most of the tribes who had been engaged, as to the ill 
luck that continued to pursue the chief manipulator of the scheme. That the 
Miamis at this point were deeply concerned in the plot, and performed the part 
isdgned them by the destruction of the fort and the appropriation of the prop- 
erty, cannot now be doubted, but whether those acts were committed from motives 
of innate treachery, or were the consequences of too great credulity in yielding 
to the influence of flattering gifts from ihc hands of designing agents, is a ques- 
tion of more difficult solution. 

When the conspiracy of Nicholas had spent its force, and was crushed out 
by the vigilance of the French authorities, and the fort at Ke-ki-ong-a had been 
partially burned through the agency of the Hurons and disaffected Miamis, dur- 
the progress of the Indian movement, in urder to maintain the advantages acquired, 
the French Commandant at Detroit sent Ensign Dubuisson to the Miamis, as a 
means of depriving the English emissaries of the liberty of seizing the post, which 
was of considerable importance, at that point. He was directed not to rebuild the 
fort, for that was not necessary, having been only partially burned, but to so 
repair it as to make it tenable during the winter; hence, his occupancy of it was 
only for a few months, and this occupancy was with a force in the character of an 
escort sufficient to take and hold possession for the time being. 

During the following year, 1740, Capt. De Celeron, under authority of the 
King of France, conducted an expedition into the Ohio country fur the purpose of 
taking formal possession of the territory in the King's name, burying leaden plates 
dung the borders of the Ohio River, and at other points. While thus engaged, he 
visited much uf the interior country, and held frequent conferences with the Indian 
tribes of the vicinity. The expedition passed up the Miami River as far Demoiselle's 
Village, the site since occupied by Fort Laramie, it is said, from which point the route 
was overland until they struck the head- waters of the Maumee (perhaps the St. 
Mary's), and arrived at Kiskakon, the ancient site of Ke-ki-ong-a. This name, 
Kiskakon is reputed to have been taken from a branch of the Ottawas that 
came there from Miohilimackanac, where they had resided since 1G8i3. Here, 
De Celeron found a French military post, in command of M. De Raymond, who, 
it is supposed, rebuilt the fort at this point. That he did so, is not probable, 
since Sieur Dubuisson, who had been there in the winter of 1748, and so repaired 
it as to make it tenable during the period of his remaining there. This is, very 
likely, the rebuilding so often referred to in this connection. After leaving in 
the spring, he was returned in August of the same year, when re-enforcements 
and supplies were sent there for his benefit. Having been returned at that time, 
the presumption follows that lie remained therethrough the succeeding winter, after 
which M. De Raymond took command. 

When De Celeron reached this point, be halted a short period, sufficiently 
long to examine the locality with considerable care, and to provide pirogues 
for the descent of the expedition on the Maumee to Lake Erie, and the necessary 
supplies of provisions. On the 27th, part of the expedition started overland to 
Detroit, while the residue went by the way of the Maumee and Lake Erie. At 
the time of his visit here, Pied Froid (Cold-foot) was the resident chief of the 

During the succeeding years from the conclusion of the Huron conspiracy, 
there were frequent depredations committed by the Indians on the frontier settle- 

■ between 

of the 

ments; and. although 

1756, the conflict beg; 

year 1755, in which i 

hundred French soldier 

hundred Indians from the Illinois conn 

sippi to the mouth of the Ohio, passing 

the expedition ascended the latter streai 

the stores were shipped on the Maumee 

southern shore to Pre-que Isle, and tru 

July, the relief force, under command of M. de Ligneris, belonging to th 

tiuo, was totally defeated by the English forces under Sir Will" 

i the following day the _ 
followed by the surrender of Quebec, i 
The next year, however, Fort Massac w 
occupation and use by the English. 

id England was not declared until 
Braddock's defeat occurred in the 
participated. In June, 1759, three 
siliaries to the numbe» of about six 
Their route was down the Missis- 
ce up that stream to the Wabash ; 
the portage at Ke-ki-ong-a, whence 
•arricd to Lake Erie, and along the 
to Fort Machault. On the 24th of 

l Befu 



virtually t 

; Fort Niagara capitulated. Thi 

id, a short time after, of Fort Massac. 

s rebuilt and more strongly fortified, for 

il, Detroit, Michilimackanac, Sandusky, 
ph and other French posts, passed under 
security of person, property and religion 
red territory. It was at this time that 
the Ohio country." In 1762, terms of 

peace were agreed upon between France and England, taking effect in Ame 

' UNSI'IK.U.'V (h |- i>nNTiAi\ 

The effects of the conspiracy instigated by Nicholas, the Huron chief, in 
the interest of the English traders and their allies, and the consequences result- 
ing therefrom had scarcely passed when the English succeeded in overthrowing 
the French rower, and new alliances were necessary to maintain the supremacy 

of English authority among the Indians. It was then that the disaffection of 
the former allies of the French began definitely to manifest itself. When Que- 
bec had fallen into the hands of the English in September, 1759, one after 
another of the French possessions yielded to superior force, and were lost forever. 
"The trading posts and forts— Presque Isle (Erie, Peiin. ), Miami (on the Mau- 
mee), Detroit, Michilimackinac, Green Bay, etc. — were occupied during 1761) 
by British troops. English traders, English laws, English insolence and English 
dishonesty quickly succeeded to add fuel to the fires slumbering in the savage 

Soon this disaffection began to assume form, and a leader came forth equal 
to the emergency and capable of commanding a mighty influence among his 
people. " Powerful in person, commanding in presence, resolute to an extraor- 
dinary degree, possessed of a rare gift of eloquence, sagacious and subtle as a 
beast of prey, be rightfully claimed the office of chief over many tribes, and 
became the minister of vengeance for his race." This personage was Pontiac, 
ciiief of the Ottawas, whose first appearance in the character of a warrior was 
his participation in the battle of the Heights of Abraham in the vicinity of 
Quebec. The extent of his participation, however, is unknown. He was in 
sympathy with the French, whose uniform policy toward the Indians was that of 
kindness, which wrought a most powerful influence in maintaining their relations 
of fidelity. 

Had the English, even at this late period, adopted a course of policy toward 
the Indians similar to that of the French iu all their dealings with them, much 
effusion of blood might have been spared. " But then, as since, Great Britain 
acted less from the dictates of a broad humanity than from the impulse of com- 
mercial gain. In fixing the degree of responsibility for what followed, we should, 
in order to be just, weigh well the causes which impelled the savages to the war- 
path. If Great Britain could have appeased those tigers of the American for- 
ests, panting for blood, she should have done it; that she not only offered no 
conciliation, but scorned aud maltreated the untamed creatures, is to make hi r 
at least partially accountable for the conspiracy and its sad results. 

" The mutterings of the impending storm were beard early in the summer of 
1761, when Maj. Campbell, commanding at Detroit, was fully informed of a con- 
spiracy among the tribes along the lakes and iu the Ohio Valley to rise simul- 
taneously against, all the forts, to massacre the garrisons, and then to combine and 
fall upon all settlements advanced over the eastern ridge of the Alleghanies. 
Expresses were at once dispatched to all the points menaced. This betrayal of 
their plot sufficed to postpr ne the attack for that season. Sir Jeffrey Amherst 
commanded extreme caution to be used at all posts, while the Indians were treated 
with a severity and suspicion which only served to strengthen the ir bitterness of 
feeling toward their foe."* This postponement, while it delayed open proceed- 
ings, gave at the same time greater opportunity to the Indians to. perfect their 
plans. At the instance of Pontiac, embassadors were sent to all the tribes West 
and South, from every quarter receiving assurances of aid in any attempt to expel 
the English. 

"These proceedings were kept profoundly secret. Those conducting the plot 
dissimulated well. Crowds of men, women and children beset the forts and trad- 
ing posts, eager for gunpowder, traffic and liquor, but, even in their drunken 
bouts, nothing escaped their lips to betray their murderous designs. A friendly 
savage would, at times, whisper a word of warning to some white who had won his 
confidence, and enough transpired to keep the English uhVers on tin ir ^uard. The 
Commandant at Fort Miami, on the Maumee River, was thus warned early in the 
year 1763. Messengers from the East had arrived in his neighborhood to inform 
the tribes of the hour of uprising, and the Miamis had consented to murder the 

At this time (March, 1763), a neighboring Indian came to the fort and 
informed Ensign Holmes, then in command here, that "a bloody belt had just 
been received at one of the villages near by, which contemplated the massacre of 
himself and of the entire garrison, and that preparations were then making to that 
end. The situation required prompt action, and at once received it at the hands 
of Holmes, who immediately summoned a council of the neighboring Indians, and 
boldly charged them with the design of which information had been given him. 
They acknowledged the truth of the statement, but cast the blame for its instiga- 
tion upon another and more distant tribe. With the information at command, he 
procured the belt that appears to have wrought the mischievous intention, and 
with it the speech accompanying it, from one of the chiefs of the Miamis. Hav- 
ing obtained these, it was apprehended that no immediate steps would be taken 
toward the execution of the murderous design. Accordingly, on the 30th day of 
March, a few days later, he sent the following communication relative to the affair, 
to Maj. Gladwyn, commanding at Detroit : 

Fort Miamis, March 40, 1763. 

Since my Last Letter to You, wherein I Acquainted You of the Bloody Belt being 
in this village, I have made all the search I could about it, and have found it out to be 
True ; Whereon I assemble] all the Chiefs of this Nation, & and alter a long and trouble- 
some Spell wiili them, 1 obtained the Belt, with a Speech ; as you will Receive Enclosed ; 
Thi- .Affair is very timely, and I hope the News of a Peace will put n Stop to any 
further Troubles with these Indians, who are the Principle Ones of Setting Mischief on 
Foot, I send You the Belt with this Packet, which I hope You will Forward to the 

Among the Indians, at that period, their diplomatic communications were 
made by the transmission of belts having an accepted emblematic signification well 
understood by all the tribes between whom communications were to be made. 
These were usually accompanied by a speech or "talk," calculated to emphasize 
the significance of the belt. Were peace to he requested, a white belt was sent, 
while black or red bells were suggestive of war, and were transmitted by special 
messengers. The delay consequent upon the surrender of this belt was not of 
long duration, for signs of coming trouble were apparent, and practiced observers 



of these signs were on the alert,, preparing to counteract their effect or to meet 
strategy with strategy, force with force. 

" It was the office of the chiefs," says Parkman, " to declare war and make 
peace ; but when war was declared, they had no power to carry the declaration into 
effect. Ike warriors fought if they chose to do so, but if, on the contrary, they 
preferred to remain quiet, nu man coold force them to lift the hatchet. The war- 
chief, whose duty it was to lead them to battle, was a mere partisan whom his 
— J exploits had led to distiuctiou. If he thought proper, he sang his 
■dance, and as many of the young men as were dis- 
around and enlisted themselves under him. Over 
legal authority, and they could desert him at any 

war-song and danced h 

posed to follow him, gatl 

these volunteers he had 

moment with no other penalty than disgrace. 

By the 25th of April, following, the well-elaborated pit 
nearly matured, and the villages and camps of the allied tribi 
the charmed 
" several old 

; the ' 

is, they eai 
Ojibwas, with quit 
low of their arms 
fluttering in painted shirt 
' rith bell 

of Pontiac were 
were active with 
on a most extensive scale. The oracles were consulted, and 
responded with omens of success. A council was called and 
eralds of the cam]), passed to and fro among the lodges, call- 
a loud voice, to attend the meeting. In accordance with the 
'. issuing from their cabins, the tail, naked figures of the wild 
rs slung at their backs and light war-clubs resting in the hol- 
Ottawas, wrapped close in their gaudy blankets; Wyandots, 




adorned with feathe 

nd thoi 
upon the r. 


.ve and silent assembly. Each savage countenance 

e could have delected the deep and fiery passions hidden beneath 
tenor. Pipes, with ornamented stems, were lighted and passed 
id.'" 5 Before this grand council convened at the river Eucorces, 

his war-speech, ingenious iu its method and thrilling in its effects 
tatuc-like auditors. " Every sentence was rounded with a fierce 

as the impetuous orator proceeded, his auditory grew restless to 

',° ' he bloody arena of battle and bury the seal ping-knife and 

All was now ready for action, and Detroit 

from hand to hai 
Pontine deliveret 
upon his silent, s 
ejaculation ; and 

tomahawk in the body of the 
was the objective point. 

The numerous failures in executing their designs put the savages at a disad- 
vantage, and the Commandants of the several military posts on guard, lest, at any 
time, advantage might be taken of a temporary relaxation from strict duty. 
: the situation, the wily savage resorted to strategy, as an aid in over- 
; otherwise impregnable defenses. The plan agreed upon by the Indians, 
mind couucil with the Commandant con- 
pretext, he flattered himself 
admittance within the fort, 
their blankets. While in the 
the council room, Pontiac was to make a 
ere to raise the war-whoop, rush upon the 
The other Indians waiting meanwhile at 
on hearing the yells and firing within the 
nd half-armed soldiers; and thus Detroit 
2asy prey." [Parkman, I, p. 210.] Although this plan was well 
matured, it tailed in execution, as the sequel will show. 

" A beautiful Ojibwa girl, whose love for the Commander, Gladwyn, seems 
to have been only equaled by her precaution and care, was in the secret. Had 
probably attended the council, and heard the plan of Pontiac's movement to sur- 
prise and capture the fort ; and true to her sense of regard for her kind friend, 
Mai. Gladwyn, on the afternoon of the (ith of May, she found occasion to visit 
the fort, whither she quietly strolled, with anxious heart, in hopes to reveal to hrr 
" hls perilous situation, and unfold to him the movement about to he made 

Well kn 

was ihe following: '"' Pontiac would do: 

cerning matters of great importance ; and, c 
that he and his principal chiefs would gain 
They were all to carry weapons concealed be) 
act of addressing the Commandant in the e 
certain signal, upon which the chiefs were to 
officers present, and strike them dov, 
the gate, or loitering among the llou 
building, were to assail the aslonisln 
would fall ; 

upon the fort by Pontiac and his warriors— his pli 
entered, Gladwyn observed that she wore a different ai 
Her countenance assumed the expression of one in distr 
and she could say but little 


time, she stepped forth again 
might chanced to have seen hi 
her. She could not depart ft 
with the work that was 
within the 

rprise, etc. As she 
on other occasions. 
Fear and depression 
Remaining but a short 


open air, to look about, perhaps to see who 
■n her enter the fort. Sorrow still weighed heavily upon 
rt from the scene of her friend without acquainting him 
fast maturing for his death, and the destruction of all 
With this feeling, she lingered about the fort until quite 
ivhich not only attracted the attention of the sentinel, but Gladwyn himself, 
who, noticing her strange conduct, called her to him, and asked her what was' 
giving her trouble. Her heart beat heavily. She could not speak. Still her 
friend pressed her for a response, assuring her that he would not under any con- 
sideration betray her ; that, with him, whatever she told would he safe ; that no 
harm should befall her. Her fear was suddenly overcome, and her admiration for 
her friend united with an irrepressible determination to save him, even iu the midst 
of danger, as the beautiful Pocahontas had saved the life of Capt. Smith, she con- 
fidently told him all." [Hist. Fort Wayne, 65.] 

. ," To-morrow," she said, " Pontine will come to the fort with sixty of his 
chiefs. Each will be armed with a gun, cut short, and hidden under his blanket. 
1'ontric will detnaud to hold a council, and, after he has delivered his speech, he 
will offer a peace-belt of wampum, holding it in a reversed position. This will 
be the signal of attack. The chiefs will spring up and fire upon the officers, and 
the Indians in the street will fall upon the garrison. Kvery KnglUiman will be 
killed, but not the scalp of a single Frenchman will be touched." 

This revelation naturally induced the exercise of the greatest caution on the 
part of the commanding officer, who, quietly and without demonstration, pre- 
pared for the emergency. » Half the garrison were ordered under arms, and all 
the officers prepared to spend the night upon the ramparts. From sunset till dawn, 
an an xious watch was kept from the slender palisades of Detroit. * * * But, 

at intervals, 


ight wind swept 
portent to the ear— the sullen buomii 
" quavering yells, 



commanding oltiei 
Gladwyn replied tl 
length the council v, 
mats arranged for 

russ the bastion, it bore sounds of fearful 
of the Indian drum and the wild chorus 
e warriors, around their distant camp fires, danced the 
i for the morrow's work." 
ao-morrow came and with a readiness for the issue that was to thwart the 
cunningly devised plans of the chief to capture the fort and massacre the English 
citizens of Detroit. Arriving at the council-house, the Indians were at once 
given an audience. They entered and found the officers there ready I" receive 
them. A file of soldiers, fully armed and equipped for duty was present also 
Ihe reception had the appearance of a readiness for combat instead ; each officer 
with a brace of pistols in his belt and a sword at his side, was indicative to 
the mind of the savage that some well-defined purpose was underlying this unu- 
sual display. His suspicious were excited, and not without reason Pontiac was 
taken at a disadvantage, but, with a display of little concern, he asked the 
' Why do I behold so many troops in the street?" Maj. 
his men were under anus for discipline and exercise. At 
opened, and the chiefs having seated themselves upon the 
em upon the floor, Pontiac arose, holding in his hand a 
led to the Commandant his strong admiration and love for 
tne linglisli, saiing, " I have come to smoke the pipe of peace and brighten the 
chain of friendship with my English brothers "—then " he raised the belt and 
was about to give the fatal signal, and instantly Gladwyn waved his hand— and, 
as if by magic, the garrison drum beat a most stunning roll, filling the air with 
us reverberations, and startling the warriors, both within and without the fort 
into sudden dismay ; while the guards in the passage to the council-house sud- 
denly made their arms to clash and rattle as they brought them into a position 
for action, and the officers, with Gladwyn, looking sternly upon the figures of the 
| tall, strong men ' before them, had simultaneously clasped their swords, in antic- 
ipation of, and with a view to meet, if need be, the premeditated onslaught of 
1 ontiac and his warriors. The moment was one of heroic determination on the 
part of the little garrison of Detroit, and of the utmost discomfiture and cha"rin 
with the savages. The plans of the Ottawa chief were foiled, and he stood 
before the Commandant and his officers like one suddenly overcome by a terrible 

Other attempts were made to carry out the nefarious purpose, but failed in 
their execution. Finding that he could not thus succeed, the indiscriminate 
slaughter of all unprotected English in the vicinity was the order of the day, 
— literally carried out. Maj. Campbell was one of the viotitt ' 



ents of the 
able opporto- 

massacred while on a mission of peace to 'the Im 

attack was made on the fort with renewed vigor, but again 1 

only. " On the 16th of May, Sandusky fell ; on the I St of J„ 

captured ; Mieliilimaekinac on the 12th, and Presque Isle on 

also fell into the hands of the wild conspirators. After PreSqu 

runs the narrative of Parkman, " the neighboring little posts of Le Boeuf and 

Venango shared its fate, while, farther southward, at the forks of the Ohio, a 

host of Delaware and Shawanoe warriors were gathering around Fort Pitt, and 

blood and havoc reigned along the whole frontier." 

Next, the fates decreed that Fort Miami, at the junction of the Maiiruee and 
St. Joseph, should fall, and again strategy was brought into requisition, and was 
applied with better effect (ban in the instance cited at Detroit. This post was then 
under command of Ensign Holmes, who, suspecting from ' 
Indians in the neighborhood that some plot was waiting 
nity to be executed, had exercised the most vigilant care 
their conduct, more especially after the discovery of the bio 
to. Savage ingenuity and deception, however, were strr 
seemed destined to fall a victim to the perfidy of the cons 
prowling about the village and neighborhood. The 27th of May had bei 
ignated for the execution of the scheme, as villainous as it was perfidioos. In 
the mean time, the details of the plau were perfected, and only required the 
approach of that day to consummate the act. The innocent agent in the perpe- 
tration of this deed of blood and plunder was an Indian girl with whom Holmes, 
it seems, had been for a long time on intimate terms. This circumstance being 
known to the conspirators, was utilized by compelling her, under the confidential 
relations existing between her and the Commandant, Holmes, to betray that con- 
fidence by acting as a decoy. Accordingly, on the appointed day, the girl 
entered the fort and told Holmes that there was a sick squaw lying iu a wigwam 
near by, expressing a desire that he should go and see her. " Urn 
and with a view to serve and perhaps relieve the supposed sick squa 
perhaps, something of medicine ; for it would seem had there been 
the fort he would have been more likely called on by the Ensign than 
to have gone himself ), preceded by the Indian girl, lie was soon 
of' the garrison and advancing witb cautious steps in t 

xl Hole 

1 red, 

' (knowing, 



of the hut wherein lay the object of his philanthropic mission. Nearing 
ter of huts which are described to have been situated at the edgr of a 
space ; hidden from view by an intervening spur of woodland, ' the squaw d 
him to the hut wherein lay the supposed invalid. Another instant — a fei 
}— and the sudden crack of two rifles from behind the wigwam ii 

vet lull 
. elus- 
. open 

felled Holmes to the earth and echoed over tin- littl 
and inmates into momentary surprise and wonde 
Sergeant thoughtlessly passed without the fort to as 
shots. But a few paces were gained wheu, with 
was sprung upon by the savages and made a oaptivi 
soldiers within, about nine in all, to the palisades oi 
up to see the movement without, when a Canadia 
Godfri), accompanied by 'two other white men,' 
demanded a surrender of the fort, with the 

arting the guards 

In, contusion, the 
.-ause of the rioY 
i pliant shouts, he 
turn, brought the 
n, who clambered 
ue of Qodfroi i oi 
tepped defiantly forth and 
to the soldiers that if at 

of I 111' 



_.. -ouiplied with, their lives would be spared ; hut, refusing, they should ' all 
be killed without mercy.' . 

■The aspect before them was now sadly embarrassing. Without a com- 
mander, without hope, and lull of fear, to hesitate seemed only to make death 

the more certain, and the garrison »ate soon swung back on Us lunges, ine 

surrender was , iplotc, and the English rule at this point, and for a time, at 

> oas , hod i nsed to -xcrcisc its power."* 

" The Miami- at this time, were deeply embroiled in the great conspiracy, 
were the 'immediate agents, with the Pot'tawntumies and Ojibwas residing in 
the vicinity, and chiefly instrumental in the transactions resulting in the final 
drama to wliich attention has just been directed. 

In the latter part of September, 17(54, when it had bee mic apparent that 
the English garrison at Detroit was likely to receive large reinforcements, and the 
allies of the' great conspirator began gradually to weaken in their adherence o 
his cause and to make overtures for peace, on the ground, perhaps, that a treaty 
,.f ucace had been then recently established between the l'rcnch and I'.nglis i 
Kings, and that thev were not likely to receive further aid from their hrcneh 
Father Pontine, with a number of his principal chiefs, "repaired to the run 
Maumee, with the design of stirring up the Indians in that, quarter, and renew- 
i„g hostilities in the spring." The succeeding winter, however, prove, a severe 
one and much sufferin- anion'' the Indians was the consequence. In addition to 
this also the siege bad exhausted their ammunition; the fur trade bad been 
interfered with, o'r the sources of profit from it had been broken up. I hey were 
neatly in want. In the mean time, the opportunity of Sir William Johnson in 
the Indian Department of the English Provincial Government, to utilize his 
Indian policy, had come, and accordingly lie had despatched messengers to many of 
the tribes, inviting them to a great Peace Council at Niagara, which was producing 
the desired effect in allaying their hostile feelings. All these things had a ten- 
dency to relax the sinews of war on the part of Pontiac's confederates. 

At this time, sullen and intractable, Pontiac, and such of his followers as 
still adhered to him, had left Detroit and taken up their abode for the time being 
on the Maumee, a few miles from Fort Wayne. 

Not. long after this, dipt. Morris and a number of Canadians had started on a 
mission of peace to the Illinois Indians. Ascending the Maumee in a canoe, he 
was approaching the encampment of Pontine, when he was met by a party of 
about two hundred Indians, a part of Pontiac's band, who treated bun with great 
violence, while the Canadians were treated respectfully. After many demonstra- 
tions of hostile intentions, however, be was permitted to depart. Pulling his way 
up the river he arrived with his party on the seventh day after their departure, 
and made a landing within sight of Fort Miami [Ke-ki-ong-a], which, from the 
time of its capture the year previous, had been without a garrison. On the oppo- 
site side of the river, covered by an intervening strip of woods, were the -Miami 
villages. Here he met with further opposition from the Miamis, who gave bun 
a hostile reception, with the intention of completing their work by burning him 
at the stake, from the execution of which purpose they were only prevented by 
the interposition of some of the chiefs less hostile than the rest. Here, from the 
oontimied manifestations of a determination on the part of the Kickapoos and 
Shawanoes and many of the Miamis, he was dissuaded from proceeding on his 
mission to the Illinois. With this conclusion he returned by the -same route to 
Detroit, reaching there September 17. 

In the summer and fall of 1765, in executing the mission proposed by Sir 
William Johnson to induce a pacification of the hostile tribes, George Croghan 
visited various points on the Wabash. On the 1st of August, as shown by his 
journal he approached the village of the Miamis, in reference to which he make, 
'the following entry : " The Twigtwce I Twightwee i village is situated on both sides 
of a river called St. Joseph. This river, where it falls into the Miami i Maumee ) 
River, about a quarter of a mile from this place, is one hundred yards wide, on 
the cast side of which stands a stockade fort, somewhat ruinous." This is the 
English Fort (Miami) so called, better known here, perhaps, as Holmes' Fort, 
from its haying been under his command at the time of his assassination, two 
years before — in contradistinction to the French Fort on the south side of the 
St. Mary's, which, in 1697, and probably before, as it was in 1704 and 1705, was 
commanded by Sieur de Vinsienne, and later by Sieur Dubuisson. Then he 
made the following additional entry concerning this place. 

" The Indian village consisted of about forty or fifty cabins, besides nine or 
ten French houses, a runaway colony from Detroit, during the late Indian war; 
they were concerned in it, and being afraid of punishment, came to this 
point, where ever since they have spirited up the Indiaus against the En- 
glish. * * * The country is pleasant, the soil is rich and well- 
watered. After several conferences with these Indians, and their delivering me 
up all the English prisoners they hal, on the 6th of August we set out for 
Detroit, down the Miamis River in a canoe." 

In the spring of 1766, Pontiac, true to his promise, left his encampment on 
the Maumee. for Oswego, " accompanied by his chiefs and an Englishman named 
Crawford, a man of vigor and resolution, who had been appointed by the Soper- 
intendent to the troublesome office of attending the Indian deputation and sup- 
plying their wants." Reaching Oswego, where the great council was held, he 
made his great peace speech, and "scaled his submission to the English by 
acknowledging allegiance to them forever. When the treaty was concluded, 
loaded with the presents received, he is said to have returned again to the Mau- 
mee, where he spent the winter of 1766-67 living " in the forest with his wives 
and children, and hunting like an ordinary warrior." 

Toward the close of the Revolutionary war, in the month of January, 1778, 
instructions were issued by Patrick Henry, Governor of Virginia, to Lieut. Col. 
George Rogers Clarke, of Albemarle County, " to raise, with all convenient speed, 
seven couipauics of soldiers, to consist of fifty men each, officered in the usual 

manner, and armed most properly ^"a^^^S 1 ^^^ 

British fori at Ka.kaskia," and for the subjugation of the allied o ,,,.- a 1 I lid ans 
„„ the Wabash, if need be, and protect the frontier settlements r on, , lavages 
Havin- in pursuance of orders, attacked and reduced the Butish folt at 
Kaskaskia and a .pointed a commandant over it, be p rocecde; 1 to Port Vlneennes, 
which surrendered to him on the 'gait h of February, 1 1 ill. Ihis put him in pos- 
es on of 1 owe portion of the West until the close of (he Revolution. 
The Uppe Wabash, in the vicinity of the lakes, was still in the hands of the 
British It was bis purpose to have visited and taken forcible possession of these 
points also, but his attention, for the time being, was directed to other BeWs 
1 The capture of the British post at this place, however, was an enterprise 
contemplated by another than Gen. Clarke. Late in the year 1780, a hrcnehnia, 
a Kas askia, named La Balme. conceived the idea of its reduction and formed 
a plan for that purpose. Accordingly, he induced a number of persons a Kas 
kaskia, and others at Vincennes, to join him iu the expedition. iheicsudt ™» 
,„„ what had bee,, anticipated, but, on the contrary, was so great a disaster that 
few if any were left to tell the melancholy story. No official account ot it has 
ever appeared, yet, from a somewhat laborious collection of facts and incidents 
and unconnected details, with, perchance, some plausible traditions arranged by 
Mr. Charles B. Lasselle, of Logansport, Intl., than whom perhaps, there is no one 
more familiar with the data bearing upon the case, the following buef sUtement 
is taken, the most accurate at this time attainable 

Speaking of Ke-ki-ong-a, Mr. Lasselle, in his account, says : " This village 
was situated^n the banks of the St. Joseph River, commencing about a quarto 
of a mile above its confluence with the St Marys, which forms he , Mlarn. 
( Maumee I and was near -the present city of Fort Wayne. It had been a prmci- 
p town of the Mono, Indians, for a, least sixty you, before the Revolution 
and had been occupied by the French before the fall „ Canada who had I erected 
a fort at the confluence of the rivers, on the eastern side of the St. Joseph s. At 
the period of the Revolution, it had become a place of much importance— m a 
radius and military point of view, and, as such, ranked in the Northwest next to 
Detroil and Vincennes. It was, accordingly occupied as a post ;or seat for an 
official for Indian affairs by the British in the beginning of the war Col 
on the capture of Vincennes, had meditated an expedition against this place as 
well as a-ainst Detroit; and though he seems never to have abandoned the idea, 
yet he could not succeed in bis arrangements to attempt its execution. But while 
the subject was still fresh in the mind of Clarke and the inhabitants o the lower 
Wabash, another individual made his appearance to undertake wha e, en the 
d.rin" Clarke with "renter resources, did not deem prudent to venture upon. 
This was La Balme. But of him and his expedition, it may be here stated, very 
little information, of an entirely authentic shape, is within our reach. Lxceptiog 
about a dozen lines in Mr. Dillon's ■ Historical Notes,' no published account what- 
ever of this expedition has ever appeared.. Whatever may be given in this Duct 
sketch, has been obtained mostly from some of those who were 111 .part, ^eye- 
witnesses to the events, and from tradition as handed down by the old inhabitants. 
La Balme was a native of France, and had come to this country as some kind 01 
an officer, with the French troops under La Fayette, in 1; 79. We are not 
apprised whether he came to the West on his own responsibility, °r whether he 
was directed by some authority; but we find him, in the, .,11 (» I, in 
Kaskaskia. raising volunteers to form an expedition against the post of K^""'^ 
with the ulteriorView, in case of success, of extending he operations %™Uh 
fort and town of Detroit. At Kaskaskia, he succeeded in obtaining only between 
twenty and thirty men. With these he proceeded to Vincennes, whole he opened 
a recruiting establishment for the purpose of raising the number necessary for his 
object. But he does not seem to have met here with the favor and encoi nag. - 
meat of the principal inhabitants, or to have had much success in his estublis 1- 
ment. His expcdilh.n was looked upon as one of doubtful propriety, both as to 
its means and objects, and it met with the encouragement, generally, of only the 
less considerate. ' Indeed, from the fragments of an old song," as sung at the time 
by the maiden, of Vincennes, on the subject of La Balme and Ins expedition 
preserved by the writer, it would seem that plunder and fame were as much | its 
'hjeet, as of conquest for the general good. Injustice may have been done him 
in'' his respect ; but it is quite certain, from all accounts, that though a generous 
and gallant man, well calculated to be of service in his proper sphere yet he was 
t,,., reckless and inconsiderate to lead such an expedition How long 1 e renia med 
a, Vincennes, we have not now, perhaps, any means of knowing. But some time 
in the fall of that year, 1780, with, as is supposed, between fifty and sixty men, 
he proceeded up the Wabash on his adventure. 

P He conducted bis march with such caution and celerity that he appeared at 
the villa-e (here) before even the watchful inhabitants bad apprehended his 
approach: The sudden appearance of a foe. unknown as to character numbers 
and designs, threw then, into the greatest alarm, and they fled on all side . La 
Palme took posses,,,,,, of the place without resistance It was probab y, Ills 
,„ te „ 1 i„ 1 , i„ imitation of Clarke's caplore of Ka-ha-k,;, to take the vi age 
its inhabitants by surprise, and then, by nets and professions ., k.o luess ml 
h.eodsh.p, to win' then! over to the America,, cause; but the inhabitants, l.ielud- 
i„„ „„,„. si, ,„- ,., .hi I'renel. traders, totally eluded his grasp. His occupation of 
the villa-e was not of long duration. After remaining a short time and making 

,,1,10,1 , of the g Is of some of the French traders and Indians, he re .red to 

L.r.l.e Abode Creekv and encamped. The Indians having soon ascrla, ed the 
number and character of La B.lme's forces, and learning thai they were l„,n li- 
me,,, were not disposed, at first, to avenge the attack But of the traders ho 
there (here,, there were two, named Beaubien; and La Fontaine,|| who, nettled 

nvaae off wi o T a " d P ,Under 0f * e P laee > «<'" »<* disposed to let the 
A r r « ? a 0W ' The!e mC " havi "S incitc "' ,W '"dim's '" f"""w 

and athick La Balme, they soon rallied their warriors of the vill, 1 vi,-i, ,, v 

under the lead of their war chief, the Little Turtle, and. fall!,,, op,,, ,1,'n , o 
night time, massacred the entire party. Not one is said to have survived to relate 

Mme s ox7dV " r P fT"y ^ " " b ™ f a " d im P^<* accoun , L 
Balme s expedition, of which so little is known " 

the efZl T\l? " 1C , in '' m f bnS rCC ° ived by Gov ' St Clair fOT the Protection of 
he fionlior settlements in the territory northwest of the Ohio, and at the same 
time avoid war with the Wabash Indians "by all means consistently with 
security of troops and the national dignity," without which, " in the enrols,. , t 
the present indiscriminate hostilities, i, " would be •■ extremely dithoul „ 

nupossi e, to say that a war without further measures would he just „„ the part 
li!»S !V B "' ' f ' *? ™" if ^»K«l-'lVto the Indians the dUnjo' 

si ion ot tl< General Government lor the preservation of peace and the cxtens „„ 

jus protection to the said Indians, they should continue their incursions the 
United Mates will be constrained to punish them with severity." "Mai 

Iamtrainek then commanding at Post Vincennes, on the 15th of April' 

1 90 dispatched Antoine Ganielin from that point with the speech* of 
M. Uairto the tribes of the Wabash. Reaching the Indian settlements, Mr 
Gamelin delivered the speeches at all the villages bordering this stream and 
wTyne " castwai ' d as the Mlami TiIla g«. opposite the present site of Fort 

Having proceeded as far as this point, he makes the following statement of 
Ins proceedings. "The 23d of April I arrived at the Miami town. The nex 
day I got the Miami nation, the Shawanoes and Delawares, all assembled I 
gave to each nation two branches of wampum, and began the speeches, before 
the French and English traders, being invited by the chiefs to be present, having 



•?I d ''; em 7 S ?' f * :T ld be S' ad t0 have thera P«*ent, having nothing to sav 
against anybody. After the speech. I showed them the treaty concluded « 
Muskingum [Fort Hannar] between Hi- Kxecllcnoy (ioy <, f'l ;, A a 

mirions which displeased „| r toU theml^se" of ^'p^enT ffi 

was n„t to submit them to any condition, but to 'offer them .1, e neate w mh 
made disappear their displeasure. The great chief told me that hc^s pka ed 

w t : rat;,,' f lt he c ,:,d ud sooi ,7 ive t *; t- r - a ^°™— 

levin a f , ^ not t0 u "" d what ,ho Shawanoes would tell me 

™?l h"f ' " nd be ' nS "' e ^■} mhat0Ia 0f a " the " ati °'«- He said he had a bad name on account of the mischief done on the river Ohio- but 

m-S^Wfcthrt " " y0U " S ""^ lUt ^ ' he ShaWanMS ' hiS 
Subsequently conferences were held with Blue Jacket, a chief warrior of 
Shawanoes; with several Pottawatomie*; with Le Gris, of the uSri 
with he representatives of several other tribes, to whom the speeches were pre 
sentel and who gave their views and the sentiments of the- respective tribes 
concerning the questions presented for their consideration. They Jen rally 

rSTilrf %E* " ;"" iV p UalS ' bUt PrefCTred '° aWait f » r ' hM deliberation 
n „ r V , A l ,W ° P °\ ^T, Wer ° read - y ,0 " iTe a d "nnite a "swer until the 

btiL On C °th V ->ZTf v f ° u", "', T' fa 'e,-atcs a '"' "'* "»""" »"ent 

the e tribes Mm 1 T''' "f '■", ' ,?l Dml COnfereI " !e «* 8e ™ al ° f 

eftKeli „: T 7. n °\ ma,e ™"* different. Immediately thereafter he 

aken ,„ love h"' ^ t^" " 'a"'" "^ A " tl,cse Preliminary steps were 
l.ik, n to give the several Indian tribes on the Wabash ami adjacent thereto, an 

"P ."rionity to express themselves on the questions submitted and hav -ievaucs 

redrew, ,1 ,1 possible, as a means of preserving the peace before eoerciv," measures 
ueiv adopted, ,,„ th c part of the United States, to secure and maintain the rights 
ot settlers on the Northwestern frontier. 



Washington's Policy Toward the Wabash Inrlkms- 
Deteat— Details of the -Engagement. 

-Harmar's Expedition— His 

As a natural sequence of the hostile attitude maintained by the leadin" 
spin is of t he Indian tribes of the Northwest during the few years anterior to 
1 < J , just before and immediately succeeding the organization of the " Territory 
Northwest of thc Ohio, the Government of the United States, having become 
satisfied ot the nicffieieiicy of pacific measures in securing safety and peace to her 
border settlements, began to put in action the mililary power of the nation as 
the best means „ enforcing obedience to the laws of justice and humanity. 
Accordingly President Waahragton, in his message to Congress, on the 8th of 
January, 1 ,!)(), directed the attention of that body to the failure of the pacific 
measures before adopted "with regard to certain hostile tribes of Indians'' who 
were committing depredations against the inhabitants of the Southern and West- 
ern frontiers, and suggested " that we ought to be prepared to afford protection to 
tiiose parts of the Union, and, if necessary, to punish aggressors " 

Again in his second annual message, on the 8th of December of the same 
year, he submits the following : 

" It has been heretofore known to Congress that frequent incursions have 
bee,, ,„„, ,, „,,,„. settlements by certain banditti of Indians from the northwest 
w , J," ° 10 - TllCS0 ' Wlth some of the tl ' ibes dwelling on and near the 
"abash, have, of late, been particularly active in their depredations; ami bein- 
emboldened by thc impunity of their crimes, and aided by such parts 'of the 
neighboring mhos as could be seduced to join in their hostilities or afford them a 
retreat, for their prisoners and plunder, have, instead of listening to the humane 
invitations and overtures made on the part of the United States, renewed then- 
violences with fresh alacrity and greater effect, The lives of a number of vilu 
able citizens have thus been sacrificed, and some of them under circumstances 
peculiarly shocking, while others have been carried into a deplorable captivity 

' I hese aggravated provocations rendered it essential to the safety of the 
Western settlements that the aggressors should be made sensible that the Govern- 
ment ot the Union is not less capable of punishing their crimes than it is dis- 
posed to respect their rights and rewa.d their attachments. As this object could 
not be efleeted by defensive measures, it became necessary to put in force the act 
which empowers the President to call out the militia for the protection of the 
frontier. I have, accordingly, authorized an expedition in which the icmhi 
troops in that quarter are combined with such draughts of militia as were deemed 
sumcient. The event of the measure is yet unknown to me. The Secretary of 
War is directed to lay before you a statement of the information on which 
it is founded, as well as an estimate of the expense with which it will he 

Prior to the inauguration of the expedition against the Wabash Indians 
Gen. Hannar had been operating with the troops at his disposal against the 
Indians on the Soioto River, with only partial success. Upon the return of his 
forces to Fort Washington, after consultation with Gov. St. Clair, an expedition 
was fitted^ out against the Maumee towns, of which he was placed in chief com- 
mand. Simultaneously with thc formation of this expedition, a call was issued 
by the Governor to the militia officers of the adjacent States of Western Peon- 

Y "";'' ' ""- ' ;uld Kentucky, requesting the co-operation of the militia of 

those btates with the regular troops sent out under the direction of the President, 
Since it had been currently understood by the military authorities of the United 
States that the British Government was largely responsible for the Indian 
atrocities on the frontier, in order to prevent any misunderstanding of the 
purpose of the expedition on the part of the British, a letter, embodying the 
Purposes contemplated, was issued from Fort Harmar on the 19th of September. 
1790, and addressed to the British Commandant at Detroit. The following 
extract from that document fully expresses its import: 

"I am commanded by the President of the United States to give you tile 
fullest assurances of the pacific disposition entertained toward Great' Britain and 
all her possessions; and to inform you explicitly that the expedition about to be 
undertaken is not intended against the post you have the honor to command, nor 
any other place at. present in the possession of the troops of His Britannic 
.Majesty ; but is on toot with the sole design of humbling and chastising some of 
the savage tribes whose depredations are becoming intolerable, and whose cruel- 
tics have of late become an outrage, not on the people of America only, but on 
humanity ; which I now do in the most unequivocal manner. After this' candid 
explanation, sir, there is every reason to expect, both from your persODal charac- 
ter and from the regard you have for that of yoor nation, that those tribes will 
meet with neither countenance nor assistance from any under your command, and 
that you will do what in your power lies to restrain the trading, from whose 
instigations, there is too good reason to believe, much of the injuries committed 
by the savages has proceeded." 

The plan of the campaign contemplated that, of the militia, 300 were to 
rendezvous at Fort Steuben I. J, -ffcrsonville), march thence to Fort Knox (Vin- 
cennes), and joining Maj. Hamtramck in nn expedition up the Wabash from that 
point. Seven hundred, also, were to rendezvous at Fort Washington (Cincin- 
nati), and 500 below Wheeling, to join the regulars in the expedition' to the 
Maumee towns. The following was the make-up of the expedition as it was 
mustered into service : 

"The Kentuckians composed three battalions, under the Majors Hall, 
M, Mullen and Bay, with Lieut. Cnl. Commandant Trotter at their head. The 
Pennsylvanians were formed into one battalion, under Lieut. Col. Trubley 
and Maj. Paul, the whole to be commanded by Col. John Hardin, subject to the 
orders of Gen. Harmar." 



The necessary supplies having been forwarded, the regul 
were "formed into two small battalions under die immediate 
\\ yllya and Maj. Doughty, together with Cant, jfergusons co 

and throe pieces of ordnance." Tin mpico the <J ti o 

::,l f October following, with Gen. Harmaratjho neao, tue ni 
the line of march, the order o 
explained to the subordinate ofh 

moved out i 
imnnd of Maj. 

On the 
irmed in 

he details be 

, the 

On the lib, .. . 
joined by a re-enforcement of horsemen and mounted infantry IromKen- 

. v \. Tmi dr. ms were Ibnucd into two troop.; the mounted riflemen 

i ,„ ,,,, ,„v. and th» ™»" battalion of li,b. hoops were put under he 

command of Mi j. Fontaine." The whole force, as thus constituted, «« 

r . ' battSons of Kentucky militia, one battalion of Pennsylvania n dm.,, 

,, Kentucky mounted riflemen, amounting to eleven hundred am 

?! , ,1 1 , wo battalions of , ulars, amounting ,„ three hundred and 

twenty men The whole force of the expedition consisted, therefore, of fourteen 

hUnd ^t^is„!Snr;„e measure of discipline applicable * ithh, body of 
and the nature of their e = ut^wo.,d see,,, thatthe --'^ 
fare. The sequel shows, however, that 
ints, but a general want of the necessary 
ready from their prospective efficiency in 
ief difficulties in the way of success was 
litia to co-operate with the regular troops 
le effort of the genCTal officer to organize 
id, proved most unsatisfactory, and 
le inharmony of action. 

n the route pursued by the army of Gen. Bin-mar was 

ortheast. passing the Indian village of ChilKcothe, on 

the llth of October'. From there it moved in a northerly 

:,;;;,,, ' .!' cro",;::' ,i," « j z * «» , v „ >,, ™^ 

From that point the course was toward the northwest, crossing the main branch 
of the Great Miami on the 10th, afterward bearing more to the westward. On 
the 14th. when about thirty miles from the Miami owns. Col. Ha din, with one 
company of regulars and six hundred militia, was detached from he ,ma, army 
and sent forward to the Indian village, at the confluence of the rive, St Joseph s 
with the St. Mary's, forming .he Maumee. Thus dctaehincn reach ed the 
on the afternoon of the 15tb, and took possession of it, the Indians 1mm 
vacated a short time previously. In the mean time, the main army, having rui- 
ned its line of march, was in the immediate vicinity, and on the ot the 
17th crossed the Maumee to the village immediately above, on the St. Josephs 
when the work of destruction commenced. By the 21st, the chief town, live other 
villages and nearly twenty thousand bushels of corn in ear, had been destroyed. 
~Wp„„ the arrival of the main body of the army, when it had been ascer- 
tained that there were no Indians, it was contemplated for a time by Gen Harmar 
to pressforward and attaek the Indian settlements on the Wea, and at other points 
in die vicinity of -the Wabash, but the project was abandoned, and Gen. irottel, 
with three hundred Kentuekians, was sent forward to reconnoitor and scour the 
woods adjacent in search of the Indians who had so recently vacated the,,; towns. 

ustardly conduct of the militia, the troops were obliged to retreat I 
Tout sergearZnd twenty-one out of thirty moo of ,nv com,,, n . T-e 
Indians, on this occasion, gained a complete victory, having k 1 1,1. n . 

■■ ™ hundred men. which was about , l,c,r nnmbe M , „j nf Imlltia 

threw away their arms without hrmg a shot Ian tin mil I 

throw then, in disorder. Many of the Indians must have been killed, as I saw 
,„y men bayonet many of them. They fought, and died lend 

The result of the movement against the Indians on the bth and 

,nd would constitut 
almost any contingency in Indian 
there were not only incongruous 
implements of war, which detract! 
the enemy's country. One ot th 
the indisposition on the part, of th, 
which, manifesting itself especially 
and discipline the forces under hi 
operated seriously to promote inhat 
From Fort Washington the r, 
northward, be 

:pccted as it was unsatisfactory, 
least, that officers of the known courage 
Hardin, charged wilh the execution of 
vast moment, would not fail to mainti 
accomplish all within the range ni pass 
will be remembered by ihe careful re; 
and preparation for the expedition, 
fested as to give room for glare doubts 
coalesce with such unity of purpose a 
numerical force consisted in a great i 
them brought into the service involuiit 
of war, entertaining feelings of jealous 
the smaller proportion of regular iron 

eipline. and completely armed. It hai 
that "At this time, probably, the ]< 
which had been r.gticipatcd. Kid wki.l 
ton, began effectually to work mischu 
manded by Trotter and Hardin; the 
militia, hating them, were impatient v 
Again, the rivalry between Trotter a 
ments of discord and tlisobedicnee yet 
between officers and 


reasonable presumption, at 
;e of Col. Trotter and Copl- 


:ated by 

iplincd militia, many of 
ded with the implements 
st to antagonism against 
n of experience and dis- 
historian of high repute 
... .ho regulars and militia, 
lad threatened trouble at Fort Washing- 
the regular troops disliked to be com- 
rmy officers despised the militia, and the 
[or the control of Harmar and his staff. 
Hardin was calculated to make the elo- that all true confidence 
" true 

destroyed, and with it, of 


,„k plac 

This reeonnaisanee, which 
and, as a consequence, unsatisfactot 
day, placed Col. Hardin in eomman 
As on the previous day. the 
three hundred men. included thii 
and tliirty active riflemen. Leavi 
of march taken was along an Ind 
direction of the Kickapoc 
Maumee, the detaebment 
tions in read 

■■ Some 

the 18th. 

.ill,,, lit 

But though the troops had been disappointed and defeated, the houses an.l 
crops had been burned and wasted ; and upon the 21 st of ( letoher, the army com - 
„„!,,„) its Homeward march. But Hardin was not easy under his defeat, and 
the ni-ht of the 21st being favorable, be proposed to Harmar to semi Oats , 
detachment to the site of the village just dc-troyod, supposing the savages wont. 

lav,- air ly returned thither. The General was not. very willing to try further 

' lcl „,,,,„s. but Hardin urged him, and at last, obtained an order for hree hun- 
j ,| and forty militia, of which forty were mounted, and sixty regular troops , 
the former under Hardin, the latter under Maj. Wyllys. How they fared shall 
ictor in the affray. 

irehed in three columns, the federal troops m the cen- 

r — „„t e a w ;,h Maj. Wyllys and Col. Hardin in 

■ and left. From delays 

dfeotual result 
the following 
detachment, with additional instructions, 
aeed at his disposal, consisting of about 
lars forty light horse, and two hundred 
p on the morning of the 19th, the line 
i, bearing to the northwestward, in the 
wns. When' about five miles from the head of the 
is halted, aod divisions of it placed in eligible posi- 
for an attaek, should one be made. Subsequently, no enemy 
innearing, it moved forward about three miles. when two Indians were discovered 
m foot who owin" to the thick underbrush surrounding, escaped unhurt. 
says Cant. Armstrong, who closely observed the details of 
i,l had been Bred in our front, which might be considered a! 
aw where a horse had come down and relumed again ; but tin 
i. giving no orders nor making any arrangements for an attack 
erf I discovered the enemy's fires at a distance, and informe, 
.plied that they would not fight, and rode in front uf till 

el pi 

of the enemy, 


to himself. 

take a circuitous route 
ly Forks (or St. Mary's), 
and there wait until the 

Colooel still move 
•■ Some time 

the Colonel, who 


mtil fi 
tith him all the militi 
tlv killed, with twenty 
,,d i „,. surrounded I 

from behind the fires, win 

,ed the 





lie, the Colonel, retreated, 
:inued wilh me, and were 
ps. Seeing my last man 
nyself into a thicket, and 
I had an oppor- 
■d their numbers did 
ited, others armed with 

tunity of seeing the enemy pass and repass, 
not amount to one hundred men. Some v 
rifles, and the advance with tomahawks only." 

Speaking of the operations on the preceding day. Capt. A 
says- "I am of opinion that had Col. Trotter proceeded on the 18th. agreeably 
to his orders havim- killed the enemy's sentinels, he would have surprised their 
camp and, with ease, defeated them ; or, had Col. Hardin arranged his troops or 
made any military disposition on the 19th, that he would have gained a victory. 
Our defeat I therefore ascribed to two causes; the unoffieer-hke conduct of Ul. 

Hardin (who, I believe, was a brave man,, and the cowardly behavior of the 
mililia— many of them threw down their arms, loaded— and 1 believt 
except the party under my 
continued ; 

"On the Huh. Col. Hardin commanded 
about one hundred Indians about fifteen mil 


ind, fired a gun." Resuming his narrative, he 

n lieu of Col. Trotter. Attacked 
i west of the Miami village, and, 

told by Capt. Asl 
•- ' The detaehn 
ter. at the head of which I i 
my front; the militia funned 
occasioned by the militia's 1, 
( Maumee ) tin some time after 
reported to Maj. Wyllys, who 
some distance in front, where 
commanding officers of the en 
Mai. Wyllys reserved the coin 

' "'Maj. Hall, with his 
around the bend of the Omec 

attack shtmld'l'mmonc,' McMullen's battalion, Maj. Font 
and Mai Wyllys with the federal troops, who all crossed the Omee, at or near 
the common After the attack commenced, the troops were by no 
means to separate, but were to embody, or the battal.ons to support each other, as 

^T^ZtlLtion.itappeared evidential it was the intention of Maj. 
Wyllys to surround the enemy, and that if Col. Hall, who had gamed his ground 
undiscovered, had not wantonly disobeyed his orders by firing on a single Indian, 
T surprise mn-t have been complete. The Indians then fled with precipitation, 
Ihe battalions of militia pursuing in different directions 

" ■ Maj. Fontaine made a charge upon a small party of savages he t, II at 

" first fire, and the troops dispersed. The Federal troops, who were left . uns up- 

■ an easy sacrifice to much the largest party of the Indians that 

that day. It was my opinion that the misfortunes of that day 

» to the separation of the troops and disobedience of orders 

... After the Federal troops were defeated, and the firing in all quarters 

nearly ceased, Col. Hall and Maj. McMullen, with their battalions, met in the 

town and after discharging and fresh 1 ling their arms, which tank ^up abou 

,,„„■ ; ,„ hour, preceded to join the army. mi. ested. I am convinced that he 

,|„i„l ,it. if it had been kept embodied, was sufficient to have an-wered the 

,„„,., expectations of the General, aod needed no support; blrt I was informed 
•i batalio ti under Maj. Iiav, was ordered out for that purpose 

Upon the return of Col. Hardin to the camp, being dissatisfied with the 
issue of this last action, and desiring to recover advantages lost by precipitation 

„„,] of orders, requested of tie,,. ar to return with his the 

,„, in , force, to the village, and thus mako the etiteiprise a success IS* 
,.,,,1, l„.i„, short of supplies and the means of transportation, declined compliant 

„.•„,, ,|„. ,-,,,,„ s, I, o, the morning of the 23d of October, putting his army 

,,,„ , ■, ,' V ipth lie, of rr- ,rch back to Pert Washington, the exped,,,,:,; 
Invim, moved essentially, a failure in the attainment of its purpose. Ihe loss 
s S. Tiled and III .winded, the death list including Maj. Wyllys and Lieut 
Krothmgnani.of the regulars, and Ma, Foataioe Cap-s Tlior,,, Me Mutty and 
Scott. Lents. Clark and lingers, and Ensigns Bridges. fewo, , Ihgg ins and 
Thiolkeld, of the militia. The loss of the Indians was estimated as nearly equal 

ported, be 
had been 



to that of the whites. Notwithstanding this estimate, the Indian account differs 
greatly from it, fixing their loss at a far less number. Their account was as fol- 
lows : 

"There have been two engagements about the Miami towns between the 
Americans and the Indians, in which, it is said, the former had about five hun- 
dred men killed, and that the rest" have retreated. The loss was only fifteen or 
twenty on the side of the Indians. The Shawanoes, Miamis and Pottawato- 
mies were, I understand, the principal tribes that were engaged; but I do not 
learn that any of the nations have refused their alliance or assistance, and it is 
confidently reported that they are now marching against the frontiers on the 

This account, also, while it may contain many of the elements of truth, the 
reference to numbers killed of the whites, is, no doubt, as largely overstated as 
their own loss is below the truth. 

The following account of the expedition of Gen. Harmar, written in 1791, 
and published in the Philadelphia Daily Advertiser of that date, gives some 
items of information concerning that disaster, perhaps nowhere else to be found : 

" There were, at that time, seven towns on the three rivers in the vicinity of 
the confluence of the St. Joseph's and St. Mary's. The principal Miami village 
was called Omee Town, among the inhabitants of which were a considerable 
number of French traders. It stood upon the east bank of the St. Joseph's, or 
north side of the Maumee, directly opposite the mouth of the St. Mary's River, 
and had been burnt before Col. Hardin's arrival. Another Miami village of 
thirty houses stood on the bank opposite the Omee town. The Delawarcs had 
three villages; two upon the St. Mary's, about three miles from its mouth, with 
forty-live houses in all ; and the other on the east bank of the St. Joseph's, two 
or three miles from its mouth, with thirty-six houses. The Shawanoes had two 
villages, about three miles down the Maumee, and one called Chillieothe, on the 
north bank, with fifty-eight houses, and the other on the opposite side of the 
river with sixteen houses. The army burned all the houses at the different 
villages and destroyed about twenty thousand bushels of corn which they discov- 
ered in various places, where it had been hidden by the Indians, and, also, 
considerable property belonging to the French traders." 

One of the principal elements of value in this statement is that which gives 
the relative locations of the Indian towns in this vicinity, and fixes the exact 
situation of the several Omee towns — the large one on the bottom betwe< n the 
Maumee and the St. Joseph's, at the junction, and the other over on what was 
afterward called the "Wells' Pre-emption," between Spy Run and the St. 
Joseph's. Again, it renders certain the location of Chillieothe, on the north 
bank of the Maumee, three miles down, the point from which Gen. Harmar 
issued his orders on the 20th of October, 1790, before taking up the line of 
march on his return to Fort Washington. It is probable that the Delaware 
towns referred to in the account as being located on the St. Mary's River, are 
the '• Pickaway " towns of history, because the upper St. Mary's was long known 
as the Pickaway fork of the Maumee.* 

Some other interesting details of the proceedings on the 19th of October 
are given in an account somewhat amplified from that given by Col. Armstrong, 
which has been cited above. 

Col. Hardin, on the morning of that day, having pursued the same route as 
that taken by Col. Trotter on the day preceding, in pursuit of the savages, 
"finding himself in their neighborhood, he detached Capt. Faulkner, of the 
Pennsylvania militia, to form on his left, which he did at such a distance as to 
render his company of no service in the approaching engagement. Hardin's 
command moved forward to what they discovered to be the encampment of the 
enemy, which was flanked by a morass on each side, as well as by one in front, 
which was crossed with great promptness by the troops, now reduced to less than 
two hundred, who, before they had time lo form, received a galling and unex- 
pected fire from a large body of savages. The militia immediately broke and 
fled, nor could all the exertions of the officers rally them ; fifty-two of those 
dispersing being killed in a few minutes. 

" The enemy pursued until Maj. Fontaine, who had been sent to hunt up 
Faulkner and his company, returned with them, compelled them to retire, and 
the survivors of the detachment arrived safe in camp. 

11 The regulars, under Armstrong, bore the brunt of this affair, one Sergeant 
and twenty-one privates being killed on the battle-ground, and, while endeavoring 
to maintain their position, wen- thrown in disorder by the militia running through 
their lines, flinging away their arms without even firing a shot. The Indians 
killed in this affair nearly one hundred men."* 

The site of this sanguinary affair was, from the best information now attain- 
able, by observation, and deductions from the observation of others, in the south- 
western part of Eel River Township, not far distant from where Eel River crosses 
the county line. Indeed, there are numerous points within an area of less than 
three miles along Eel River, which bear unmistakable evidences of a terrible con- 
flict at arms. 

In the engagement that took place on the morning of the 22d, there are 
some details in the account before us not found in the more general yet mainly 
official narrative, from which we have before liberally quoted, but which, it is 
thought, contains some facts of interest not contained in the other. 

The detachment sent out under Col. Hardin, being formed in three divisions, 
with militia on the right, and left and regulars in the center, the left, under 
Maj. Hall, was ordered to pass round the bend and cross the St. Mary's in rear 
of the Indian towns on the St. Joseph's, and remain there until the battalion of 
Mai. McMullen, occupying the right, should cross the Maumee lower down, and 
eonnnenee the action by attacking the Indians on the east side of the St. Joseph's. 
This latter movement was to be the signal for the regulars, under Hardin and 
Wyllys, who occupied the center, with Major Fontaine's cavalry, to cross the 

Maumee at the old ford and attack the enemy in front, and thus surround the 
Indian camp. Contrary to orders, however, Maj. Hall, instead of waiting for 
the signal, permitted some of his men to fire upon a straggling Indian, which, 
alarming" the Indians in the town, they attacked the troops on the left, The con- 
sequence of this was the discovery by the Indians" of Hardin's men, on the oppo- 
site side of the Maumee, who immediately began to cross over, Major Fontaine 
being in advance. Before this division had crossed, it was attacked in front, on 
the north bank and in the river, the cavalry having, in the mean time, gained a 
footing in the borders of the town. The fight, soon became general, the Indians 
having the whites at a disadvantage. The contest was terrific, the savages being 
wrought up to a pitch of desperation seldom equaled, perhaps never excelled. 
Owing to the premature engagement on the left, the whole plan was so much dis- 
arranged that no two divisions could execute orders in concert ; thus divided, 
defeat was inevitable. Though the regulars and cavalry bore the brunt of battle 
with the most heroic fortitude, they were finally overcome by superior force. 

St. Clair 's Expedition. 

Notwithstanding the three successive expeditions of Gens. Harmar, Scott and 
Wilkinson against the Wabash Indians during the year 1700. and the first part, 
of the year 1791, had, as a whole, resulted somewhat disastrously to the warlike 
elements directing the movements of these savage hordes, there still remained a 
disposition among those near the head-waters of the Wabash and Upper Eel 
Rivers to pursue the advantages gained by them in the actions of the 18th and 
19th of October, 1790, with the forces under Gen. Harmar, in the vicinity of the 
Miami towns on the Maumee and St. Joseph. As a consequence, therefore, acts 
of hostility were not unfrequent, and a spirit akin to defiance actuated the leaders 
in their warlike demonstrations whenever opportunity offered. Hence, the Gov- 
ernment of the United States, in order to teach these hostiles an important lesson 
in the attitude maintained toward the white people and to protect the frontier 
settlements against their murderous attacks, continued to send forward expedi- 
tions into the Indian country. 

In the meantime, the Miamis, under Little Turtle, and the Shawanoe hand of 
Blue Jacket, with Buck-ong-a-he-las, of the Delawarcs, all occupying territory 
adjacent to Maumee and the lakes, had formed an alliance with detached bands 
of the Wyandots, Kickapoos, Pottawatomics, Ottawas, Chippewas, and kindred 
tribes, for more extensive operations against the military power of the United 
States, and to organize a confederacy of these tribes sufficiently formidable to 
counteract efforts of the Government to maintain its authority in the territory 
northwest of the Ohio River. In these movements, they were aided by the 
counsel of Simon Girty, a white savage, and influential agents, emissaries of the 
British Government, from whom, also, they received ammunition and supplies. 

Gov. St. Clair left Philadelphia on the 28th of March, 1701, proceeding 
thence to Pittsburgh, where he arrived on the 10th of April following. Leaving 
Pittsburgh, he repaired to Lexington, Ky. He remained there a few days, and 
then departed, arriving at Fort Washington on the 15th of May. The garrison 
there, at that time, consisted of seventy-nine commissioned officers and privates 
fit for duty. At Fort Harmar, " the garrison consisted of forty five, rank and 
file; at Fort Steuben, there were sixty-one regulars, and at Fort Knox, eighty- 
three." On July 113, the whole of the First United States Ke^imcnt, amounting 
to 299 non-commissioned officers and privates, arrived at Fort Washington, under 
orders from Gov. St. Clair, Commander in Chief. About the same time, also, 
Gen. Richard Butler, second in command, under an act of Congress at the pre- 
vious session, began to raise the number of regular troops to fill the quota. The 
recruits for this purpose were principally drawn from New Jersey. Pennsylvania, 
Maryland and Virginia. Early in September following, the main body of the 
army, under Gen. Butler, moved toward Fort Washington, halting for a time 
and erecting Fort Hamilton meanwhile. From there, inarching in the direction 
of the Miami village, a distance of about forty-two miles, where he halted again, 
and, erecting Fort Jefferson, some six miles to the southward of Greenville, in 
Darke County, Ohio. Subsequently, the army took up its line of march toward 
the site upon which Fort Recovery was afterward erected — the main army, at 
this time, November 3, consisting of about fourteen hundred effective men. 
" Here, on the bead-waters of the Wabash River, among a number of small 
creeks, the army encamped. The right wing of the army, commanded by Maj. 
Gen. Butler, and composed of the battalions under Mais. Butler. Clarke and 
Patterson, lay in front of a creek about twelve yards wide, and formed the first 
line. The left wing, composed of the battalions under Bedinger and G-uther, and 
the Second Regiment, under the command of Lieut. Col. William Parke, formed 
the second line. Between the two lines, there was a space of about seventy 
yards, which was all that the ground would allow. The right flank was supposed 
to he protected by the creek ; and the left was covered by a steep bank, a corps 
of cavalry, and some piquets. The militia marched over the creek and encamped 
in two lines, about one-quarter of a mile in advance of the main army. There 
was snow on the ground; and two rows of fires were made between Butlers and 
Darke's lines, and also two rows between the lines of the militia. While the 
militia were crossing the creek, a few Indians were seen hovering about the 
army, but they fled precipitately as soon as they were discovered. At this time, 
the Little Turtle, Blue Jacket, Buck-ong-a-he-las, and other Indian chiefs of less 
distinction, were lying a few miles distant from St. Clair's army, with about 
twelve hundred warriors, awaiting a favorable moment to begin an attack- Simon 
Girty and some other white men were with the Indiaos." 


The following is the official account of the engagement which took place on 
the morning of November 4, 1791 , and which resulted in a most disastrous defeat, 
at the point above indicated, and contains, perhaps, the most brief, as well as the 
most lucid, account of the transaction. The report is dated on the 9th of Novem- 
ber, 1791, and is in these words: 

" At this place, which I judged to be about fifteen miles from the Miami 
village, I determined to throw up a slight work, the plan of which was concerted 
that Evening with Maj. Ferguson, wherein to have deposited the men's knapsacks, 
and everything else that was not of absolute necessity, and to have moved on to 
attack the enemy as soon as the first regiment enrue up. But they did not per- 
mit me to execute either; for, on the 4th, about half an hour before sunrise, and 
when the men had been just dismissed from parade (for it was a constant 
practice to have them all under arms a considerable time before daylight), an 
attack was made upon the militia. Those gave way in a very little time, and 
rushed into camp through Maj. Butler's battalion I which, together with a part of 
Clarke's, they threw into disorder, and which, notwithstanding the exertions of 
both those officers, was never altogether remedied), the Indians following close at 
their luels. The fire, however, of the front line checked them, but almost 
instantly a very heavy attack began upon that line, and in a very few minutes it 
was extended to the second likewise. The great weight of it was directed against 
the center of each, where the artillery was placed, and from which the men were 
repeatedly driven with great slaughter. Finding no great effect from our fire, 
and confusion beginning to spread from the great number of men who were fall- 
ing in all quarters, it became necessary to try what could be done by the bayonet. 
Lieut. Col. Darke was, accordingly, ordered to make a charge with part of the sec- 
ond line, and to turn the left flank of the enemy. This was executed with great 
spirit. The Indians instantly gave way. and were driven back three or four hun- 
dred yards; but, for want of a sufficient number of riflemen to pursue this 
advantage, they soon returned, and the troops were obliged to give back in their 
turn. At this moment they had entered our camp by the left flank, having 
pushed back the troops that were posted there. Another charge was made here 
by the Second Regiment, Butler's and Clarke's battalions, with equal effect, and 
it was repeated several times, and always with success; but in all of them many 
men were lost, and particularly the officers, which, with so raw troops, was a loss 
altogether irremediable. In that I just spoke of, made by the Second Regiment 
and Butler's battalion, Maj. Butler was dangerously wounded, and every officer of 
the Second Regiment fell except three, one of which, Mr. Greaton, was shot 

through the body. 

" Our artillery being now silenced and all the ufficers killed, except Capt. 
Ford, who was very badly wounded, and more than half of the army fallen, being 
cut off from the road, it became necessary to attempt the regaining of it, and to 
make a retreat, if possible. To this purpose the remains of the army was formed 
as well as circumstances would admit, toward the right of the encampment, 
from which, by the way of the second line, another charge was made upon 
the enemy, as if with the design to turn their right flank, but, in fact, to 
gain the road. This was- effected, and, as soon as it was open, the militia took 
along it, followed by the troops, Maj. Clarke, with Ins battalion, covering the 

"The retreat, in those circumstances, was, you may be sure, a very pre 
cipitate one. It was, in fact, a flight. The camp and the artillery were aban- 
doned, but that, was unavoidable, for not a horse was left alive to have drawn it 
off had it otherwise been practicable. But the most disgraceful part of the 
business is that the greater part of the men threw away their arms and accouter- 
ments, even after the pursuit, which continued about four miles, had ceased. I 
found the road strewed with them for many miles, but was not able to remedy it; 
for, having had all my horses killed, and being mounted upon one that 
be pricked out of a walk, I could not get forward 
forward, either to halt the front or to prevent tin 
arms, were unattended to. The rout continued i 
nine miles, which was readied a little after sunset, 

"The aciion began about half an hour bel 

attempted at half 
returns of the kill 
of ths militi: M lj 
Col. Sargent, my ; 
Butler and the Vis 
the latter: and a g 

nyself; and the orders I sent 
men from parting with their 
uite to Fort Jefferson, twenty- 
re sunrise and the retreat was 
fter 9 o'clock. I have not yet been able to get 
nded; but Maj. Gen. Butler, Lieut. Col, Oldham, 
Maj. Hart and Maj. Clarke are among the former; 
leral, Lieut. Col. Drake, Lieut. Col. Gibson, Maj. 
irtie, who served me as an aid-de-camp, are anion" 1 
r of captains and subalterns in both." An after 
statement of the results of the engagement just recited, shows the loss to have 
been thirty-nine officers killed and five hundred and ninety-three men killed and 
missing. Twenty-two oflkers and two hundred and forty-two men were wounded. 
The officers killed were Maj. Gen. Richard Butler, Lieut. Col. Oldham, of the 
Kentucky militia; Majs. Ferguson, Clarke and Hart, Capts, Bradford, Phelon, 
Kirkwood, Price. Van Swearingen, Tipton. Smith, Purdy, Piatt, Guthrie, Cribbs 
and Newman, Lieuts. Spear, Warren, Boyd, McMath, Read, Burgess, Kelso, 
Little, Hopper and Lickena, Ensigns Balch, Cobb, Chase, Turner, "Wilson, 
Brooks, Beatty and Purdv. Quartermasters Reynolds and Ward, Adjt. Anderson 
and Dr. Grasson. The officer, wounded were Lieut. Cols. Gibson, Darke and 
Sargeant (Adjutant General). Maj. Butler, Capts. Doyle, Trueman, Ford, 
Buchanan, Darke and Hough, Lieuts. Greaton, Davidson, De Butts, Price, 
Morgan, McCrea, Lysle and Thompson, Ensign Bines, Adjts. Whisler and Craw- 
ford and the Viscount. Matartie. volunteer aid-de-camp to the commander-iu-chief. 
"Several pieces of artillery and all the baggage, ammunition and provisions were 
left on the field of battle and fell into the hands of the Indians. The stores and 
other public property lost in the action were valued at §32,810.75.* The loss of 
the Miamis and their confederates has never been satisfactorily ascertained; but 
it did not probably exceed one hundred and fifty in killed and wounded." 

• Report to Secretary of War, December 11, 1792. 

Atwater, in his History of Ohio, speaking of the expedition of Gen. St. 
Clair and the unfortunate results attending it, states that " there were about two 
hundred and fifty women" who accompanied their husbands, following their for- 
tunes in the experiences which the campaign brought forth. Other authorities, 
however, place the number much below bis estimate. In the slaughter conse- 
quent upon the terrible conflict, they suffered in common with the men, being 
sometimes subjected to the most unheard-of cruelties and brutal indignities, the 
bodies of the living and dead alike mutilated and deformed 

In giving an account of a visit made to the scene of this disaster, for the 
purpose of burying the dead and recovering the artillery carriages, some three 
months after, Capt. Buntin, who accompanied the expedition, says : " We left 
Fort Jefferson about 9 o'clock on the 31st (January) with the volunteers, and 
arrived within eight miles of the field of battle the same evening, and the next 
day we arrived at the ground about 10 o'clock. The scene was truly melan- 
choly. In my opinion, those unfortunate men who fell into the enemy's hands, 
with life, were used with the greatest torture, having their limbs torn off ; and 
the women have been treated with the most indecent cruelty, having stakes as 
thick as a person's arm, drove through their bodies. The first, I observed when 
burying the dead; and the latter was discovered by Col. Sargent and Dr. Brown. 
We found three whole carriages; the other five were so much damaged that they 
were rendered useless. By the General's orders, pits were dug in different places 
and all the dead bodies that were exposed to view, or could be conveniently found 
(the snow being very deep) were buried. During this time, there were sundry 
parties detached, some for our safety and others in examining the course of the 
creek ; and some distance in advance of the ground occupied by the militia, they 
found a large camp not less than three-quarters of a mile long, which was sup- 
posed to be that of the Indians, the night before the action. We remained on 
the field that night, and next morning fixed gearing horses to the carriages and 
moved for Fort Jefferson. * As there is little reason to 

believe that the enemy have carried off the cannon, it is the received opinion 
that they are either buried or thrown into the creek, and I think the latter the 
most probable; but as it was frozen over with a thick ice and that covered 
with a deep snow, it was impossible to make a search with any prospect of 

The defeat of this expedition, upon which large expectations were based by 
the Government, was a disappointment for which the public, especially the inhab- 
itants of the exposed frontiers, was illy prepared. The prevailing distrust and 
alarm had a tendency to check for a time the tide of emigration directed toward 
that region from the~Middle and Eastern States. 

In view of the situation then, the General Government, seeing that a larger, 
better provided and better disciplined force was necessary to give confidence to 
the pioneer settlers and put a quietus on the movements of the Indians along the 
Miami and the valley of the Wabash, took immediate steps toward reforming and 
re equipping the military force designed to operate on the Western frontier. 
New officers were appointed and fresh troops enlisted and properly disciplined 
before entering the field. Under this regulation, the army was to consist, of 
5,120 non-commissioned officers, privates and musicians. This formidable force, 
designed to operate as we have seen, was called the Legion of the United States, 
and subsequently placed under the command of Maj. Gen. Anthony Wayne, a 
native of Chester County, Penn. 



Wayne's Preparation— Expedition— His Victory— Building Fart Wayne, Etc. 

In the mean time, Gen. St. Clair having resigned his office of Major Gen- 
eral after his disastrous expedition, and Gen. Anthony Wayne, a Revolutionary 
officer of some celebrity, been appointed to succeed him, preparations for a con- 
tinuance of military operations against the Indians in this department were not 
in a passive state, but active, well-timed and deliberate. The experiences of the 
two preceding campaigns were such as to require a change of method and mate- 
rial ; hence, Gen. Wayne, feeling the importance of the situation and the mag- 
nitude of the issues to be determined by him in the solution of the Indian ques- 
tion, preferred " to make haste slowly," by carefully reviewing the surroundings, 
and recruiting for, and organizing of, such material as would make success a cer- 
tainty. While be was taking these preliminary steps, the Government of the 
United States was making efforts to establish treaties of peace and friendship with 
the hostile tribes of the Northwest. To do this and to acquire the information 
of the movements and designs of the Indians, messengers, with " talks," were 
delegated for the purpose, while Commissioners, invested with powers to make 
treaties, were appointed for different localities. It was enjoined on the Commis- 
sioners and messengers, especially, to assure the Indians, as a means of concil- 
iating them in regard to the question that had occasioned much of the trouble 
heretofore between them and the white people, growing out of the supposed inten- 
tion of the latter to take their lands without their consent and without paying 
for them, by the assurance that their lands should not be taken without compen- 
sation, and by renouncing all claims to any of the Indian lands which had not 
been ceded by fair treaties made with the Indians. These instructions were to 
be observed strictly, and the assurances given in the strongest and most explicit 
terms. "And, for the purpose of informing the Indians of the extent of the 
claims of the United States, the Commissioners were furnished with copies of 



of land in the North- 

the " several treaties heretofore made involv; 
western Territory. 

As an agency in the successful execution of these plans, Geu. Wayne was 
instructed, in April, 1792, to issue a proclamation, which should inform the peo- 
ple along the frontiers of the measures in contemplation, and that their duty in 
the premises required that they refrain from any and all offensive movements 
calculated to occasion distrust or give the Indians any grounds of refusal to 
accept the proposed terms, until further informed. 

Meanwhile, Maj. Hamtramck, in March, 1792, concluded treaties of peace 
with some bands of the Wea and Eel River tribes, at Vincennes, and dispatched 
messengers to many of the hostile tribes of the Wabash. Subsequently, on the 
7th of April. 1792, Gen. Wilkinson sent two messengers from Fort Washington, 
with a speech to die Indians on tho Maumce. These messengers, from their 
injudicious methods of conducting their inquiries, excited the suspicion among 
the Indians that they were spies, and when within one day's march of the main 
body of the Indian councils, they were murdered in consequence. 

Speaking of the perilous service upon which tho spies were sent, he says: 
" My messengers, Freeman at the head, left this (Fort Wellington) on the 7th 
(of April, 1792), with a 'big talk,' and are ordered to keep Harmar's trace, 
winch will be an evidence to the enemy that, they have no sinister designs in con- 
templation. If they are received, and are suffered to return, they have my direc- 
tions to come by Fort Jefferson. You must order William May to desert in a 
day or two, or must cover his departure by putting him in the way to be taken 
pnsoner, as you may deem best. I consider the first preferable in one point of 
view, that is, it would guard him effectually against any real desertion which may 
hereafter take place. It will be exceedingly difficult, if not impracticable, for 
him ever to make a second trip with success. However, that will depend, in a 
great measure, upon the fertility of his own genius. 

'■ He should cross the Miami at or near your post, and keep a due north 
course — remarking, critically, the distance, ground and water-courses over which 
he may pass, until be strikes the St. Mary's, the site of the old Mi.nni village, 
and the first town. His Hist business will lie to find out what has become of ray 
me.-sengers. If they have been received and well treated, he may authenticate 
the sincerity and good faith which has prescribed their journey. For this pur- 
pose, he must be made acquainted with the departure of the messengers, and the 
order restraining offensive hostilities. But if they have been killed or made pris- 
oners, and the enemy positively refuse to treat, then, so soon as he clearly ascer- 
tain these facts, he must return to us by the nearest and safest route. If this 
occasion should not present:, be is to continue with the enemy, and is, at all events, 
to acquire their confidence. To this end, he must shave his head, assume their 
dress, adopt their habits and manners, and always be ready for the hunt, or for 
war. His greatest object during his residence with the enemy will be to .find out 
the names of the nations which compose the confederacy now at war — their num- 
bers, and the situation of their respective towns — as to course and distance from 
the old Miami village, and the locality of each. He will discover the names, res- 
idence, interests, and influence of all the white men now connected with those 
savages, and whether the British stimulate, aid or abet them, and ia what man- 
ner — whether openly, by the servants of Government, or indirectly by traders. 
He will labor to develop what are the general determinations of the savages, in 
case the war is continued and we train pos-ession of their country. Having made 
himself master of these points, or as far as may he practicable, he will embrace the 
first important occasion to come in to us. Such will be the moment when the 
enemy collectively take the field and advance against our army, or a detachment 
of it, and have approached it within a day's march. 

"Should he execute this mission with integrity and effect, I pledge myself 
to restore him to his country, and will use my endeavors to get him some little 
establishment, to make his old age comfortable." It is subsequently shown that 
May, who was thus instructed, so far executed the trust reposed in him that he 
deserted, according to orders, and continued to reside among the Indians until the 
latter part of September, 1792, when he left them, and arrived at Pittsburgh and 
made a report to Maj. Gen. Wayne. On the 18th of August, 1794, he was cap- 
tured by the Indians, near the rapids of the Maumee. On the next day he was 
tied to a tree and shot. 

In the latter part of May following, Maj. Trueman and Col. Hardin were 
delegated to transmit the great " peace talk " of President Washington to the 
hostile Indians, which was addressed " To all the Sachems and warriors of the tribes 
inhabiting the Miami River of Lake Erie, aud the waters of the Wabash River, 
the Wyandots, Delawarcs, Ottawas. Chippewas. Pottawatomies, and all other 
tribes residing to the southward of the lakes, east, of the Mississippi and to the 
northwest of the river Ohio." The following extract from that speech well 
illustrates its tenor: ''Summon, therefore, your utmost powers of attention, and 
hear the important things which shall be spoken to you concerning your future 
welfare ; and, after having heard aud well understood all things, invoke the Great 
Spirit above to give you due deliberation and wisdom, to decide upon a line of 
conduct that shall best promote your happiness, and the happiness of your chil- 
dren, and perpetuate you and them on the land of your forefathers. Brothers: 
t lie President of the United States entertains the opinion that the war which 
uxistfl is founded in error and mistake on your part ; that you believe the United 
Slates wmis to deprive you OF your lands, and drive you out of the country. Be 
assured thai this is not so ; on the contrary, that we should he greatly gratified 
with the opportunity of imparting to you all the blessings of civilized life, of 
teaching you to cultivate the earth and raise corn ; to raise oxen, sheep, aud other 
domestic animals; to build comfortable houses, and to educate your children so as 
ever to dwell upon the land." 

When Messrs. Trueman and Hardin had fully entered upon their mission, 
they resolved to follow Harmar's trace for some distance, and then separate, 
taking different routes thenceforward, It was agreed that Hardin should go 

among the tribes in the vicinity of Sandusky, while Trueman was to visit those 
at the rapids of Maumee. In the execution of this trust, these brave officers sacri- 
ficed their lives, giving themselves as a peacc-ulfering on the altar of their country. 
The places and circumstances of their death have never been fully ascertained, 
further than those detailed in the deposition made by William May, whose career 
as a spy in the service of Gen. Wilkinson has already been noticed, on the 11th 
of October, 1792, upon bis return from his perilous expedition. An abstract of 
that deposition discloses the following facts relative thereto: 

" In the latter end of June, 1792, some Indians came on board the vessel" 
— upon which he had been placed by Capt. Matthew Elliot, his purchaser, after 
having been captured by the Indians subsequent to his leaving Fort Hamilton 
(the vessel being used as a transport for provisions, from Detroit to the rapids ot 
Maumee) — ''for provisions, among whom was one who had two scalps upon a stick. 
One of them he knew to be William Lynch's (Trueman's waiter), with whom he 
(May) was well acquainted; he had light hair. That he mentioned at once whose 
scalp it was. The other they said was Maj. Trueman's, it was darker than 
Lynch's. The manner in which Trueman was killed was mentioned by the 
Indian who killed him, to an Indian who used to go in the vessel with May, in 
his presence, and immediately interpreted, viz.: This Indian and an Indian boy, 
having met with Trueman, his waiter, Lynch, and the interpreter, William Smal- 
ley ; that Trueman gave the Indian a belt ; that, after bciug together three or 
four hours, the Indians were going to leave them. Trueman inquired the reason 
from the interpreter, who answered that the Indians were alarmed lest, there 
being three to two, they might injure them in the night. Upon which, Trueman 
told them they might tie both his servaut and himself. That this boy, Lynch, 
was first tied and then Trueman. The moment Trueman was tied, the Indian 
tomahawked and scalped him, aud then the boy. That the papers in possession 
of Truemau were given to Mr. McKee (Col. Alexander McKec, a storekeeper at 
the Rapids), who sent them by a Frenchman, called Capt. La Motte, to Detroit, 
on board the schooner of which he (May) had the charge. That, upon his 
return from Detroit to the rapids of the Maumee, he saw a scalp said to be Har- 
din's ; that he also saw a flag by the route of Sandusky ; that the hair was dark 
brown, hut don't know by what nation he was killed ; these papers were also sent 
to Detroit, on board the schooner, by Mr. Elliott (Capt. Elliott, also a storekeeper 
at the Rapids). That a Capt. Brumley, of the Fifth British regiment, was in 
the action of the 4th of November, 1791, but did not learn that he took com- 
mand; that Lieut. Sylvcy, of the same regiment, was on his march with three 
hundred Indians, but did not get up in time to participate in the action." 

On the 27th of September following, "Brig. Gen. Rufus Putnam, with 
John Heckewelder, concluded a treaty of peace and fiieudship with thirty-one 
Indians of the Wabash and Illinois tribes." 

Article I, of that treaty, provides that '.' There shall be perpetual peace aud 
friendship between all the citizens of the United States of America aud all the 
individuals, villages and tribes of the said Wabash and Illinois Indians. 

" Article II. — The undersigned kings, chiefs and warriors, for themselves and 
all parts of their villages and tribes, do acknowledge themselves to be under the 
protection of the United States of America, and stipulate to live in amity and 
friendship with them. 

" Article IV. — The United States solemnly guaranty to the Wabash aud 
Illinois nations or tribes of Indians, all the lands to which they have a just claim, 
and no part shall ever be taken from them but by a fair purchase, and to their 
satisfaction. That the lands originally belonged to the Indians; it is theirs and 
theirs only. That they have a right to sell, and a right to refuse to sell. And 
that the United States will protect them in their said just rights. 

"Article V.— The said kings, chiefs and warriors solemnly promise, on their 
part, that no future hostilities or depredations shall he committed by them or 
belonging to the tribe they represent, against the pers >ns or property of any of 
the citizens of the United States." 

This treaty was signed by thirty-one Indians of the Wabash and Illinois 
tribes. The treaty, however, being unsatisfactory in some particulars, was not 
ratified by the Senate of the United States. 

About the same time, representations of the Miamis, Pottawatomies, Dela- 
wares, Shawanoes, Chippewas, Ottawas and Wyandots, assembled in council at 
the Maumee Rapids, to consider the situation and their duty in the premises. 
Certain chiefs of the Six Nations also visited these councils in the interest of the 
United States. The result of the council was a refusal to make any treaty with 
the United States which should acknowledge any claim of the latter to lauds in 
territory northwest of the Ohio. Under these circumstances, " while offen- 
sive operations against the Northwestern Indians were prohibited by the Govern- 
ment of the United States, small war parties, composed principally of Delawares 
aud Shawanoes, continued to lurk about the white settlements on the borders of 
the Ohio, waylaying the paths, capturing horses aud cattle, killing some of the 
settlers, aud carrying others into captivity." A short engagement on the morn- 
ing of November 6, befcweeu a company of Kentucky militia, under Maj. Adair, 
and a large body of Indians, uear Fort St. Clair, resulted in compelling the detach- 
ment to retire within the watts of the fort, with the loss of six men killed and five 
wounded, the Indian loss being about the same. 

In July, 1793, a joint council of Commissioners on the part of the United 
States, Col. Simcoe, Governor of Upper Canada, a. considerable number of civil 
and military officers, and a deputation of Indians from the Maumee Council, assem- 
bled at Niagara, to confer upon the issue, presented lor the determination of the 
questions of peace between the United States and the Indian tribes of the North- 
west. At this .nee! i.e.. an explanation was given by the Indians for their failure 
to agree upon any terms of peace at Maumee, an account of which is given above. 
The reason assigned was, there was so much of the appearance of war in that 
quarter. Capt. Brandt, one of the Indian Representative-, who Lad attended the 
Maumee Council, having giveu the l 

> stated, said : " Brothers ! We have 



riven the reason for our not meeting you ; and now we request an explanation of 

lose warlike appearances. Brothers, the people you see here arc son! to repre- 

'„ . In dial nations, who own the lands north of the Ohio as her common 

; ^::-= 

h,,i ! llt^i::;;;;;;!;;: ^zz^^^ 

t^deJ to what you have said. We will take it into our serious -station, 
„„d ri,e you an answer to-morrow. Wc will intortn you when we ate- ready 
(^Brandt replied: " Brothers ! We thank you tor what you have sard You 
s ,v you will answer our speech to-morrow. We now cover up the conn, il nre. 

> 'This was on the 7th of Joly, 1793. On the following day, the council hay- 
in- been assembled for that purpose, the Commissioners gave the promiseo 

"Brothers By the appointment of the Great Spirit, we are again met 

u„„l„r. We I ell, will assist us on both sides to see and to do what IS right 

U >cs us pleasure that this meetings in the presence of "'^5^ 
English. Brothers, now li-tei, , ;; our atiswcr ,,, e a ;; 1 M- ^ 
Brothers you have mentioned . 1 ,-. ,, - f 

, ace On. " «'•"'-»»''» ,' ,, ' 1' A, M learn whether 

w^ve'auSyCrt anf SSi' an- boundary line between your lands 
aud ours. . „ . e. . 

•• Brothers, on the first point, we can but express our extreme regret 
e»y reports ,f warlike appearances on the part of the ^^^l^t 

ncils of the United States to treat you with 
; Great Chief and his Groat Council could 
r while we are sitting round the same lire 
* * * Brothers, we think it ' 

delayed our meeting at Sandusky, 
by the Great Chief and the Great Cl 
peace; and is it possible that the sir 
order their warriors to make fresh v. 
with you in order to make peace? 
not possible. Broth 

Gen. Washington, has strictly lorljuldcn 
event of the proposed treat; at Sandusky 

matiOD of his lea I warrior. If o i\ue. 

chief is bo sincere in his professions for pi 


the ab 

, his head 

, he I 

rs, we assure you that our great chief, 
all hostilities against you, until the 
shall be known. Here is the procla- 
,, that effect. But, brothers, our great 
ice, and so desirous of preventing every- 
p'rolong the war, that, besides giving 
informed the Governors of the scy- 

the above orders, t « > Ins tirau warrioi, no nas miuiim,u >oc c~ ~-~ -- 

eral States adjoining the Ohio, of the treaty proposed to be belli at Sandusky, and 
desired them to unite their power with his to prevent any hostile attempts against 
the Indians north of the Ohio, until the result of the treaty is made known. 
Those Governors have accordingly issued their orders, strictly forbidding all such 
hostilities. The proclamations of the Governors of Pennsylvania aud , irginia we 
have here in our hands. f * ' * 

" Briithers wc now come lo the second point : Whether we are properly 
authorized to run and establish a new boundary line between your lands and ours? 
Brothers, wc answer you explicitly, that we have that authority. ■ ■ Doubt- 

less l rnie concessions must be made on both sides. Some 

on vour part as well as ours." . 

' I 'it - Kyes a Shawanoe chief, answered : "Brothers, the Bostontaiis, attend. 
We have heard your words. Our fathers, the En-lisl, people, have also heard 
them. We lha.ik God that you have been preserved in peace, and that wc bring 
,,ur pipes together. The people of all the different nations here salute you. they 
rejoice to hear your words. It gives us great satisfaction that our fathers, the 
English, have heard them also." 

Durin" the progress of the conference on the next day, July 9, Capt. 
Brandt in response to the inquiry of the Commissioners as to the names of the 
nations of the chiefs as-mbled at the Mai.luee, said : " When we left it, the fol- 
lowing nations were there, to wit, Five Nations, Wyandots, Shawanoes, Dela- 

wares Mun s Miami-, Cliippowas, Oltawas, Pottawatomie*, Mmgoes, Chcrokees, 

Nauti'kokies," together with a long list of the names of chiefs. The Couiuns- 
sinners replied : " Our ears have bee, open to your speech. It is agreeable to us. 
We are ready to accompany you to the place of treaty, where, under the direc- 
tion of the Great Spirit, we hope for a speedy termination of the present war, on 

terms equally interesting and agreeable to all parties.' 

After several subsequent conferences and discussions between the Indians 
and Commissioners and between tic- In lini- tlnni-elvcs, in which about the same 

ji, f ,| ..),! „,s presented il Wi neludod. filially, 00 file 13th of AugUSt, 

170:; at tbe' of the Maunee ill -eueral council of the Wyandots, Mia.nis, 
Pottawatomie- Sliaw.itcie- and twelve .aher tribes there assembled, that if the 
United S'.ite- -In.uld a -i.e that the Ohio Biver should be and remain the pcrpct- 
nil boundary between them and the Indians, without being subject to cession Or 
purchase— they were ready to enter into a treaty of peace; otherwise, jt would 
be unnecessary to meet agi 

the United States. Your answer amounts to a declaration that you will agree to 

„o other boundary than the Ohio. The .leg malum is, therefore, at an end We 

„,e y re-ret ,1a, peace is not the result ; but, knowing the upright and liberal 

view o- the United Statcs-which, as far as you gave us an opportunity, we 

have explained to you-we trust that impartial judges will not attribute the eon- 

,,,U,: '" ul'at S'^Ss, at the month of Detroit River the 16th day of 

"_,,., p Benjamin Lincoln, 

August, u jo. Beverly Randolpu, 

Timothy Pickering, 
Commissioner* of the United Stales. 

The Commissioners left the next day, and upon their arrival at. Fort Erie, 
\„..ust 23 they immediately forwarded to Gen. Wayne, at Fort Washington, 
,1 „1. ' of lev.. i ni"ns as narrated above. The result, while not satisfac- 

tory in terms, was at least effective of much good, in the spirit manifested during 
the progress ol ^'^''^''^l"'™-, uot neell idle, but bad ulade rapid advances 
to '■'■d'thc rc'oi-'iiii/.uion of his army for the defense of the territory northwest 
ifTlic Ohio ' "lU- siicce-s however, iii bringing forward the mounted volunteers 
','■ "u il'l, ,„.,« i„,t w'h-it be bad desired; nevertheless, be continued to make 

r , []| 1\, Ml tlek ', ,\.IS HOI H II.U 111 loot «sj v , _ _ 

tb most of tile situation anticipating that, by the opculllg of spring, he would 
.,, S o far prepared as to set his alloy in motion and pi.vent ^ ^dep.aida 

^iiul Xt Green'ville K ^^ »., Miami, anil "^ *» 
his head,,,, uters On the 23d of December, he ordered Mai. Henry Burbeck, 
will, ei'di. companies of infantry aud a detachment of artillery, to take possession 
„|- the -round on which Gen. St. Clair had been deleated two years before, and 
,0 erect" a fortification there The order was duly executed, and the new post, 
was called Fort Recovery, and was situated on the head-waters of the Wabash 

''Cotemporaneons with some of the incidents already recited occurring iu the 
early part of the year 1793, whet, the Government of the United States was 

pres-ed with the consideration of questions " equa ly delicate, land disagree- 
able ' Mr. Genet. Minister Plenipotentiary ot the French Republic, a lived in 
the United Slates, aud was received with many demonstrations ol kindly regard 
for the noble part bis nation had taken in securing American independence 
Seen,- the spirit which actuated the people in those manifestations of esteem, and 
presuming much on their traetability, I.e was vain enough to attempt, in the 
l,.„„e „f the French Government, by the offer and tender ol commissions in the 
French army, to induce this people to make common cause with France in the 
prosecution of wars in which that nation was engaged. These assumptions w, „ 
,,.., boldly, and the arroe-ai.t Frenchman was made to understand that. Ins mission 
w ,- iU-timed and opposed to the policy of our Government:. Persistence how- 
ever, on his part, caused military posts and other defenses to be erected as a 
means of preventing, by force, the execution of bis purpose, in disregard ot 
■ h,. I,- ,1 inthontv of tiie Government of the United States, to enlist and trans- 
port American citizens elsewhere as auxiliaries to their military power. His 
plans failing, he was suddenly recalled. 

Wayne's expedition. 

On the 28th of July, 179-1, the regular troops under his command baying 

been joined, two days previously, by Major General Scott, will. .about sixteen 

hundred mounted volunteers, from Kentucky, Gen Wayne, with this united 

force, commenced his march for the Indian towns on the Mauinee River. At a 






The Commissioners then returned the following 

•Tii the Chiefs and W.ii'.i-.ioits in the Indian Nations assembled at 

the foot "I' the Mai MEE KaI'IDS, 

" Brother! : We have just received your answer, dated the 13th instant, to 
our speech of the 31st of last month, which we delivered to your deputies at this 
|,h. ' i on say it was interpreted to all your nations; and we presume it was 
Mlj nndei food W; tl in explicitly declared to yon that it was now impos- 
sible lo make the river Ohio the boundary between your lauds and the lauds of 

in" l ho "an "u'lJe'ol 'lien Wayne's report to the' Secretary of War, dated August 

14, 1794° He says: , , . , 

« I have the honor to inform you that the array under my command took 

nossessioo of this very important post on the morning .of the 8th instant, the 

and yidlages, with such apparent marks of surprise and precipitation as to amount 
„, a positive proof, ha, our appro.,,-!, was not discovered by them until the 
arrival of a Mr Newman, of the Quartermaster General s Department, who 
deserted from the'army near' the St. Mary's. * * * I had made 

such demonstrations for a length of time previously to taking up our line ot 

i . ; i. ,1,,,^,, ,.- to evneet our advance by tie route ot the Miami 

march as lo toil, .1 e s a, , , x, . , a 

Villages, to the left o, tow ,d 1, 1 u > - ^ ^ 

to have produced the desired c-nect, li) iliawin_ uic n . , / 

those points, and gave an opening for the army to approach undiscovered, by . 
d. : vio,!s, i. e. i„ a central direction. Thus, sir we have game!! possession of the 
..,,,„d emporium of the hostile Indians of the West, without loss of hood The 

very extensive and highly cultivated fields and gardens show the work of many 

l,.„;,l u The iie.r.-iii of th -e beiuiiliil rivers the Miauiis of the lakc[orMiiu- 
n- and Vi 1 ■/ '■ .■' '4 -' cento:,, i -Mr,,, I r a numb.r of miles both 
"i" ii r„. ,1, ; ,,l.„ .,.• nor have I ever before beheld such iiumense fields 
idcoi-niu o'vpo' o! \oer,ea li,,,',, Uinida lo Florida. Wc are now employed 
in conii.letine'a it! Stockade fort with four good block-bouses, by way of bas- 
tion- at the conflnenoe of the Angl'aize and the [Mauinee], which I have called 

II Fv.-r- il.iti'-' is now prepared for a forward move, to-morrow morning, 

toward Koche do Bout or foot of the rapids. Yet I have thought proper to 

Offer the ouoniv a la-t overture of peace, and as they have everything thai is dear 

and interestina now at stake, 1 have reason to expect that they will bsien to the 
propositions mentioned in the enclosed copy of an address "to the Dclnwarcs, 


Shawanoes, Miamis and Wyandots, and to each and every one of them, and to 
all other nations of Indiana northwest of the Ohio, whom it may concern, "dis- 
patched yesterday by a special flag [Christopher Miller], whom I sent under cir- 
cumstances that will insure his sate return, and which may eventually spare the 
effusion of iuuch human blood. But should war be their choice, that blood be 
upon their own heads. America shall no longer be insulted with impunity. To 
an all-powerful and just God I therefore commit myself and gallant army.'" 

The dispatch, addressed as above and forwarded, contained this passage: 
" Brothers — Be no longer deceived or led astray by the false promises and lan- 
guage of the bad white men at the foot of the rapids ; they have neither the 
power nor inclination to protect you. No longer shut your eyes to your true 
interest and happiness, nor your ears to this last overture of peace. But. in pity 
to your innocent women and children 1 , come and prevent the further effusion of 
your blood. Let them experience the kindness and friendship of the United 
States of America, and the invaluable blessings of peace and tranquillity." He 
invited them, also, to meet him without delay between the mouth of the Auglaize 
and the foot of the rapids of the Maumee, " in order to settle the preliminaries of 
a lasting peace." 

" The bearer of the letter left Fort Defiance at 4 o'clock, P. M., on the 13th 
of August. On the 16th, he brought an answer from some of the hostile Indians 
to G-en. Wayne, in which they said, ' that if he waited where he was ten days, 
and then sent Miller for them, they would treat with him ; but that if he advanced 
they would give him battle.' " But Gen. Wayne was not thus induced to check 
his onward march, for on the 15th he had moved his forces from Fort Defiance 
and directed them toward the British fort at the foot of the Maumee Rapids. 
Five days later, he had gained a decisive victory over the Indians ;ind their allies 
almost under the guns of the British fort, on the left, bank of the Maumee. The 
Indians had been as good as their word, but met with a reception not contem- 
plated in their pompous reply to his propositions for peace. They had fought and 
been disastrously defeated. 

The following, from Wayne's official report of his proceedings, addressed to 
the Secretary of War, and be'aring date at Fort Defiance, August 28, 1794, will 
give the reader an accurate idea of his efforts at conquering a peace: 

•' Sm — It is with infinite pleasure that I now announce to you the brilliant 
success of the Federal army under my commaud, in a general action with the 
combined force of the hostile Indians and a considerable number of the volun- 
teers and militia of Detroit, on the 20th instant, on the banks of the Maumee, 
in the vicinity of the British post and garrison, at the foot of the rapids. The 
army advanced from this place I Fort Defiance), on the 15th, and arrived at Roche 
" de Bout on the 18th ; the 19th was employed in making a temporary post (Fort 
Deposit), for the reception of our stores and baggage, and in reeoimoitering the 
position of the enemy, who were encamped behind a thick brushy wood and the 
British fort. 

" At 8 o'clock, on the morning of the 20th, the army again advanced in 
columns, agreeably to the standing order of march, the legion on the right, its 
flank covered by the Maumee; one brigade of mounted volunteers on the left, 
under Brig. Gen. Todd, and the other in the rear, under Brig. Gen. Barbee. A 
select battalion of mounted volunteers moved in front of the legion, commanded 
by Maj. Price, who was directed to keep sufficiently advanced, so as to give timely 
notice for the troops to form in case of action, it being yet undetermined whether 
the Indians would decide for peace or war. 

" After advancing about five miles, Maj. Price's corps received so severe a 
fire from the enemy, who were secreted in the woods and high grass, as to compel 
them to retreat. The legion was immediately formed in two lines, principally in 
a close, thick wood, winch extended for miles on our left, and for a very consider- 
able distance in front, the ground being covered "with old, fallen timber, probably 
occasioned by a tornado, which rendered it impracticable for the cavalry to act with 
effect, and afforded the enemy the most favorable covert for their mode of war- 
fare. The savages were formed in three lines, within supporting distance of each 
other, and extending for near two miles, at right angles with the river. I soon 
discovered from the weight of the fire and the extent of their lines, that the 
enemy were in full force in front, in possession of their favorite ground, and endeav- 
oring to turn our left flank. I therefore gave orders for the second line to 
advance and support the first; and directed Maj. lien. Scott to gain and turn the 
right flank of the savages, with the whole of the mounted volunteers, by a cir- 
cuitous route ; at the same time, I ordered the front line to advance and charge 
with trailed arms, and rouse the Indians from their coverts at the point of the 
bayonet, and, when up, to deliver a close and well-directed fire on their backs, fol- 
lowed by a brisk charge, so as not to give them time to load again. 

" I also ordered Capt. Mis Campbell, who commanded the legionary cavalry, 
to turn the left flank of the enemy nest the river, which afforded a favorable 
field for that corps to act in. All these orders were obeyed with spirit and promp- 
titude ; but such was the impetuosity of the charge by the first line of infantry, 
that the Indians and Canadian militia and volunteers were driven from all their 
coverts in so short a time, that, although every possible exertion was used by the 
officers of the second line of the legion, and by Gens. Scott, Todd and Barbee, of 
the mounted volunteers, to gain their proper positions, but part of each could get 
up in season to participate in the action ; the enemy being driven, in the course 
of one hour, more than two miles through the thick woods already mentioned by 
less than one-half their numbers. From every account, the enemy amounted to 
two thousand combatants. The troops actually engaged against them were short 
of nine hundred. This horde of savages, with their allies, abandoned themselves 
to flight, and dispersed with (error ami dismay, leaving our \ ictorious army in full 
and quiet possession of the field of battle, which terminated under the influence 
of the guns of the British garrison, as you will observe by the inclosed 
correspondence between Maj. Campbell, the commandant, and myself, upon the 

" The bravery and conduct of every officer belonging to the army, from the 
Generals down to the ensigns, merit my highest approbation. There were, how- 
ever, some whose rank and situations placed their conduct in a very conspicuous 
point of view, and which I observed with pleasure and the most lively gratitude. 
Among whom, I must beg leave to mention Brig. Gen. Wilkinson and Col. Ham- 
tramck, the commandants of the right and left wings of the legion, whose brave 
example inspired the troops. To these, I must add the names of my faithful and 
gallant Aids-de-Camp, Capts. De Butt and T. Lewis; and Lieut. Harrison, who, 
with the Adjutant General, Maj. Mills, rendered the most essential service by com- 
municating my orders in every direction, and, by their conduct and bravery, excit- 
ing the troops to press for victory. Lieut. Covington, upon whom the command 
of the cavalry now devolved, cut down two savages with his own hand ; and Lieut. 
Webb, one, in turning the enemy's left flank. The wounds received by Capt. 
Slough and Prior, and Lieut. Campbell Smith, an extra Aid-de-Camp to Gen. 
Wilkinson, of the legionary infantry, and Capt. Van Rensselaer, of the dragoons, 
Capt. Rawlins, Lieut. McKenney, and Ensign Duncan, of the mounted volunteers, 
bear honorable testimony of their bravery and conduct. 

"Capts. H. Lewis and Brock, with their companies of light infantry, had to 
sustain an unequal fire for some time, which they supported with fortitude. In 
fact, every officer and soldier who had an opportunity to come into action 
displayed that true bravery which will always insure success. And here permit 
me to declare that I never discovered more true spirit and anxiety for action 
than appeared to pervade the whole of the mounted volunteers; and I am well 
persuaded that, had the enemy maintained their favorite ground for one-half hour 
longer, they would have most severely felt the prowess of that corps. But, while 
I pay this tribute to the living, I must not neglect the gallant dead, among whom 
we have to lament the early death of those worthy and brave officers, Capt. Mis 
Campbell, of the dragoons, and Lieut. Fowles, of the light infantry, of the 
legion who tell in the first charge. 

"We remained three days and nights on the banks of the Maumee in front 
of the field of battle, during which time all the houses and cornfields were con- 
sumed and destroyed for a considerable distance both above and below Fort 
Miami as well as within pistol-shot of the garrison, who were compelled to remain 
tacit spectators to this general destruction and conflagration, among which were 
the houses, stores and property of Col. McKee, the British Indian agent and 
principal stimulator of the war now existing between the United States and the 

"The army returned to this place (Fort Defiance) on the 27th, by easy 
marches, laying waste the villages and cornfields for fifty miles on each side of 
the Maumee. There remain yet a great number of villages and a great quantity 
of corn to be consumed or destroyed upon Auglaize and the Maumee about this 
place, which will be effected in the course of a few days. In the interim, we 
shall improve Fort Defiance; and, as soon as the escort returns with the neces- 
sary supplies from Greenville and Fort Recovery, the army will proceed to the 
Miami villages in order to accomplish the object of the campaign. It is, how- 
ever, not improbable that the enemy, may make one desperate effort against the 
army, as it is said that a re-enforcement was hourly expected at Fort Miami from 
Niagara, as well as numerous tribes of Indians living on the margin and islands 
of the lakes. This is a business rather to be wished for than dreaded while the 
army remains in force. Their numbers will only tend to confuse the savages 
and the victory will be the more complete and decisive, and which may eventually 
insure a permanent and happy peace." 

The exact number of Indians engaged in this action has of course never 
been accurately ascertained, but from the best information at hand, there were 
about four hundred and fifty Delawares, one hundred and seventy-five Miamis, 
two hundred and seventy-five Shawanoes, two hundred and twenty-five Ottawas, 
two hundred and seventy-five Wyandots and a small number of Senecas, Potta- 
watomies and Chippewas, in all from fifteen to eighteen hundred warriors, not 
including about one hundred Canadians from Detroit under command of Capt. 
Caldwell. The loss of the Indians can only be estimated by the number of dead 
left on the field, and upon that basis it would be safe to fix the number of killed 
at little less than eighty killed and about two hundred wounded, for when the 
battle was ended and the Indians had withdrawn, forty of their dead remained 
on the field in addition to the large number necessarily taken off the field during 
the progress of the engagement, according to their universal usage, until their 
compulsory retirement. The wounded being more than double their death loss. 
According to the official report of Gen. Wayne in the War Department, his loss 
was twenty-six regulars and seven Kentucky volunteers killed, while of the 
wounded there were eighty-seven regulars and thirteen volunteers. Subsequently, 
nine regulars and two volunteers died from the effect of their wounds, at the date 
of the report, August 28, 1794. 

Gen. Wayne, with his ariny r remained at Fort Defiance, whither he had 
marched after the battle of the 20th, until the 14th of September, wheo, leaving 
that point, he moved up the Maumee in the direction of the English fort at 
the juncture of St. Joseph's and St. Mary's. Prior to his departure from Fort 
Defiance, and after his engagement at the foot of the rapids, being in the 
vicinity of Fort Miami, then under the command of Maj. Campbell, of the 
Twenty-fourth Regiment, in the service of the King of Great Britain — from 
sume technical objection growing out of the apparent disposition on the part of 
Gen. Wayne to hold his position in the vicinity of the British fort, the Com- 
mandant challenged his right to remain there in hostile attitude. The result was 
a short but spicy correspondence between the two officers, iu which the Briton, 
while endeavoring to establish the right of his sovereign fe ocoupy the territory 
by right of anterior possession, admitted that his situation there was totally mili- 
tary. However, Gen. Wayne, in the name of the President of the United 
States, desired and demanded that he - l immediately desist from any further act of 


hostility or aggression, by forbearing to fortify, ;ind by withdrawing the troops, 
nrtillery and stores under your (his) orders and direction forthwith, and removing 
to the nearest post occupied by his Britannic Majesty's troops at the peace of 
1783." This advice was subsequently taken by Maj. Campbell, and the fort 

Departing, for the moment, from a narrative of succeeding events, the read- 
er's attention is directed to some incidents preceding but intimately related to the 
decisive riiL'agementof the 20th of August, 1794, at the rapids of the Maumee. 

Gen. Wayne, as has been already stated, had come to a halt about seven 
miles above the British fort (Miami), which stood on the northwestern baDk of 
the Maumee, near where Maumee City now stands, on the 18th of August, and 
on the following day had erected a temporary garrison, designed especially for 
the reception of stores, baggage, also for the additional purpose of better recon- 
noitering the enemy's ground lying " behind a thick bushy wood," adjacent to 
the British fort, tailing it Fort Deposit. 

In anticipation of the presence and purpose of Gen. Wayne, in case of their 
failure to accept his proposals and have peace, the Miamis were wavering and 
undecided as to the policy of attacking him, in consequence, no doubt, of the 
recent determination of Capt. Wells, the warm friend and son-in-law of Little 
Turtle, to leave their nation and return to his own people. The circumstances 
surrounding this incident are of particular interest, and deserve to be recorded 
here. Wells, at the age of twelve years, had been captured in' Kentucky by the 
Miamis, had lived to manhood and raised a family among them, having married 
the daughter of Little Turtle, the great war-chief of that nation. About the time 
of the advance of Wayne's army, his mind began to be impressed with reminis- 
cences of his childhood and youth, renewing those early memories and picturing 
the scenes of parental anxiety at the period of his separation from the home fire- 
side, the hours of anguish suffered by those who gave him life — the vacant chair 
at the old kitchen table — his relation to some of those very people against whom 
he, with his adopted people, was about to raise the war-cry and burl the deadly 
tomahawk. With those ever-present memories persistently claiming dominion, he 
finally resolved to sever his connection with the savage race in their warlike 
enterprises, and henceforth give his allegiance to the white people. " In this 
state of mind, with much of the Indian characteristics, inviting the war-chief of 
the Miamis — Little Turtle — to accompany him to a point on the Maumee about 
two miles east of Fort Wayne, at what was long known as the ' Big Elm,' whither 
they at once repaired, Wells told the chief his purpose. ' I now leave your 
nation,' said he, ' for my own people. We have long been friends. We are 
friends yet, until the sun reaches a certain height i which was named). From 
that time we are enemies. Then, if you wish to kill me you may. If I want to 
kill you, I may.' When the time indicated had come. Capt, Wells crossed the 
river, and was soon lost to the view of his old friend and chieftain, Little Turtle. 
Moving in an easterly course, with a view to striking the trail of Wayne's forces, 
he was successful in obtaining an interview with the General, and ever thereafter 
proved the fast friend of the Americans. The resolute movement of Wells was a 
severe blow upon the Miamis. To Little Turtle's mind it seemed to have been an 
unmistakable foreboding of sure and speedy defeat to the confederated tribes of 
the Northwest. At a general council of the confederated 

tribes, held on the 19th of August, Little Turtle was most earnest in his endeav- 
ors to persuade a peace with Gen. Wayne. Said he, ' We have beaten the enemy 
twice under different circumstances. We cannot expect the same good fortune to 
attend us always. The Americans are now led by a chief that never sleeps. The 
nights and the da3 T s are alike to him, and during all the time he has been march- 
ing on our villages, notwithstanding the watchfulness of our young men, we have 
never been able to surprise him. Think well of it. There is something whis- 
pers me, it would be prudent to listen to his offers of peace.' But his wolds of 
wisdom were but little regarded. One of the chiefs of the council even went so 
far as to charge him with cowardice, which he readily enough spurned, for there 
were none braver or more ready to act, where a victory was to be won or a defense 
required, than Little Turtle ; and so, without further parley, the council broke 
up, and Little Turtle, at the head of his braves, took his stand to meet and give 
battle to the advancing army." [Hist. Fort Wayne, pp. 47, 48.] 

The sequel showed the wisdom and foresight of Little Turtle, and well had it 
been if the counsel of the sagacious chief been heeded. But destiny willed 
it otherwise, and the Indians paid dearly for their temerity. 


That the junction of the St. Joseph's of the lakes with the St. Mary's, form- 
ing the Maumee, is a strategic point of more than ordinary consequence, the 
experiences of the past two centuries sufficiently demonstrates. The first knowl- 
edge of the locality obtained by Europeans, of which we have information, 
embodies descriptions of its importance iu a commercial as well as in a military 
point of view. The statement is additionally established by the consequence 
attached to it by the aborigines themselves, as ascertained through their traditions 
handed down from generation to generation in regular succession. But the 
object of this article is not so much to record the opinions entertained by its prim- 
itive inhabitants and their immediate followers, as to show what the more modern 
conception of it has brought forth. The contemplated expedition of George 
Rogers Clarke, in 1779, of La Balme, in 1780, followed by that of Harmar and 
St. Clair, in 1790 and 1791, foreshadow the operations of succeeding years, and 
determine the motives which induced Gen. Wayne to guard the point by the 
erection of substantial and permanent works for its defense by the military power 
of the Government. Accordingly, having defeated its combined Indian forces 
at tfm rapids of the Maumee, and almost under the guns of the British Fort 
Miami, au account of which has already been given, his army took uo its line of 

march for the Miami villages at the junction of the St. Joseph's and St. Mary's, 
on the 14th of September, 1794, arriving at the destined point on the 17th, and 
on the 18th selected the site for a fortification, afterward known by his name. 

On the 24th, work commenced on the garrison, and, considering the state of 
the weather and the surroundings, proceeded toward completion with proper 
rapidity, occupying the time until the 18th of October, just one month from the 
selection of the site. On the 17th of October, the day preceding the completion 
and dedication of the work, Gen. Wayne forwarded to the War Department a 
dispatch containing a description and plan of the new fort. It was constructed of 
logs, and not very safe, but deemed to be sufficiently so for the time and purpose 
contemplated in its erection, commanding the Maumee for a half-mile below the 
junction, and the mouth of the St. Joseph's and of the St. Mary's. The follow- 
ing extracts from the daily journal of the campaign, giving a better idea of the 
proceedings and casualties than can be elsewhere ascertained, is inserted here as a 
part of the account. 

"Camp Miami Village, September 18, 1794. 

" * * * Four deserters from the British camp came to us this 
day ; they bring the information that the Indians are encamped eight miles below 
the British fort, to the number of l,b'O0. 

" September 20. Last night it rained violently, and the wind blow from the 
N. W. harder than I knew heretofore. Gen. Barbour, with his command, arrived 
in camp about 9 o'clock this morning, with 553 kegs of flour, each containing 
100 pounds. 

" September 23. Four deserters from the British garrison arrived at our 
camp ; they mention that the Indians are still embodied on the Miami, nine miles 
below the British fort ; that they are somewhat divided in opinion — some are for 
peace, and others for war. 

" September 24. This day work commenced on the garrison, which, I am 
apprehensive, will take some time to complete it. A keg of whisky, containing 
ten gallons, was purchased this day for eight dollars, a sheep for ten dollars ; 
three dollars was offered for one pint of salt, but it could not be obtained for less 
than six. 

"September 25. Lieut. Blue, of the dragoons, was this day arrested by 
Ensign Johnson, of the 4th S. L., but a number of their friends interfering, the 
settled upon Lieut. Blue asking Johnson's pardon. 
September 2ti. McClelland, one of our spies, with a small party, came in 
this evening from Fort Defiance, who brings information that the enemy are 
troublesome about the garrison, and that they have killed some of our men under 
the walls of the fort. Sixteen Indians were seen to-day near this place ; a small 
party went in pursuit of them. I have not heard what discoveries they have 

" September 30. Salt and whisky were drawn by the troops this day, and 
a number of the soldiers became much intoxicated, they having stolen a quantity 
of liquor from the Quartermaster. 

" October 4. This morning, we had the hardest frost I ever saw in the 
middle of December ; it was like small snow ; there was ice in our camp-kettles 
i of an inch thick ; the fatigues go on with velocity, considering the rations 
the troops are obliged to live on. 

" October 5. The weather extremely cold and hard frosts, the wind N. W.; 
everything quiet and nothing but harmony and peace throughout the camp, 
which is something uncommon. 

" October 6. Plenty and quietness, the same as yesterday; the volunteers 
engaged in work on the garrison, for which they are to receive three gills of 
whisky per man, per day; their employment is digging the ditch and filling up 
the parapet. 

" October S. The troops drew but half-rations of flour this day. The cav- 
alry and other horses die very fast, not less than four or five per day. 

•' October 9. The volunteers have agreed to build a block-house iu front of 
the garrison. 

'" October 11. A Canadian (Rozelie) with a flag arrived this evening ; his 
business was to deliver up three prisoners in exchange for his brother, who was 
taken on the 20th of August; he brings information that the Indians are in 
council with Girty and McKee uear the fort of Detroit; that all the tribes are 
for peace except the Shawanoes, who are determined to prosecute the war. 

" October 1G. Nothing new; weather wet and cold wind from N. W. The 
troops healthy in general. 

"October 17. This day Capt. Gibson arrived with a quantity of flour, 
beef aud sheep. 

"October 19. This day the troops were not ordered for labor, being the 
first day for four weeks, and accordingly attended divine service. 

"October 20. An express arrived this day with dispatches to the Com- 
mander-in-chief; the contents are kept secret. A court-martial to sit this day 
for the trial of Charles Hyde. 

" October 21. This day were read the proceedings of a court-martial held 
on Lieut. Charles Hyde (yesterday) ; was found not guilty of the charges exhib- 
ited against him, and was therefore acquitted." 

On the morning of the following day, October 22, 1794, the new fort having 
been fully completed and ready for occupancy, passed the ordeal of a formal 
dedication to the god of war, with the usual ceremonies. Gen. Wayne then 
invested Lieut. Col. John F. Hamtramck with the command of the Post, who, 
upon assuming the position, placed the following officers in command of sub- 
legions ; Capt, Kingsbury, First; Capt. Greaton, Second; Capls. Sparks and 
Reed, Third ; Capt. Preston, Fourth, with Capt. Porter of the Artillery. 

The garrison being thus completely officered, a final salute of fifteen rounds 
of artillery was fired and the Stars and Stripes were flung to the breeze, there- 
after to float over the ramparts, indicative of the invincible character of the 
works as manifested in the appropriate and significant name of Four Wayne. 



" And here," says Mr. Brice, " was the atarting-point of a new era in civil- 
ization in the great Northwest." 

The fort having uteri completed and officered, with a garrison equal to the 
demands for defense, Gen. Wayne left the post on the 28th of Octoher, and took 
up his line of march for Fort Greenville, teaching that point on the 2d day of 
November, with the main body of his regular troops. During the succeeding 
two years, Col. Hamtramck continued in command of the new fort, watching 
the movements of the Indians, who were still numerous in the vicinity, reporting, 
from time to time, to his superior officers tin- condition of the garrison, as well as 
the disposition manifested by the leading spirits among the Indians — whether for 
peace or war. 

Among other things, he experienced much annoyance from a propensity to 
larceny, manifested by many of the soldiers, for which they were necessarily 
placed in confinement, ,; the economic allowance of one hundred lashes," prescribed 
by the regulations, offering insufficient inducements to practice honesty. What 
the result of this species of tactics was, history does not inform us. 

In a note to Gen. Wayne, dated December 20, 1794, he conveyed the in- 
formation that a Dumber of the chiefs of the Chippewas, Ottawas, Sacs and Pot- 
tawatomies, had arrived the day previous, who seemed to apprehend that they 
would be compelled, from force of circumstances, to - follow the example of other 
Indians, and accept cutnlitiims of peace foreshadowed in the proposed treaty of 
Greenville ; but that some of the Shawanoes, Delaware's and Mian lis, who, unable 
to release themselves from the influence of Col, McKee, the British Agent on the 
Maumee, were in doubt what to do. A subsequent note, however, of the same 
date, gave a more encouraging view of the situation, so far as the Miamis were 
concerned, two war chiefs of that nation having arrived with the information that 
their people would, in a few days, be on their way to Greenville, and that the 
remaining tribes would follow their lead in the measures for peace. The Miamis 
and other tribes entertaining ami manifesting a similar disposition, true to their 
promise, repaired early to the treaty-grounds at Greenville, and participated in 
the council proceedings. 

Aside from what has already been stated, little of importance took place while 
Col. H. remained in command, and he retired from duty at this point, on the 17th 
of May, 1796. Then passing down the Maumee to Lake Erie, he was afterward 
placed in command of the post at Detroit. "When Col. Hamtramck had departed, 
the command of the fort devolved upon Col. Thomas Hunt, with the First Regi- 
ment of United States Infantry as a garrison, who held the position during the 
succeeding two years. 

The size and strength of this fort proving insufficient for the purpose con- 
templated in its original construction, it was torn down about the year 18U4, and 
another, larger, and better adapted to the wants of the time, erected on nearly 
the same site, which is now Lot No. 40 in Taber's Addition to Fort Wayne. ;r 
This new fort was built under the supervision of Col. Hunt, then commandant, 
In 1815, this fort, proving insufficient, was taken down also, and a new one 
reared in its place by Maj. Whistler, in a more substantial manner. From the 
best information at hand, it " inclosed an area of about one hundred and fifty 
feet square, in pickets ten feet high and set in the ground, with a block-house at 
the southeast and northwest corners, two stories high and rising above the second 
floor, which projected and formed a bastion in -each when the guns were rigged, 
that on the southeast commanding the south and east sides of the fort, and that 
on the northwest, the north and west sides. The officers' quarters, commissary 
department and other buildings, located on the different sides, formed a part of 
the walls, and in the center stood the liberty-pole, on which was placed a metal 
American eagle, and over that floated the stars and stripes of the United States. 
The plaza in the inclosure was smooth and gravelly. The roofs of the houses all 
inclined within the inclosure, after the shed fashion, and to prevent the enemy 
from setting it on fire, and if tired, to protect the men in putting it out ; and the 
water which fell within was led, in nicely-made wooden troughs, just below the 
surface of the ground, to the flag-staff, and thence, by a sluiceway, to the 

"It is thought that it left out a small portion of the old ground, for it is 
definitely known that the southwest corner of the new fort was exactly at the 
southwest corner of Lot 40, the pickets running south of east toward John 
Brown's blacksmith shop, and near where the shop now stands [18b'0], and where 
was one of the forts [corners] ; the east side ran to a point on the north bank 
of the canal, the west, to the second fort, and thence to the place of beginning. 

" The stone curbing of the old well may yet be seen in the edge of the 
south bank of the canal, and near the northwest corner of the fort. The canal 
cut off the north end of the ground, by which the pickets were removed and 
this ancient relic invaded, about 1833. 

"After the death of the commanding officer, Col. Hamtramck, in about 
1799, Thomas Hunt was promoted to the colonelcy of the old First Regiment, 
and ordered to Fort Wayne from Detroit." Connected with the execution of 
this order is the following incident: 

" As Col. Thomas Hunt was on his way, with his family and regiment, from 
Detroit to Bellefontaine, coming up the Maumee, A. D. 1803, in fifty Montreal 
batteaux, and approaching Fort Wayne, the commanding officer, Capt. Whipple, 
was standing beside the Surgeon's mate, Dr. Edwards, when Dr. E. remarked to 
Capt. Whipple, of a daughter of Col. Hunt, 'That's a fine-looking girl ; ' and, 
as a coincidence, the girl remarked at the same time, to her mother, ' That's a 
good-looking young man.' This mutual attachment resulted in a marriage of 
Dr. Edwards and Miss Hunt, in ten days, at which wedding the celebrated Indian 
chief, Five Medals (whose town was on Turkey Creek Prairie, now Elkbarkly), 
was present, at his own solicitation, and was very highly pleased." 

"Fort Wayne was commanded by Maj. Whipple, after Col. Hunt. Maj. 
Whipple died at Detroit; afterward, Capt. Bay was in command, till it was 

besieged in 1812 by the Indians. Capt. Ray was allowed to resign rather than 
have charges preferred against him."* Upon the acceptance of the resignation 
of Capt. Ray, Capt. Hugh Moore was appointed his successor. In 1813, he was 
superseded by Joseph Jenkinson, who in turn was succeeded by Maj. Whistler, 
in the spring of 1814, under whose supervision the fort was rebuilt, as we have 
already seen. After *,he completion of the fort, in 1815, Maj. J. H. Vose 
assumed command, and continued to occupy the post until it was abandoned, in 
1819. Subsequently, the reservation and public grounds around the fort were 
made subject to sale as other public lands, and the particular site occupied by the 
fort and adjacent buildings was purchased by a land company .at New Haven, 
Conn., and was placed under the control of Hon. F. P. Randall. At a later 
date, the property came into the possession of Hon. Cyrus Taber, who laid out 
the addition known by his name. Allen County, also, laid out another addition 
on a part of the same grounds. 

The following additional matter, pertinent to the current history of Wayne's 
Fort, and thought to be of sufficient value to justify its preservation, is appended 
in this connection : 

« At the close of the struggles in 1814," says Mr. Brice, in his " History of 
Fort Wayne," "soon after the arrival of Maj. Whistler to assume command here, 
it was feared that the Indians might again make an effort to capture the post, 
and, being much out of repair, and most uncomfortable for the garrison in many 
respects, Maj. Whistler applied to the War Department for permission to rebuild 
it, which was granted by Gen. Armstrong, and the main structure was replaced 
by new pickets and other necessary timber for the rebuilding of the officers' and 
other quarters within the inclosure. 

" Though many Indians continued, for several years after the war of 1S12, to 
congregate here for purposes of trade, to receive their annuity, and also from a 
feeling of sympathy and attraction for the scene of their old home and gathering- 
place, aside from some petty quarrels among themselves, in which they would 
often kill each other, nothing of a warlike nature was ever again manifest 
between the Indians and the whites. 

" During 1818, a year remarkable for the congregation of many Indians here, 
the red men are referred to as presenting a general spirit of order and love of peace, 
not surpassed by many of the whites of that time, and well worthy of emulation 
in many instances. It was no uncommon thing, in their visits to Ke-ki-ong-a, 
seeing a new hut, to inquire whether the new-comer was quiet — if he ' make no 
trouble for Injuns,' etc. And their intuitiou and close observation were presented 
very often in the most striking and remarkable light. 

" On one occasion, about this period, an elderly Miami had come to the 
village to trade a little. Soon meeting his old friend, dames Peltier, the inter- 
preter, his observing eye, in looking about the place, soon fell upon a hut near, 
that had been but recently built. 'Ugh!' ejaculated the Indian, 'new wigwam!' 
He now became more anxious to know if the white man was peaceable — whether 
he came to make trouble for Injun? The two now soon entered the hut of the 
new-comers and shook hands with the inmates. The Indian at once began to 
!ook about him and to inquire how many warriors (children) they had, etc. 
Eyeing the matron of the house, or squaw, as the Indian called her, and observ- 
ing that she was quite sad, the Indian became anxious to know what was the 
matter with her — he was sure she was sick. The woman averred that she was 
not sick. But the Indian knew she was. Turning to his old friend P. again, 
after looking at the woman and striking his hand upon his breast, exclaimed, 
' white squaw sick at heart ; ' and was anxious to know if she had not left some- 
thing behind at the settlement from which they came to Fort Wayne. In 
response to this, the woman quickly replied that she had left her only son by her 
first husband, at Piqua, and that she was anxious to have him with her, but her 
present husband did not want him to come. ' Didn't I tell you white squaw sick 
at heart! ' replied the Indian, much elated; and he at once proposed to go to 
Piqua and bring her son to her, if Mr. P. would give him a blanket — which was 
readily agreed to. Receiving a note from the mother, the next morning early, 
with two Indian ponies, the generous red man was on the road to Piqua; and in 
five days from that time, returned with the boy ! The woman's heart was eased, 
and the faithful Indian gazed upon the happy meeting of the mother and the 
son, his heart warmed within him, and, turning to his friend Peltier, he 
exclaimed, ' Isn't that good medicine for the white squaw ? ' 

" The Indian now became the faithful protector and friend of the woman 
and her son, assuming the special guardianship of the latter — telling the husband 
that if he ever heard a word of complaint either from the son or mother, as to 
ill treatment, he would have his hide, if he had to lay in the Maumee River 
until the moss had grown six inches on his back.' For six or seven years, the 
Indian continued his visits to the hut of the new-comers, always bringing them 
supplies in the form of venison and animals of different kinds, and the boy very 
often accompanied his kind benefactor to the forest in pursuit of game." [Hist. 
Fort Wayne, pp. 201-2]. 

" Attached to the fort, and extending west of it to about where the 'Old 
Fort House ' afterward stood, and embracing about one acre of land, was a well- 
cultivated garden, belonging to the commanding officer, always tilled, in season, 
with the choicest vegetables. West of this was the company's garden, extend- 
ing to about where the Hedekin House afterward stood. This was also well tilled, 
affording suitable labor for the soldiers, when military discipline was slackened. 
The main thoroughfare, in those days, extended westward from the fort, along 
what is now the canal. 

" Not far to the south of the fort, in what is now known as ' Taber's Addi- 
tion,' was located the burial-ground of the garrison, and where, also, were deposited 
others who died, not immediately connected with the garrison. Lieut, Ostrander, 
who had one day unthoughtedly fired upon a flock of birds passing over the fort, 
had been reprimanded by Capt. Rhea, and, because of his refusal to be tried by 



a court-martial, was coufioed in a small room in the garrison, where he subse- 
quently died, and was among the number buried in this old place of interment. 
Another place of burial, where also a number of Indians were interred, extended 
along the northwest corner of Columbia and Clinton streets, and to the adjoin- 
in" block. Many bones were removed from this point same years ago, in digging 
cellars and laying foundations of buildings." [Tuttle's Hist, Ind., 351.] 

As early as 1808, after Tccumseh and his prophet-brother, having obtained 
the right to locate their principal town on the Tippecanoe River, near its entrance 
into the Wabash, began to exert an influence among the neighboring tribes, the 
ultimate purpose of which was to make war upon the frontier settlements, and 
prevent the further advance of emigration of the white people to territory 
claimed as belonging to the Indians in common. The Prophet's town, as it was 
called, very soon became the headquarters of all the disaffected spirits from the 
several tribes of the Northwest, that could be induced to accept the policy of the 
proposed confederation. Filled with a desire to develop his cherished purpose, in 
the spring of 1SU9, Tecumseh attended a council of numerous Indian tribes at 
Sandusky, and attempted there to exact a promise from the Wyandots and 
Senecas to join his embryo settlement on the Tippecanoe. The suggestion was 
not received with favor, and some of the old Wyandot chiefs so informed him. 
His ill success in this direction, however, did not discourage him, but only induced 
greater activity and vigilance. In other fields he was more successful, and, in 
proportion to his accessions of new adherents, he became more bold and aggress- 
ive in his movements. Subsequent conferences with Gov. Harrison at Viuccnnes 
and elsewhere, were demonstrative of this fact. 

Not accomplishing all that was desired in adjacent territory, he visited tribes 
inhabiting remote districts, seeking to gaiu their confidence and co-operation, by 
his persuasive eloquence and consequential demeanor. Meanwhile the Prophet, 
arrogating to himself the management of plans he was not qualified to execute 
in the absence of Tecumseh, precipitated an engagement with the army of Gov. Har- 
rison, at Tippecanoe, on the Tth of November, 1S11, the result of which was 
disastrous, not only to bis prophetic ambition but to the unmatured plans of his 
brother as well. Tecumseh, upon his return, in view of the situation, was less 
aggressive and hopeful, yet still determined in the advocacy and maintenance of 
his opinions. Thus situated, lie sought an alliance with the British army as a 
means, in part at icast, of compensating for his loss of prestige as the champion 
of an Indiau confederacy. 

The seed sown by Tecumseh, in his teachings and the influence of his exam- 
ple, gave impulse to the savage ambition of numerous warriors of the circumjacent 
tribes, and slight pretexts often induced exhibitions of the greatest cruelty. In 
the month of January, 1812, Little Turtle, a distinguished chief of the Miami 
nation, living at bis village near Fort Wayne, having been an observer of the 
movements incident to the alliance of the Indians with the British, sent a mes- 
senger to Gov. Harrison, detailing some of the manifestations of an approaching 
war with Great Britain, and the probabilities of au Indian alliance, expressing, 
also, the strong attachment of the people of his nation generally, for the Govern- 
ernment of the United States. The Delawares, too, gave expression of friend- 
ship ; "but it became clearly evident, early in the year 1812, that the Pottawat- 
omies, Kickapoos, Winnebagoes, and some other Northwestern tribes, were not 
disposed to remain at peace with the pioneer settlers of the West. On the Gth 
of April, two white men were killed by Indians at a cabin that stood almost in 
view of a small military po^t at Chicago. On the 11th of April, at a settlement 
on the western side of the Wabash River, about thirty-five miles above Vincenncs, 
Mr. Hutsoo, his wife, four of his children, and a man employed in his service, 
were killed by Indians ; and on the 22d of April, Mr. Haryman, his wife and five 
children, were killed by a party of Indians near the mouth of ' Embarrass Creek, 
at a point about five miles distant from Vincennes." 

The effect of such proceedings was to alarm the frontier settlers and cause 
them to prepare for the punishment of the depredators, first protecting the settle- 
ments from the assaults of marauding parties of Indians who were known to 
infest the territory. With a view to making these preparations effectual, on the 
16th of April, 1812, Gov. Harrison directed the officers of the Territorial militia 
to put their forces " in the best possible state for active service," suggesting, also, 
" the expediency of erecting block-houses or picketed forts, on the frontiers of 
Knox County, on the two branches of White River, eastward oi' Vincennes. and 
in the county of Harrison. The propriety of erecting similar posts of defense 
on the frontiers of Clarke, Jefferson, Dearborn, Franklin and Wayne Counties, 
was to be determined by the disposition of the Delaware Indians." Inasmuch 
as the Delaware had performed with punctuality and good faith all their obliga- 
tions with the United Stales, the ex'-rcise of forbearance toward them was recom- 
mended, no reason for doubting their fidelity having been manifested. 

In the general order.- before referred to, the following instructions were con- 
tained : " When mischief is done by the Indians, in any of the settlements, they 
must be pursued ; and the officer nearest to the spot ( if the number of men under 
his command is not inferior to the supposed number of the enemy) is to com- 
mence it as soon as he can collect his men. If his force should be too small, he 
is to send for aid to the next officer to him ; and in the mean time take a position 
capable of being defended, or watch the motions of the enemy, as circumstances 
may require. The pursuit must be 'conducted with vigor, and the officer com- 
manding will be held responsible for making every exertion in his power to over- 
take the enemy." 

About the middle of May following, a great Indian council was held at a 
village on the Mississinewa River, at which the Wyandots, Cbippewas, Ottawas, 
Pottawatomies, Delawares, Miamis, Eel Rivers, Weas, Piankeshaws, Winneba- 
goes, Shawanoes and Kickapoos were represented. In this council the situation 

was generally discussed, and a free interchange of opinion and purpose was 
indulged in. The current of expression was in favor of peace, Tecumseh, and 
a few" others in his interest, only, dissenting. To the adverse propositions, the 
Delawares replied thus tartly : " We have not met at this place to listen 
to such words. The red people have been killing the whites. The just resentment 
of the latter is raised against the former. Our white brothers are on their 
feet— their guns in their hands. There is no time to tell each other ' You have 
done this, and yon have done that.' If there was, we could tell the Prophet that 
both red and white people have felt the bad effects of his counsel. Let us all 
join our hearts and hands together and proclaim peace through the land of the 
red people, and rely on the justice of our white brethren." 

The reply of the Miamis was equally direct and to the point. They said, 
" We feel that we all appear to be inclined for peace ; that we all see that it 
would be our immediate ruin to go to war with the white people. We, the 
Miamis. have not hurt our white brethren since the treaty of Greenville. We 
would be glad if all other nations present could say the same. We will cheer- 
fully join our brethren for peace, but we will not join you for war against the white 
people. We hope our brethren, the PottowatomieB, Kickapoos and Winneba- 
goes, will keep their warriors in good order, and learn them to pay more respect 
to their women and children than they have done, by going and murdering the 
innocent white people." 

The Kickapoos, also, were especially emphatic in their response, saying, 
" We have not two faces, and we despise those who have. The peace we have 
made with Gov. Harrison we will strictly adhere to, and trouble no person, and 
hope none will trouble us." 

Tecumseh was not satisfied with the result of this conference, nor were the 
representations of the Pottawatomies, Winnebagoes, and Kickapoos true expres- 
sions of the sentiments entertained by these tribes toward the white people. Imme- 
diately the consequences of disaffection and discomfiture began to manifest them- 
selves in the movements of the Indians. From the time of Tecumseh's departure 
from Fort Wayne, a few days subsequent to the Mississinewa council, he had 
been restless and vindictive, exerting himself with great activity in inciting the 
Indians to acts of hostility toward the white people ; and when war was declared 
by the United States against Great Britain, he allied himself to the cause of the 
latter, taking an active part with them. 

Upon the formal declaration of war, Gen. Hull, in command of the North- 
western army, conceived the idea of invading Canada, as a means calculated to 
give him an advantage in maintaining his defense of the frontier. With that 
idea in view, he stationed his army in British territory and issued a proclamation 
declaring to the Canadian people that 1C he cameto find enemies, not to make them," 
to protect, not to injure them. 

It was the province of Gen. Hull, as such commander, to notify the garri- 
sons in his jurisdiction that war had been declared by the United States against 
Great Britain. This notice, which purported to have issued on the 5th of July, 
from some unexplained cause, did not reach many of those points proper to be 
informed of the condition of affairs. Because of this failure, they were not pre- 
pared for defensive operations, especially since the British and Indians in -con- 
junction were rea'ly to take advantage of these conditions. 

of this fail 
of July, to a largely superior fore 
lamation to the people of Canad 
should have been received at the 
ilimackanac. Fort Wayne and Chi 
at these points 

ader of the post at Mackinac on the 17th 
5 than one week after the issue of bis proc- 
rly two weeks having elapsed after notice 
;on. However, the posts at Detroit, Mich- 
had been notified of the fact, and the com- 
rdered to place their garrisons "in the best 
possible state of defense" without delay, and to make a return to Brigade Major 
Jessup, at Detroit, of the quantity of provisions the contractors had on hand at 
their respective posts ; the number of officers and men, ordnance and military 
stores of every kind, and the public property of all kinds " — yet the commandant 
at Fort Dearborn had not been thus notified until the last of July, nearly a month 
after the information should have been received. About the same time, feeling that 
he had been less vigilant than duty demanded, he sent a messenger to Fort Wayne 
with instructions to the officer in command, to send immediate relief to the garrison 
at Chicago. The same messenger also brought a request from Gen. Hull to Maj. 
Sticknejj Indian Agent at Fort Wayne, to see that all the information and assist- 
ance at his disposal be forwarded to Capt. Heald, then surrounded by a large 
body of Indians operating under the instructions of Tecumseh. 

Accordingly, Maj. Siickney, with as much despatch as possible, sent Capt. 
Wells, bis sub-agent, a brother-in-law of Little Turtle and thoroughly versed in 
Indian strategy from a lifelong intercourse with them, with a small force to aid 
the beleaguered garrison. In the mean time, however, on the 9th of August, 
Capt. Heald received orders from Gen. Hull to evacuate the post at Chicago 
and move to Detroit. Three days later, Capt. Wells, with thirty picked 
and trusty warriors, fully equipped, arrived at Fort Dearborn (Chicago), when 
he was informed by Capt. Heald of the condition of affairs, and that, 
after receiving the order of Gen. Hull, he had a conference with the 
Indians of the neighborhood and agreed upon terms of evacuation. These 
terms, among other things, embraced an agreement " to deliver up to the Indians 
the fort with all its contents, except some ammunition and provisions necessary 
for their march," in consideration for which he was to be permitted to pass unmo- 
lested. Capt. Wells thought su;:h an arrangement ill advised, for the reason that 
the ammunition and whi.-ky especially were dangerous elements to place at the 
disposal of a horde of treacherous savages, who, when under the influence of the 
whisky, which they were sure to become, would not for a moment regard the 
terms of the agreement entered into. The truth of t\[\< opinion soon became mani- 
fest, when the Indians, being made acquainted with the fact of the presence of 
fire-water among the articles obtainable by a ready disregard of their agreement, 
determined at once to attack the garrison. Capt. Wells, being cognizant of their 



movements, took in the situation at a glance. He was not mistaken, for informa- 
tion had even then been communicated to Mr. Kinzie of the proceedings and 
intentions of the Pottawatomies engaged as an escort for them. 

The troops under the command of Capt. Heald consisted of fifty-four re»u- 
lars and twelve militia. These, on the morning of the 15th of August, marched 
out from the fort to the tune of the "Dead March," as if 'some invisible force 
had impelled them to chant their own funeral dirge. Capt, Wells, too, as if 
conscious of his impending fate, marched in front at the head of his little band 
of faithful warriors with his face blackened. 

After passing outside the walls of the fort, the garrison, with Capt. Wells' 
band and the escort of Pjttawatoniies, took up the line of march alon°- the mar- 
gin of the lake, in the direction of Fort Wayne. When the sand hills separal ing 
the prairie and lake had been reached, the escort, consisting of sonic five hundred 
Pottawatomies, instead of pursuing the regular route, kept along the plain to the 
right of the sand ridge, and had thus marched something more than a mile and a 
half, when Capt. Wells, having in the mean time watched these movements closely, 
and satisfied himself fully as to their purpose, and that an attack was contem- 
plated, he eommunicated the result of his observations to the men, and directed a 
charge upon the assailants. At this period a volley was fired from behind the 
sand hills. The troops were then hastily formed into line, and charged rapidly 
up the bank. " A veteran of some seventy years was the first to fall. Capt, 
Wells soon fell, pierced with many balls, and, in the words of one of the party, 
(Mrs. Kinzie), ' Pee-so-tum * * * held dangling in his hand a scalp! 
which, by the black ribbon around the queue, I recognized as (hat of Capt. Wells.' 
Their leader now being killed, the Miamis fled ; one of their chiefs, however, 
before leaving the scene of disaster, riding up to the Pottawatomies, and exclaim- 
ing to them in pretty strong terms: ' You have deceived the Americans and us. 
You have done a bad action, and (brandishing his tomahawk"), I will be the first 
to head a party of Americans to return and punish your treachery ; ' and then 
galloped away over the prairie in pursuit of his companions, who were rapidly 
making their way back toward Fort Wayne." 

After a desperate conflict the troops were compelled to surrender, only to be 
subjected to the barbarous inflictions of the tomahawk and scalping knife at the 
hands of the treacherous savages. The result of this massacre was twenty six 
regulars killed with all the militia, two women and twelve children. Twenty-cicht 
only were taken prisoners. One of the incidents related by Maj. Stickney, is 
characteristic of Indian warfare : " As the character of Capt, Wells was unequaled 
for bravery, after his death, his head was severed from his body, and the Indians 
took out his heart, cooked it, and divided it among themselves in very small pieces. 
They religiously believed that each one who ate of it would thereby become as 
brave as he from whom it was taken." 

Thus far, the plan of Tecumseh had been a success, the result at Chicago 
being in full accord with his desire to obtain, revenge for the ill success of his 
recent efforts in behalf of an Indian confederacy. While it is true that many 
of the tribes from whom he had expected support were disposed to withhold their 
allegiance, his bold activity in the development of his schemes brought about him 
a class of warriors wholly unscrupulous in the execution of his orders. Such of 
them as were induced, from motives of friendship toward the United Slates, to 
refuse an alliance with him, were threatened with extermination by his deluded 
followers. Seeing, however, that his influence was growing less effective, his 
scheme for an alliance with the British now commanded his attention and con- 
trolled all his energies. Possessing an excellent memory, and being so well 
acquainted with the situation of every important position in the whole Northwest, 
his services soon became essentially valuable as an auxiliary in the British army. 

Having attached himself to the army of Great Britain, he was often called 
upon by the officers in command to impart such information as the occasion 
required. His connection with the British naturally induced many of his former 
followers to unite their energies with his in inflicting on his enemies the penalty 
of bis perturbed ambition. At this time, the siege of Fort Wayne and the mas- 
sacre of the garrison seemed be a part of the plan most claiming precedence in 
execution. With this motive uppermost, he set about the work methodically, 
and, as a means to that end, he secured the co-operation of the Pottawatomies, 
Ottawas and a portion of the Miamis, participants in the butchery at Fort Dear- 
born. The leading spirits of these several hands, in the interest of the British, 
were to be the chief executors of this important enterprise. For this purpose, 
they were assembled in council by British emissaries, at their respective villages 
on the St. Joseph's and on Lake Michigan. The result of this council was a well 
matured determination to simultaneously attack Fort Wayne and Fort Harrison, 
aid being promised by the British agents engaged in the movement. The plan 
in detail was that, in case the Indians would besiege these forts and prevent their 
evacuation by the garrisons occupying them, they should be joined, in one moon, 
by a large force from Maiden and Detroit, with artillery, sufficient to demolish 
the works, thus opening the way for an indiscriminate slaughter of the garrison 
at the hands of these accomplished operators with the tomahawk and scalping. 

This was late in the month of August, 1812, after the massacre at Chicago, 
and but a few days remained before the plan for the demolition of Fort Wayne 
was to be put in execution. All was activity among those charged with the 
momentous trust, but the activity was of a character not likely to excite suspi- 
cion, exceptto those familiar with the diplomacy of Indian warfare. Their schemes, 
nevertheless, became gradually apparent as their movements were less reserved 
There were, too, members of some of the confederated tribes not in full accord 
with the proposed plan of operations. As the details of the plan began to 
develop, there were observers skilled in the interpretation of them who had 
interests in common with the white people. 

" At this time, there was nn Indian trader residing near Fort Wayne, of 
French extraction, by the name of Antoine Boudie. He was about fifty years 

of age, and had lived among the Indians from the time lie was twelve years old. 
Ho was an extraordinary character. At one time, he would appear to be brave 
and generous, at another, meanly selfish. He was recognized by the Miamis as 
one of their tribe— married one of their squaws and conformed to their habits 
and mode of life. The hostile Pottawatomies, desirous of saving him from the 
destruction which they contemplated for the garrison, sent Metea, chief of their 
tribe, to inform him of their intentions and his danger. Metea wont to his cabin 
in the night, and, under an injunction of great secrecy, informed him of all that 
had transpired in relation to the contemplated siege of the two forts. He offered 
to come for Boudie and his family before the siege was commenced, with a suffi- 
cient number of pack-horses to remove them and their movable property to a 
place of safety. Boudie did not decline the offer." 

On the following morning, Boudie, with Charles Peltier, a French inter- 
preter, visited the agent, Maj. Stickney, at an early hour, and quietly disclosed 
the whole plot, enjoining the agent to strictest secrecy as to his informants. In 
doubt whether the import of these disclosures was what it appeared to be, he was 
at a loss, for a time, to know how best to apply the information most advanta- 
geously. Some doubt had been expressed touching the veracity of his informants, 
by the commanding officer at the fort, Capt. Rhea, whose habits of intoxication 
were such as to disqualify him as a safe adviser. Under the circumstances, 
having duly considered the situation, he acted upon his own judgment in 
the premises, and at once dispatched messengers to Gov. Harrison and Gov. 
Meigs, and another to the Commandant at Fort Harrison, informing him of the 
contemplated siege. Active preparations for defense were at once commenced, 
and not a moment too soon, for scarcely had the messengers left when the Indians 
had drawn their guard lines around the fort to out off all means of communica- 

Shortly after the messengers had been dispatched to Gov. Harrison, request- 
ing the presence of an additional military force such as the critical condition of 
affairs demanded, and it was uncertain as to the time when those re-enforcements 
might reasonably be expected, much anxiety was manifested in reference to the 
possible contingencies in the premises. Their anxiety was occasioned in part by 
the drunkenness and incapacity of Capt. Rhea, who had command of the "arri- 
son. Hence it was desirable that some information be obtained from the troops 
detailed for the relief of the fort. 


With this state of feeling paramount, " on the night of August 28, 
1812, * * Stephen Johnston, with Peter Oliver and John Mangen', 

left the fort, going out on the east side, next the Mauince River, and then passing 
up on the table land, a short distance south of what is now known as the Hanna 
homestead, near the corner of Lewes and Francis streets, was shot dead 
and scalped by Pottawatomie Indians. His two companions escaped unhurt into 
the fort. The command of the fort was at that time under Capt, Rhea, whose 
habits were intemperate, and Mr. Johnston, having no confidence in his integrity, 
started in company with Oliver and Mangen to urge forward the military then 
supposed, or perhaps known, to be on the way to the relief of ihe fort. It was in 
this character, and not as an express sent by Capt. Rhea, that he left the fort, as 
stated by McAfee. The fact of the Captain's subsequent arrest by Gen. Harri- 
son, shows that Johnston had good grounds for the course he took, however 
disastrous to himself."* 

Mr. Johnston, for some time previously, had been employed in the manage- 
ment in the United States factory store, erected near the fort, designed to supply 
the Indians with agricultural implements and other necessaries. He was the 
brother of Col. John Johnston, Indian Agent at Fort Wayne from ISO!) to 1812, 
who employed him as chief clerk, and placed him in charge of the Government 
property. A few days previous to his death, in a letter addressed to his wife, 
bearing date August 24, 1812, he says : " We have about four hundred Indians 
here. Their intentions are very suspicious. I have moved all the public goods 
into the garrison, so that I am now unincumbered by the business, and if it was 
not for Mr. Stickney's illness, and having to attend to his department, I would 
leave the place for the present, as the trading establishment is at an end for the 
time being." At this time, Maj. Stickney had been in charge of the agency but 
a short time, having been the successor id' Col. Johnston, and was just recovering 
"llncss, to which Stephen refers in the extract from his letter above 



having been informed of the perilous situation of the garri- 
son, besieged by a large body of hostile Indians, was preparing, as rapidly as pos- 
sible, to send forward re-cnfdrceinents lor its relief. The progress made by him is 
thus stated by Capt, McAfee, in his " History of the Late War in the Western 
Country," published at Frankfort, Ky., in 1816: 

" On the 1st of September they (the Kentucky troops under Gen. Harri- 
son) arrived at Dayton, and on the 3d, at Piqua, eighty miles from Cincinnati, 
and only three miles from the outside settlements.- * * * The 
Genera), having now ascertained that Fort Wayne was invaded by the neighbor- 
ing Indians,' detached Col. Allen's regiment, with ten companies from Lewes' and 
one from Scott's regiment, with orders to make forced marches for its relief. A 
regiment of 700 mounted men, under Col. Adams, had also advanced with the 
same view as far as Shanes crossing of the St. Mary's. This corps was composed 
of citizens of Ohio, of all ages and conditions, who had, unsolicited by the Gov- 
ernment, volunteered for the protection of the frontier and the relief of Fort 

" * * * On the evening of the 4th, Gen. Harrison received 
further intelligence that a British and Indian force had left Maiden on the 18th 
of August, to join the Indians already at the siege, having previously learned that 

• W. H. Jonefl, In Fort Wayue Sentinel. 


Gen Winchester had been ordered by the War Department to take command of 
,l,e Northwestern army. Gen. Harrison had intended to resign the command to 
him at Fiona, and had written to him to come on to that place ; "but, on learning 
,|,e critical situation of Fort Wayne, he determined not to wait lor Winchester, 
but to retain the command until he had relieved the fort. 

» Karly the next day, the nth of September, he paraded the rema.ndei ol 
the troops and delivered them a speech, in which he stated that Fort Wayne was 
in imminent danger, and that it was absolutely necessary t„ make forced marches 
in order to relieve it. * * * The troops were detained till the 6th 

for want of flints. On that day they marched, leaving the greater part of then- 
clothes and baggage at PiqUa, and overtook Col Allen a regiment early on the 
Sth it St Mary's River where it had been halted by express from the general, 
to build bloek-houses. * * Maj. R. M Johnson arrived on the 

evonine of the same day with a corps of mounted volunteers. The array was 
now about two thousand strong. While the troops were at Piqha, Mr. Johnston, 
the Indian Agent, at the request of Gen. Harrison, procured some Shawanon 
Indians to go down to the Auglaize to the site of old Fort Defiance, to examine 
whether any British force had passed up to the siege of Fort Wayne A 
Shawanon half-blood, by the name of Logan, who had received his name from 
havin" been taken prisoner when a boy by Gen. Logan in an excursion from 
Kentucky, had also been sent by the Agent to learn the situation of the Bort. 
He was an Indian of great, merit, and a chief warrior of his tribe, * ■ and 
" was much attached to Gen. Harrison." . 

Divefgin" for a lime, from the general narrative of Capt. McAfee, the fol- 
lowing account' giving more in detail the incidents connected with the mission of 
Lo"an and his companions, is given instead. About this time, at the fort, intense 
anxiety was visible in every countenance. A return messenger from Gov. Harri- 
son had not yet arrived to inform the inmates of the fort whether the express 
had reached him and what were the prospects of relief. The information before 
received and not contradicted, that the besieging force was to be augmented by 
the additions of the British and Indian force from Maiden under the circum- 
stances was not calculated to allay the excitement, but, indeed, to heighten it. 
At that moment, away to the eastward, the forms of four Indians and a white 
man horsemen, riding at full speed, came suddenly in view. As they approached 
the fort an Indian yell of triumph burst upon their ears— but it was not the 
triumphant yell of the besiegers that was to sound the death-knell of the beleag- 
uered -nrrison. They were an advance express, sent out to learn the true situ- 
ation of' the besieged, and to inform them that relief was_ rapidly approach"! 
These messengers were none other than young Willi; 
Logan, with his faithful Shawanon guard, who had, ' 
dred fierce Indian warriors 
their ranks and reached the garrison in safety. 

" Having pursued their course with much care until within some twenty-four 
miles of the fort, a council was called to consider the expediency of a further 
advance, when it was concluded best for all to remain behind except OF 
Logan and the other Indian attendants. On the foil 
they continued their way, ' with the co 
remarkable occurrence until they came within s 
had determined to enter fort in broad daylight 
surroundings was then made, to determine, if 

place, and how the Indians were located. Logan's observant eye soon discovered 
that the enemy was concealed along the road to intercept and cut oft' any re-en- 
forcements that might attempt to reach the fort. Under the circumstances, if 
was determined to leave the main road, and, cautiously crossing the Maumee 
River, tie their horses in a thicket and make a reconnaisance on foot to learn the 
true state of affairs. Following out this plan, they satisfied themselves fully and 
returned to their horses and remounted. Then they struck the main road again, 
and, putting whip to their horses, they started at full speed for the fort, which 
they reached safely. It was an opportune moment, for, just at that period, the 
watchful Indian guards had relaxed their vigilance— the only time for days when 
such a movement could have been similarly executed. 

" First reaching the gate of the esplanade, and finding it inaccessible, 
they descended the river bank, and were soon admitted by the northern 
gate. * * * -Entering the general gateway, which was located 

about where now stands the residence of the late James B. Hanna, or Martin 
Knoll, on Wayne street— the fort then, with several acres of ground, being 
inclosed by a substantial fence — a few moments more and all was safety. The 
tbrt.was gained, the north gate opened, and Oliver and his companions rode 
quickly in, to the great astonishment and joy of the little garrison."* 

Soon, a concise account of the situation was prepared to be forwarded to 
Gen. Harrison, the faithful Logan and his chosen braves being the appointed 
messengers. Seeing an opportunity, Logan and his companions left the fort 
quietly, but being soon observed, were pursued and fired upon, but they escaped 
unharmed, their exultant shouts announcing the fact that they had outstripped 
their pursuers and passed the guard line in safety. 

Resuming the narrative of Capt McAfee, concerning the mission of Logan, 
the author proceeds : " On his way, he eluded all the vigilance of the enemy, got 
into the fort and returned with the information of its being beseiged. He also 
brought intelligence that Stephen Johnston, a brother of the Indian Agent, had 
becn"killed in sight of the fort while attempting to escape as an express to Gen. 
Harrison, and that the Indians had tried every stratagem to get possession of the 
fort. This information was important as well as that from the Indians from the 
Auglaize, that there was no appearance of a British army having passed up ' the 
Miami of the the Lakes' (the Maumee of to-day). * * * Early 

next morning, the army marched for Fort Wayne, except the mounted volunteers, 
who remained till 12 o'clock to rest their horses and to elect a Major. R. M. 

• Brloe's History of Fort Wayne, pp. 218, 819. 

nd the brave 
i of the five hun- 
surrounded the fort, forced a passage through 

with their horses. 

of Indians, and without any 

four miles of the fort. Oliver 

A critical examination of the 

hat movement had taken 


Johnson was chosen for the office. * The army arrived 

evening at Col. Adam's camp, at Shane's crossing of the St. Mary's; and Maj. 
Johnson came up at night and encamped half a mile above the main army. On 
the morning of the 10th, some delay was caused by repairing broken wagons and 
making other necessary arrangements. The delay was not spent idly. Most of 
the different corps were paraded and drilled. Maj. Johnson's battalion was 
drilled on horseback by Capt. James Johnson, whose zeal and military informa- 
tion was surpassed hy few men of his age and opportunities. 

" The progress of the army was slow, and there was but very little water on 
the route. On the 11th, Lieut. Suggette, Adjutant of Johnson's battalion, was 
sent with twenty men from that battalion to reconnoiter in advance. Logan and 
two other Shawanoes went with them. They fell iq with a party of Indians 
who fled immediately, leaving a young Pottawatomie chief mortally wounded. 
In the evenin" they returned, and their little encounter, being the first that had 
occurred, had some effect in raising the spirits of the troops. 

" Durin" the night, there was a number of alarms caused by the Indians 
attempting to approach and examine the camp. The army was now within 
twenty miles of Fort Wayne, at which it would be able to arrive next day. Very 
early next morning, the whole army was in motion, and expecting to meet the 
Indians at a well-known swamp about five miles this side of the fort. As the 
army approached it, the horsemen, under Johnson and Adams, went round it to 
the right and left. It was about a mile long and three hundred yards wide, except 
where the road crosses it, at which place it was not more than one hundred yards 
wide. It was tolerably dry, and no enemy was seen about it, nor any appearance 
of one except a recent encampment immediately beyond the swamp. About a 
mile further, a single Indian was seen and fired upon, which caused the army to 
form in line of battle, but, no others appealing, the march was resumed, and, about 
two hours before sunset, the troops arrived at the fort. Their arrival was the 
source of no little joy to the garrison and the people, who had taken refuge in 
the fort. The Indians had fled, most of them, on the evening before, and some 
only a few moments before the appearance of the army. They were pursued by 
the Ohio horsemen, but without success. The fort had been closely invested 
for ten or twelve days by the Indians, who had made several pieces of wooden 
cannon by boring out pieces of timber and strengthening them with iron hoops. 
The army encamped around the fort, where a few days before there bad been a 
handsome little village, but it was now in ruins, having been burnt down by the 
Indians, together with the United States factory, which had been erected to fur- 
nish the ungrateful wretches with farming utensils. 

" Until' the 1st of September, llie savages about the fort had professed friend- 
ship with the view to get possession of it by stratagem. Capt. Rhea, who com- 
manded, was addicted to intoxication, for which, and his other misconduct, he was 
arrestee! by Gen. Harrison, but, on account of his age, he was permitted to resign. 
The fort was well prepared to resist a siege by Indians, as it had plenty of pro- 
visions and water, and about seventy men, with four small field pieces. It is 
delightfully situated on the south bank nf the Miami of the Lake, immediately 
below the formation of that river by the junction of the St. Mary's from the 
southwest with the St. Joseph's from the north. It is well constructed of block- 
houses and picketing, but could not resist a British force, as there are several 
eminences on the south side from which it could be commanded by a six or nine- 
pounder. This is the place where the Miami Indians formerly had their princi- 
pal town, and here many an unfortunate prisoner suffered death by burning at the 
stake. * * * For more than a century before that time, it had been 
the chief place of rendezvous between the Indians of the lakes, and those of the 
Wabash and Illinois, and had been much resorted to about 1756, and, previously, 
by French traders from Canada." 

During the siege, especially, the habit of intemperance had become so fixed 
upon Capt. Rhea as to render him wholly disqualified for the discharge of the 
important duties demanded by his position as commander of this post. Dissatis- 
faclion had, for some time, been manifested touching his conduct, and it only 
required the presence of the commanding general to cause au inquiry to be made 
upon charges preferred by Lieuts. Ostrander and Curtis. The result of this 
investigation was that, owing to his habits of inebriety, he ought no longer to 
hold a commission ; but Gen. Harrison, in consequence of the advanced age of 
the accused, gave him the alternative to resign, which was accepted, taking effect 
January 1, 1813. 

Two days after the arrival of the army at this point, Gen. Harrison separated 
his force into' two detachments, the first composed of the regiments under Cols. 
Lewis and Allen, and Capt. Garrard's troop of horse, under Gen. Payne, accom- 
panied by Gen. Harrison, the second under Col. Wells, accompanied by a 
battalion of his own regiment, under Maj. Davenport (Scott's regiment), 
the mounted battalion under Maj. Johnson, and the mounted Ohio vol- 
unteers under Maj. Adams. The purpose of this division was the destruction 
of the Indian villages round about in the immediate vicinity of Fort Wayne, as 
a means of cutting off their supplies and preventing their continuance in the 
neighborhood. And as a further means to that end, it was determined, while 
destroying the villages, to cut up and destroy their corn and other products. This 
work was rapidly accomplished, and the expedition returned after an absence of 
less than a week. On the day preceding, however, a company of mounted rifle- 
men, under Col. Farrow, from Kentucky, was sent to destroy the Little Turtle 
Village, but with special orders not to molest the buildings erected for the benefit 
of Little Turtle at the expense of the United States, because of the great friend- 
ship of that chief for the white people. 

In addition to the aforementioned precautions, to the end that the places of 
concealment in the immediate vicinity of the fort which enabled the Indians to 
make assaults upon the garrison unobserved, might be destroyed, Gen Harrison 
next caused all the trees and undergrowth to be cut down and removed from the 
fort grounds, extending toward the confluence of the St. Joseph's and St. Mary's 



to the site of lludisell's Mill, and westward as far as St. Mary's, to the point 
where the Fort Wayne College now stands ; thence southeast to about the point 
where the residence of the late Allen Hamilton now stands, and to the Maumee 
on the east, embracing almost the entire area of the city. This clearing was so 
thoroughly accomplished that, it is said by those whose early residence here 
enabled them to know, a sentinel "on the bastions of the fort, looking westward 
could see a rabbit running across the grounds as far as so'small an object was dis- 
cernible to the naked eye." By this means the soldiers were enabled to observe 
the approach of an enemy in time to bring the guns of the fort to bear upon auv 
hostile movement. 

On the 19th of September, Gen. Harrison made an official report of his pro- 
ceedings in (bis expedition to the War Department, when he was ready to sur- 
render his command into the hands of Gen. Winchester. Having done so, ho 
returned to Piqua, where he took command of the force collecting there, with the 
first division of Kentucky troops, which had already advanced for the re-enforce- 
ment of the Northwestern army, in preparation for a mounted expedition against. 
Detroit. On the 20th, the General met those men at St. Mary's (Girty's town), 
the infantry not having arrived. Subsequently, he directed Maj. Johnson, with 
his dragoons, to return at once to Fort Wayne, and there await further orders. 
They returned accordingly. 



By the treaty of Greenville, Ohio, concluded on the 3d day of August, 
1795, between Maj. Gen. Anthony Wayne, commanding the army of the United 
States, and sole Commissioner for the good purposes above mentioned, "to put an 
end to a destructive war, to settle all controversies, and to restore harmony and 
friendly intercourse between the said United States and Indian tribes "—and the 
" Sachems, Chiefs and Warriors " of " the Wyandots, Delawares, Shawanoes, 
Ottawas, Chippewas, Pottawatomies, Miamis, Eel Rivers, Weas, Kickapoos, 
Piankcshaws and Kaskaskias — the first agreement concerning the lands and the 
grant thereof by the Indians at and in the vicinity of Fort Wayne was consum- 
mated. The scope and purpose of that treaty, so far as the purposes of this 
work are concerned, can best be determined by a reference to some of the con- 
ference proceedings incident to the conclusion of the treaty as we find it. In 
these discussions, the principal subject of controversy, and which needed to be 
settled, was that in reference to the validity of cessions made by former treaties, 
in which, as the Indians claimed, they had not been fully represented. To Little 
Turtle, then, who best represented the interests and rights of the Miamis of this 
locality, let us look for an explanation of the matters in issue. Gen. Wayne 
having previously explained the basis upon which he expected to consummate this 
treaty, Little Turtle, in reply, said, " You have informed us that the treaty of 
Muskingum shall be the foundation on which the present treaty shall be founded. 
That treaty was held by the six nations, and by a few young men of the Chippe- 
ways, Ottawas and Pottawatomies. We, Miamis and Wabash tribes, arc totally 
unacquainted with it." 

Other members of the council having spoken, Little Turtle added : " I wish 
to ask of you (elder brother) and my brothers present one question. I would 
be glad to know what lands have been ceded to you, as I am informed, in this 
particular. I expect that the lands on the Wabash and in this country belong 
to me and my people. I now take the opportunity to inform my brothers of the 
United States, and others present, that there are men of sense and understanding 
among my people, as well as among theirs, and that these lands were disposed of 
without our knowledge or consent. - I was yesterday surprised when I heard from 
our grandfathers, the Delawares, that these lands had been ceded by the British 
to the Americans, when the former were beaten by and made peace with the 
latter, because you had before told us that it was the Wyandots, Delawares, 
Ottawas, Chippewas, Pottawatomies, Sauckeys who made this cession." 

On the following day, July 22, Little Turtle resumed, and addressing Gen. 
Wayne, said, " I hope you will pay attention to what I now say to you. I wish 
to inform you where your younger brothers, the Miamis, live ; and also the Potta- 
watomies of St. Joseph, together with the Wabash Indians. You have pointed 
out to us the boundary line between the Indians and the United States ; but I 
now take the liberty to inform you that that line cuts off from the Indians a 
large portion of country which has been enjoyed by my forefathers, time imme- 
morial, without restriction or dispute. The prints of my ancestors' houses are 
everywhere to be seen in this portion. I was a little astonished to hear you and 
my brothers, who are now present, telling each other what business you had 
transacted together heretofore, at Muskingum, concerning this country. It is 
well known by all my brothers present that my forefathers kindled the first fire 
at Detroit; from thence he extended his lines to the head-waters of Scioto, from 
thence to the mouth, from thence down the Ohio to the mouth ot the Wabash, 
and from thence to Chicago, on Lake Michigan. At this place I first saw my 
elder brothers, the Shawanoes. 

" I have now informed you of the boundaries of the Miami nations, where 
the Great Spirit placed my forefather a longtime ago, and charged him not to sell 
or part with Jiis lands, but to preserve them for his posterity. This charge has 
been handed down to me. I was much surprised to find that my brothers differed 
so much from me on this subject, for their conduct would lead me to suppose that 
the Great Spirit and their forefathers, had not given them the same charge that 
was given to me ; but, on the contrary, had directed them to sell their lands to 
any white man who wore a hat, as soon as he should ask it of them. Now, elder 

brother, your younger brothers, the Miamis, have pointed out to you their country, 
and also to our brothers present. When I hear your remarks and proposals on 
this subject, I will be ready to give you an answer. I came with an expectation 
of hearing you say good things, but I have not yet heard what I had expected " 

Two days later, Gen. Wayne, addressing the Miamis, said : " I have paid 
attention to what the Little Turtle said two days since, concerning the lands which 
he claims. He said bis father kindled the fire at Detroit, and stretched his line 
from there to the headwaters of the Seioto ; thence down the same to the Ohio : 
thence down that river to the mouth of the Wabash, and thence to Ghicaga 
on the southwest end of Lake Michigan; and observed that his forefathers lad 
enjoyed that country undisturbed, from time immemorial. 

" Brothers ! these boundaries inclose a very large space of country indeed ■ 
they embrace, if I mistake not, all the lands on which all the nations now present 
live, as well as those which have been ceded lo the United States. The lands which 
have been ceded within these three days have been acknowledged by the Ottawas 
Chippewas, Pottawatomies, Wyandots, Delawares and Shawanoes. The Little 
Turtle says the prints of his forefather's houses are everywhere to be seen within 
these boundaries. Younger brothers I it is true these prints are to be observed, 
but at the same time we discover the marks of French possessions throughout this 
country, winch were established long before we were born. These have since 
been in the possession of the British, who must, in their turn, relinquish them to 
the United States, when they, the French and the Indians, will be all as one 

" I will point out to you a few places where I discover strong traces of these 
establishments; and first of all, I find at Detroit a very strong print, where the 
fire was first kindled by your forefathers ; next at Vincennes, on the Wabash ; 
again at Musquiton, on the same river ; a little higher up the stream, they are to 
be seen at Ouitanon. I discover another strong trace at Chicago ; another on the 
St. Joseph's of Lake Michigan. I have seen distinctly the prints of a French and 
of a British post, at the Miami villages, and of a British post at the foot of the rapids, 
now in their possession. Prints very conspicuous are on tile Great Miami, which' 
were possessed by the French forty-five years ago ; and another trace is very dis- 
tinctly to be seen at Sandusky." 

" It appears to me that if the Great Spirit, as you say, charged your fore- 
fathers to preserve their lands entire, for their posterity, they have" paid very little 
regard to the sacred injunction, for I see they have parted with those lands to 
your fathers, the French, and the English are now, or have been, in possession of 
them all ; therefore, I think the charge urged against the Ottawas, Chippewas and 
other Indians, comes with a bad grace, indeed, from the very people who, per- 
haps, set them the example. The English aud French both wore hats, and yet 
your forefathers sold them, at various times, portions of your lands. However 
as I have already observed, you shall now receive from the United States further 
valuable compensations for the lands you have ceded to them by former treaties. . 

"Younger brothers ! I will now inform you who it was who gave us these 
lands in the first instance ; it was your fathers, the British, who did not discover 
that care for your interests which you ought to have experienced." 

On a subsequent day, Gen. Wayne further explained the grounds for the 
propo-cd treaty in the following language: " You will consider that the principal 
part of the now proposed reservations were made and ceded by the Indians, at 
an early period, to the French ; the French, by the treaty of peace of 1763, 
ceded them to the British, who, by the treaty of 1783, ceded all the posts and 
possessions they then held, or to which they had any claim, south of the great 
lakes, to the United States of America. The treaty of Muskingum embraced 
almost all these reservations, and has been recognized by the representatives of all 
the nations now present, during the course of last winter, as the basis upon which 
this treaty should be founded." 

Frequently, during the progress of the conference, Little Turtle, as the 
master mind among the Indians, with the manifest desire to have all the repre- 
sentatives of tribes present fully understand all the details of the deliberations, 
harangued them upon the subject, requesting that they be not precipitate, but 
consider well what they were doing. He replied, also, to some of the statements 
of Gen. Wayne, who had spoken of the habitations of the French and English 
traders at the Miamis' village and elsewhere, saying : " I will inform you in what 
manner the French and English occupied these places. 

" Elder brothers ! These people were seen by our forefathers first at Detroit ; 
afterward they saw them at the Miami village—that glorious gate which your 
younger brothers had the happiness to own, and through which all the good 
words of our chiefs had to pass, from the north to the south, and from the east 
to the west. Brothers, these people never told us they wished to purchase our 


"Elder brothers! I now give you the true sentiments of your younger 
brothers, the Miamis, with respect to the reservation at the Miami villages. We 
thank you for kindly contracting the limits you at first proposed. We wish you 
to take this six miles square, on this side of the river where your fort now 
stands, as your younger brothers wish to inhabit that beloved spot again. You 
shall cut hay for your cattle wherever you please, and you shall never require in 
vain the assistance of your younger brothers at that place. 

" Elder brothers ! The next place you pointed to was the Little River, and 
said you wanted two miles square at that place. This is a request that our fath- 
ers, the French or British, never made us — it was always ours. This carrying- 
place has heretofore proved, in a great degree, the subsistence of your younger 
brothers. That place has brought us, in the course of one day, the amount of 
one hundred dollars. Let us both own this place and enjoy in common the 
advantages it affords. You told us, at Chicago, the French possessed a fort; we 
have never heard of it. We thank you for the trade you promised to open in 
our country ; and permit us to remark that we wish our former traders may be 
continued and mixed with yours." 



A day or two afterward, when the deliberations were nearly concluded, Gen. 
Wayne again spoke, addressing the Miainis; after reviewing generally the objec- 
tions suited by them to the proposed terms, he said : 

" I 6nd there is some objection to the reservation at Fort Wayne. The 
Little Turtle observes he never heard of any cessions made at that place to the 
French. I have traced the lines of two forts at that point — one stood at the 
junction of the St. Joseph's and the St. Mary's, and the other not far removed, 
on the St. Mary's ; and it is ever an established rule among Europeans to reserve 
as much ground around their forts as their cannon can command; this is a rule 
as well known as any other fuct. 

"Objection has also been made respecting the portage between Fort Wayne 
and Little River, and the reasons produced are that the road has been to the 
Miainis a source of wealth ; that it has heretofore produced them 8100 per day. 
It may be so; but let us inquire, who in fact paid this heavy contribution? It 
is true, the traders bore it in the first instance; but they laid it on their goods, 
ani the Indians of the Wabash really and finally paid; therefore, it is the Little 
Beaver, the Soldier, the Sun and their tribes who have actually been so highly 
taxed. The United States will always be their own carriers to and from their 
different posts. Why, then, should the United States pay the large sum of 
S8,000 annually if they were not to enjoy the privilege of open roads to and 
from their reservations? This sum the United States agree to pay for this and 
other considerations; and the share which the Miainis will receive of this 
annuity shall be §1,000. * * * The Miamis shall be at liberty, 

as usual, to employ themselves for private traders whenever their assistance may 
be required, and those people that have lived at that glorious gate (the Miami 
villages) may now rekindle their fires at that favorite spot, and henceforth, as in 
their happiest days, be at full liberty to receive from and send to all quarters the 
speeches of their chiefs, as usual, and here is the road the Miamis will remem- 

The treaty was concluded on the 3d of August, all the provisions and stipu- 
lations having been thoroughly considered and assented to by all the representa- 
tives of tribes present. 

When the essential provisions bad been agreed upon, Little Turtle expressed 
his satisfaction in the following forcible language : " Elder brother ! Your 
younger brothers, the Miamis, now thank you for the sentiments you have 
expressed and for burying the hatchet. They offer, at the same time, their 
acknowledgments to their elder brother of the fifteen fires for throwing his toma- 
hawk, with so strong an arm, into the great ocean. We are convinced of the 
sincerity with which these actions are performed. I do not believe the hatchet 
was ever before buried so deep. I fancy it has always, heretofore, been cast into 
shallow, running water, which has washed it up on dry land, where some of our 
foofish young men have alwaj T s found it, to involve their people in trouble." 

The provisions of that treaty, especially affecting this locality, are the 
following: "And for the same considerations, and as an evidence of the returning 
friendship of the said Indian tribes, of their confidence in the United States and 
desire to provide for the convenient intercourse, which will be beneficial to both 
pjrties, the said Indian tribes do also cede to the United States the following 
pieces of land, to wit: One piece six miles square at or near the confluence of 
the rivers St. Mary's and St. Joseph's, where Fort Wayue now stands, or 
near it. One piece two miles square on the Wabash River, at the end of the 
portage from the Miami of the lake and about eight miles westward from Fort 

" And the said Indian tribes will allow to the people of the United States a 
free passing by laud and by water as one and the other shall be found convenient 
through their country along the chain of posts hereinbefore mentioned, that is to 
say, from the commencement of the portage aforesaid, at or near Loramie's store, 
thence along said portage to the St. Mary's and down the same to Fort Wayne, 
then down the Miami to Lake Erie; also from Fort Wayne, 

along the portage aforesaid, which leads to the Wabash, and thence down the 
Wabash to the Ohio." 

This treaty was signed on the part of the Miamis by Na-goh-quan-gogh, or 
Le Gris ; Mesh-a-kun-no guab, or Little Turtle, and by Wa-pa-mun gwa, or 
White Loon. 

On the 7th day of June, 1S03, a treaty was held at Fort Wayne, between 
Gen. "William H. Harrison, Governor of the Indiana Territory. Superintendent 
of Indian Affairs and Commissioner Plenipotentiary of the United States for 
concluding any treaty or treaties which may be found necessary with any of the 
Indian tribes northwest of the Ohio, of the one part, and the tribes of Indians 
called the Delawares, Shawanoes. Pottawatomies, Miamis and Kickapoos by their 
chiefs and head warriors and those of the Eel Rivers, Weas, Piankeshaws and 
Kaskaskias, by their agents and representatives, Tuthinipec, Winnemae, Ricbe- 
ville and Little Turtle, of the other part." 

It was the purpose of this treaty among other things to re-adjust the bound- 
aries of certain lands reserved by the United States for their use adjacent to the 
post of St. Vincennes, by the fourth article of the treaty of Greenville, prescrib- 
ing new boundaries, fur said reservations and relinquishing all right of the United 
States to any lands adjoining to or in the neighborhood thereof. This treaty 
also was signed on the part of the Miamis by Chiefs Richeville and Little Turtle. 
The cessions of land to the United States by this treaty embraced an area of 
about one million six hundred thousand aeres. 

Another treaty was held here, which was concluded and signed on the 30th 
day of September. 1809, between William H. Harrison, Commissioner on the 
part of the United States, and the Delawares, Pottawatomies, Miamis and Eel 
River Miamis, by which the Indian tribes named ceded to the United States all 
the tract of country included between the boundary line established by the treaty 
of Fort Wayne, the Wabash and a line drawn from the mouth of Raccoon Creek, 
so as to strike the boundary line established by the treaty of Grouseland, near 

In this treaty, the Miamis explicitly acknowledged the equal right of 
the Delawares with themselves to the country watered by the White River, neither 
party having the right to dispose of the same without the consent of the other. 
The compensation to the Miamis lor the cessions made to the United States was 
an annuity of S500. The amount of land ceded to the United States by this 
treaty was estimated at about two million nine hundred thousand aeres. Since 
the validity of this treaty depended upon its ratification by the Weas, that tribe, 
on the 20th of October following, confirmed the same by a separate article of the 
last-named treaty, upon the request of the Miami nation ; additional compensa- 
tion was allowed them, and it w;is therefore " agreed, that the United States 
shall deliver for their use, in the course of the next spring, at Fort Wayne, 
domestic animals to the amount of §500, and the like number for the two follow- 
ing years, and that an armory shall be also maintained at Fort Wayne, for the 
use of the Iudians, as heretofore. * * * * The United States 

will allow to the Miamis a further permanent annuity of $200." 

By the treaty at St. Mary's, Ohio, on the 6th day of October, 1818, between 
Jonathan Jennings, Lewis Cass and Benjamin Parke, Commissioners on the part 
of the United States and the Miami Indians, the latter ceded to the former the 
following tract of country : " Beginning at the Wabash River, where the present 
Indian boundary line crosses the same, near the mouth of Raccoon Creek; thence 
up the Wabash River to the reserve at its head near Fort Wayne ; thence to the 
reserves at Fort Wayne; thence with the lines thereof to the St. Mary's River; 
thence up the St. Mary's River to the reservation at the Portage ; thence to the 
reservation at Loramie's Store; thence, with the present Indian boundary line, to 
Fort Recovery ; and with said line * * * to the place of 

From said cession, certain reservations were made, among others, a " reser- 
vation of ten miles square opposite the mouth of the river A. Bouette " [Aboite]. 
'•To Jean Bapt. RichardvUle, principal chief of the Miami nation of Indians 
three sections of land, beginning almost twenty-five rods below 
his house on the river St. Mary's, near Fort Wayne ; thence, at right angles 
with the course of the river, one mile; and from this line and the said river, up 
the stream thereof for quantity. Two sections upon the east side of the St. 
Mary's River, near Fort Wayne, running east one mile with the military reser- 
vation ; thence from that line, and from the river for quantity. 

"To Joseph RichardvUle and Joseph Richaidville. Jr., two sections of land, 
being one on each side of the St. Mary's River, and below the reservation made 
on that river by the treaty of Greenville, in 1795. 

" To Francois La Fontaine, and his son, two sections of land, adjoining and 
above the two sections granted to Jean Bapt. RichardvUle, near Fort Wayne, and 
on the same side of the St. Mary's River. 

" To the son of George Hunt, one section of land on the west side of the 
St. Mary's River, adjoining the two sections granted to Francois La Fontaine and 
his son. 

" To Mishe-no-qua, or the Little Turtle, one section of land, on the south 
side of the Wabash, where the portage path strikes the same. 

"To Josette Beaubien, one section of land an the left bank of the St. 
Mary's, above and adjoining the three sections granted to Jean Bapt. Richard- 

At a later date, by treaty between Lewis Cass, James B. Ray and John Tip- 
ton, Commissioners on the part of the United States, and the chiefs and warriors 
of the Pottawatomie tribe of Indians, held at the mouth of the Mississinewa, 
upon the Wabash, in the State of Indiana, on the Ib'th day of October, 1826, 
further territory was ceded in part, lying within the present boundary of this 
county, being that part between the St. Joseph's and the Maumee; also, that 
part west of the boundary line established by the treaty of St. Mary's, with the 
Miamis in 1818. Out of this certain individual reservations were made, among 
others, " To Fliza C. Kercheval, one section on the Miami River, commencing at 
the first place where the road from Fort Wayne to Detroit strikes the Miami, on 
the north side thereof, about, five miles below Fort Wayne, and from that point 
running half a mile down the river, and half a mile up the river, and back for 

" To James Knaggs, son of the sister of Okeos, chief of the River Huron 
Pottawatomies, one section of land upon the Miami, where the boundary line 
between Indiana and Ohio crosses the same. 

"To John B. Bourie, of Indian descent, one section of land, to be located on 
the Miami River, adjoining the old boundary line below Fort Wayne. 

" To Joseph Parke, an Indian, one section of land, to be located at the point 
where the boundary line strikes the St. Joseph's, near Me tea's village." 

A week afterward, on the 23d day of October. 1826, a treaty was held on 
the same ground, between the same Commissioners on the part of the United 
States, and the chiefs and warriors of the Miami tribe of Indians, by which the 
Miamis ceded "to the United States all their claims to land in the State of 
Indiana, north and west of the Wabash and Miami Rivers, and of the cession 
made by the said tribe to the United States, by the treaty concluded at St. Mary's, 
Octobers, 1818." 

From the cession aforesaid, certain reservations were made for the use of the 
tribe: "One section for Laventure's daughter, opposite the Islands, about fifteen 
miles below Fort Wayne. 

" And it is agreed that the State of Indiana may lay out a canal or a road 
through any of the reservations, and for the use of a canal, six chains along the 
same are hereby appropriated. 

" To Ann Hackley and Jack Hackley, one section- each, between the Mau- 
mee and St. Joseph's Rivers. 

"To the children of Maria Christiana De Rome, a half-blood Miami, one 
section between the Maumee and the St. Joseph's. 

" To La Gros, one section adjoining the Cranberry, in the Portage Prairie," 





was of English origin. His antecedents in paternal line were natives of England. 
In 1681, Anthony Wayne, his grandfather, left that kingdom and removed 
to Ireland, where he devoted himself to agricultural pursuits. Nino 
vears later, he entered the army of William, Prince of Orange, against King 
James of England, and participated in the battles of the Boyne aud in the siege 
of Limerick. Becoming dissatisfied with the rule of his adopted country, he 
crossed the Atlantic and fouud a home suited to his tastes and inclinations in the 
colony of Pennsylvania, in what is now Chester County. In his emigration to 
this country, he was accompanied by his family. His settlement in this country 
occurred in the year 1722. His son Isaac, the father of our hero, settled in this 
country also, who, like his father, was a tiller of the soil and well adapted to that 
pursuit, of all others the best calculated to develop the spirit of liberty. 

Here, on the 1st day of Jannary, 1745, Anthony Wayne, the " Mad 
Anthony" of a later period, was born. Inheriting the military spirit of his 
ancestors, his mind strengthened with his growth, developing also the latent germ 
of military genius which soon became the governing motive of his youthful career. 
His boyhood days were most satisfactorily spent in pursuing his mind's ideal. It 
is related of him that, when quite young, his progress at school was so much 
interrupted by his penchant for military exercises that he was for a time obliged 
to cease his attendance. Afterward, however, upon being convinced of the pro- 
priety of more studious habits by the earnest admonitions of his father, he com- 
menced anew his educational career and made most rapid advancement in those 
departments of study which appertain to active military life. Mathematics seem- 
ing to possess a charm for him. he distanced all classmates in this his favorite 

About the year 1766, when, after the treaty of peace between Great Britain 
and France had been signed, and the questions growing out of the adjustment of 
boundaries in territorial acquisitions had been settled, the propriety of colonizing 
some of the unappropriated territory became a momentous consideration. At 
this time, Nova Scotia had just passed into the hands of the British Government, 
and the question of advantageous settlements in that quarter was the subject of 
discussion among the people of Pennsylvania. Associations and land companies 
were formed with a view to establishing colonies there. In order to make these 
land associations available as a source of revenue, special agents were necessary to 
visit the territory, examine the soil and report its adaptcdness to purposes of 
agriculture. Prominent among these was a company composed of merchants and 
others, resident in Pennsylvania. Young Wayne was selected as the agent of 
this company, appointed on the suggestion of Dr. Franklin, one of its members. 
Having accomplished all that was contemplated by his mission there, he returned 
the folTowing year, at a time when the difficulties between Great Britain and her 
colonial dependencies began to assume appearances of hostile settlement. The 
exigencies of the situation seeming to demand his presence at home, his mission 
terminated more abruptly than might have been the case under other circum- 
stances. He returned home accordingly, and became an active participant in the 
discussions of the day. 

Soon after his return, he was married to the daughter of Benjamin Parsons, 
a distinguished Philadelphia merchant. After his marriage, he. returned again to 
Chester County, where lie was extensively engaged in surveying, agricultural pur- 
suits occupying a portion of his time. When the menacing attitude of Great 
Britain toward the Colonies approached a crisis, and it became necessary to meet 
force with force, Wayne was among the first to offer his services for the mainte- 
nance of right and the punishment of wrong. 

The energy and capacity manifested by him, at an early period in the strug- 
gle, brought him so prominently before the public that, in January, 1776, he was 
granted a Colonel's commission by the Continental Congress. Under that com- 
mission, he took command of " one of the four regiments required from Pennsyl- 
vania in the re-enforcement of the Northern army." In the latter part of June, of 
that year, his regiment was called into active service, forming a part of Thomp- 
son's brigade, at the mouth of Sorel River, in Canada. During the engagement 
consequent upon the movement in the direction of Three Rivers, he distin- 
guished himself by a brilliant, though partially unsuccessful defense, against a 
greatly superior forco of British troops. Here, he maintained his position so 
well that he gained a position on the western side of Des Loup's River, and was 
enabled to reach the American camp at the mouth of the Sorel River in safety. 
Before entering the theater of war, however, " he was a Deputy in the Provincial 
Congress of his native State, which assembled in 1774. In the same year, he was 
a member of the Provincial Legislature. In the following year, he was a mem- 
ber of the Committee of Public Safety." 

In the latter part of July, 1776, he was placed in command of the post of 
Ticonderoga, with a force of 2,500 men. So well had he thus far maintained 
his reputation for military skill; that Congress, in consideration of his position as 
commandant at so important a post, conferred upon him the title of Brigadier 
General. He remained in charge of that post until the following spring. At 
that time, being called to the ranks of the main army, under Washington, he 
reached headquarters on the 15th of May, 1777, and was at once placed at the 
head of a brigade " which could not fail, under his direction," says Washington, 
" to be soon and greatly distinguished." 

At the battle of Brandywine, he was distinguished for his bravery ; having 
been assigned the post of honor, leading the American aitaek, " he performed 
the service with a gallantry * * habitual to himself, and the division 

he commanded." Again, in the battle of Germantown, which shortly succeeded, 
"he led bis division into the thickest of the fight, received two wounds and hud 

his horse killed under him. For his gallantry in the subsequent battle of Mon- 
mouth, Gen. Washington mentioned him, in his official letter, with great appro- 

In the engagement at Stony Point, on the 16th of July, 1777, his desperate 
and successful attack was the occasion of the name " Mad Anthony," by which 
he was subsequently known ; but, it also procured for him a gold medal from 
Congress, a mark of distinction nut frequently awarded. His laconic report of 
that action has often been quoted as a model of its kind. " Shortly after capturing 
and entering the fortification of the enemy, he was struck by a musket-ball on 
the head, which caused his fall ; but he immediately rallied, crying out, ' March 
on ; carry me into the fort, for, should the wound be mortal, [ will die at the head 
of the column.' " 

This engagement is reported to have been " the most brilliant of the war." 
Washington, in his report to Congress, referring to it and to the commanding offi- 
cer, says: "To the encomiums he (Wayne) has deservedly bestowed on the offi- 
cers and men under his command, it gives me pleasure to add that his own conduct 
throughout the whole of this arduous enterprise merits the warmest approbations 
of Congress. He improved on the plan recommended by me, aud executed it in 
a manner that docs honor to his judgment and bravery." Congress also tendered 
him a vote of thanks. 

His strength as a successful military officer was not more in the management 
of his men en the field of battle than iu his ability to adjust matters of complaint 
among them and the suppression of mutinies which occasionally broke out. An 
instance in point is given. In the early part of January, 1781, after the army 
had been distributed in winter quarters, being poorly provisioned and supplied with 
clothing necessary for comfort, and in want, too, of the means of providing these, a 
spirit of insubordination and mutiny was found to be fully developed in Wayne's 
division, among others, which threatened a passage at arms. Things had so nearly 
approached a crisis that disobedience to orders and attempts to take the redress of 
wrongs into their own hands were resorted to. The crisis was reached when the 
insurgents had set out on march toward Princeton. At that time, Wayne was 
stationed in the neighborhood of Morristown. Aware of the situation, he deter- 
mined to follow and bring them again to order. Overtaking the main body at 
Vealtown, he at once, in a dignified and conciliatory manner, " began to open 
negotiations with some of the non-commissioned officers in whom he placed most 
confidence; and it was not long before he succeeded in convincing them that, in 
order to succeed in their demands, a change in their course and demeanor would 
be of the first necessity ; that without such a course of order on the part of the 
aggrieved, nothing whatever could be effected ; urging the neeesdty ot organizing 
a board or appointing a committee among them to sot forth their grievances, and 
by 'a full and clear statement of their demands,' pledging himself to become a 
zealous advocate in their behalf, in ' so far as the claims made should be founded 
injustice or equity.'" The result of this policy was all that could have been 
desired; the committee was duly appointed, and the march to Princeton resumed 
with a greater show of satisfaction on the part of the malcontents. 

In the early part of April, 1781, the British having sent a formidable force 
to operate against the industrial interests of the South, it became necessary to 
counteract the effect of this movement by sending to Virginia a detachment of 
troops to meet the emergency. Gen. La Fayette was sent to Virginia, and, soon 
after, Gen. Wayne, with the remains of the Pennsylvania line, followed, co-oper- 
atin" Willi him. The British were met at Green Springs, and. after dri~ : — 

;my s pickets. Gen. Wayne, in person, advanced to within " fifty yards of the 
whole British army, drawn up in order of battle, and already pushing forward 
flank corps to envelop him. Determining to make up in boldness what he 
seemed to have lost or was about to lose in a too near approach to the enemy's 
lines, he made a bold and sudden move upon the enemy, and then retreated, 
which gave the British Commandant to infer that it was an effort to draw his 
force into ambush, which made so decided an impression that all pursuit of the 
American corps was forbidden." 

At the beginning of the next year, Wayne was sent to adjust some difficul- 
ties in Georgia, and " to re-instate, as far as might be possible, the authority of 
the Union within the limits of that State, with one hundred regular dragoons, 
three hundred undisciplined Georgia militia, and about the same number of State 
cavalry." He gives his own account of the expedition in these words : " The 
duty we have done in Georgia was more difficult than that imposed upon the 
children of Israel ; they had only to make bricks without straw, but we have had 
provision, forage, aud almost every other apparatus of war, to procure without 
money ; boats, bridges, etc., to build without material, except those taken from 
the stump ; and, what was more difficult than all, to make lV%s out of IWs-. 
But this we have effected, and wrested the country out of the hands ot the 
enemy, with the exception only of the town of Savannah. How to keep it with- 
out some additional force, is a matter worthy of consideration. On the 12th 
of July following. Savannah was evacuated by the British troops and Gen. Wayne 
was recalled, the war of the Revolution being at an end. 

The General, however, was doomed not long to remain idle— his sword was 
again in demand wielded by a master's hand. Indian hostilities in the North- 
west brought into requisition his eminent experience in the department of 
In April, 1792, he was appointed, by President Washington, to lie 
the Army of the Northwest, and immediately began his prepari 
expedition which redounded so much to his own glory ami the . 
the Indians, on the banks of the Maumee, August 20,1794. One 
of this very decisive engagement was the treaty of Greenville. 
August, 1795. About this time, also, he was appointed sole Co 
treat with the Northwestern Indians, and also " received ot 
given up by the British Government," which called I 


3d of 

after a prompt and faithful discharge of the doties attached to these not 
lions while descending Lake Eric from Detroit, he was attacked by the 

West, " and, 




from which he soon after died, in December, 1796. He was buried at the foot 
of the flagstaff at Fort Brie, where his remains continued to repose until 1309, 
when they were removed by his son and deposited in the family burial place, in 
tho cemetery of St. David's Church, iu his native county. Subsequently, a fine 

monument was erected there by the " Pennsylvania State Society of the Cincin 
nati." But no better or more fitting monument could have marked his lastburia 
place than that which reposes iu the memory of a grateful people, proud of th 
recollection of his noble deeds. 




i'U- Physical Geography and Geology of Allen. County.— Pre-HistoHc Remains. 
Th? Mound-Builders.— Retrospective View. — Cowdusioiis. 


The physical geography of Allen County presents some remarkable features 
worthy of more extended mention than is within the power of the writer to give, 
and, in some of its features, worthy of scientific investigation. Its geological 
features have had little study, from the fact that there is not, within the limits of the 
county, any outcrop of rocks, for the reason that all the rocks have been planed 
off" by glacial action, and the smooth surface tlms formed covered to an average 
depth of eighty feet by the drift of the glacial epoch. The boring of the arte- 
sian well iu the Court House Square to the depth of 3,000 feet without obtaining 
flowing water, gave us the first information we had of what lay beneath us. For 
eighty-eight feet the bore was through glnehl drift., when it struck the first rock, 
which is a light-colorrd limestone of the Niagara epoch, and continued to a depth 
of 2,500 feet, through limestones of varying colors and hardness, after which soft, 
calcareous rock, still belonging to the Lower Silurian, was found to the depth 
reached by the bore. 

The surface of the county is generally flat, but marked elevations occur at 
different points, without any of the bluff formations peculiar to many sections 
through which considerable streams pass. Fort Wayne, situated nearly in the 
geographical center of the county, is called the " Summit City," but is only a 
summit on the lines running easterly and westerly, for on a north and south line, 
it is one of the lowest points in this section. The altitude of Fort Wayne at the 
P., F. W. & C. Railroad depot is 7S5 feet above sea level ; at Bruce's Station, 
on the Grand Rapids road, near the north line of the county, the altitude is 877 
feet; and at the Wells County line, south on the Muncie roid, 829 feet ; to the 
east, where the W. & E. Canal crosses the State line the altitude is 750 feet; and 
near the west line of the county it is 744 feet. 

It will be seen from these figures that Fort Wayne is ninety-two feet lower 
than the north line, and forty-four feet lower than the south line of the county, 
while it :s thirty-five feet higher than the east, and forty-one feet higher than the 
west line. 

The river systems of the county deserve especial notice. Two considerable 
streams, the St. Joseph's and St. Mary's, rise in Ohio and flow through the eastern 
portion of the county to Fort Wayne. The former flows in a general southwest- 
erly direction, the latter in a northwesterly direction, until they unite, forming 
the Maumee, when, instead of flowing onward in the same general direction, the 
united stream turns backward, as it were, and flows northeastward between its con- 
fluents, through Northwestern Ohio to Lake Erie. 

Running through the northwestern corner of the county, Eel River takes 
its course to the Wabash in a southwest direction, while Little River and the 
Aboite, lower down, take the same general course to the Wabash. The county 
thus forms a water-shed, part of whose waters discharge through the Maumee, the 
chain of Lakes and the St. Lawrence, into the Atlantic, and the rest through the 
Wabash, Ohio and Mississippi into the Gulf of Mexico. 

To the westward of Fort Wayne, these two systems approach so nearly that 
the waters of the great prairie discharge on one side into the rivers flowing to the 
Gulf, and on the other side into those rivers flowing to the Lakes, and only about 
four feet of earth prevents the two systems, represented by the St. Mary's and 
Little Rivers, from mingling their waters. It is traditional that, since the advent 
of the whites, a canoe could, in high water, he paddled from one river to the other 
across the prairie, and it is extremely probable that the prairie itself is a filled-up 
lake, whose waters at some period discharged both ways. 

But in a geological period, extending back to an unknown antiquity, the 
surface geology of this section presented a far different appearance, and, by a 
study of its then features as revealed by science, much that now appears anom- 
alous is easily explained. 

To go back to the glacial period. No history has been written of the grand 
operations of Nature in that wonderful age, except what is written by the hand 

by the moraines and other deposits 
le when the heat was so intense that 

of Nature herself upon the surface of the earth, but some of these writings are 
still so plain as to be easily deciphered in the light of science. 

Before the glacial period, Lake Erie probably had its southwestern rim at 
Huntington, where the outcropping limestone ridge formed a rocky margin, over 
which the great inland sea discharged its waters into the Wabash. Valley. This 
was in what is denominated the lacustrine epoch, when the great Lakes were 
dammed back from an eastern outlet, by a rocky chain which was afterward 
broken through, and which raised Lake Erie to an altitude of 200 feet higher 
than its present level. Then came a period of great cold, and when great ice 
fields pushed down from the north and covered all the country with a glacier 
extending south to the Ohio River, and even beyond it in some places, but there 
the advancing ice seems to have met a warm wave which stayed its progress, and 
ultimately caused it to retreat slowly before it. It seems to have had alternate 
periods of advance and retreat, as shown 
formed at its foot, but at last the- time can 
these periods were more frequent, and the debris from the melting ice-foot was 
piled up in great ridges, which clearly mark the sites where the glacier edge 
rested, as if unwilling further to retreat. 

The first of these we will notice is known as the Wabash Ridge, named from 
the Wabash River, which flows along the south side of it for several miles in 
Mercer County, Ohio, and in Jay County, Ind., thence northeasterly until its 
clear outline is lost iu the general drift. 

The next is the St. Mary's Ridge, so named from the St. Mary's River, 
whose course is determined by it for more than fifty miles, twenty of which are 
in Allen County, and in the same manner determining the course of the St. 
Joseph's for nearly the same distance. Its general form bore some resemblance to 
the southwest extremity of Lake Erie, and might have been the lake shore, but 
for the continued changes of the ice-foot. While that ridge retained its original 
form — nearly a V, pointing eastward to Fort Wayne, with its apex just east of 
the St. Mary's Bridge, where we are all familiar with the steep bank of hard- 
pan, the waters of the St. Joseph's and the St. Mary's, then, doubtless, great 
rushing streams flowing from the sides of the glacier, converged into one stream, 
which flowed westerly through the basin of Little River and the prairie, forming 
a grand river flowing through the AVabash Valley to the Gulf. Then followed 
another moraine, but smaller, which crosses the Maumee about half-way between 
Fort Wayne and New Haven, and is known as the Van Wert Ridge, and other 
moraines are traceable between here and the present, lake shore, the last of which 
formed an impervious barrier between the waters of Lake Erie and those of the 
country to the southwest. Thus was formed between the last moraine and the 
St. Mary's moraine a vast depression, comprehending the present Maumee Valley 
and the country around it as bounded by these moraines, which was undoubtedly 
a lake, discharging its waters southward into the Wabash at Fort Wayne, as 
Lake Erie is believed to have formerly done at Huntington. 

How long this period lasted, none can tell, but at last the Niagara broke 
through its barrier and drained Lake Erie to a lower level, leaving the inland 
lake formed by the ice moraine higher than Lake Erie, and separated from it 
only by the upper ridge. Then this was broken through, and the pent-up waters 
flowed into Lake Erie and ceased to discharge into the Wabash, but, leaving the 
St. Joseph and St. Mary's as Wabash tributaries. Their flow and the debris 
carried by them undoubtedly in course of time filled up the bed of the smaller 
lake, which is now the great prairie, and cut into the apex of the St. Mary's 
moraine until at last the wall gave way, and, washing so as to form the slight 
barrier to the west, turned their united currents into the Maumee Valley, and 
gave to this section those peculiar features which, we believe, nowhere else exist, 
the turning-back of waters in the opposite direction to the line of their sources, 
as is done by the Maumee flowing backward between its confluent rivers. 

These physical features have much to do with the economic status of our 
country in relation to its capacity for agriculture. Along the larger rivers are 
rich alluvial bottoms, capable of producing nearly every variety of cereals in 
abundance. Above these bottoms are the ridges, composed beneath of hard-pan 
and bowlder clay, but on the sides covered with alluvium mixed with sand and 
clay. Between the ridges arc flat lands with a hard-pan bottom in many places, 
but covered with a clay which, though hard to work, is filled with properties 
which make it rich for grasses of all kinds, while here and there throughout the 
county a fine, sandy loam prevails, suitable for the raising of nearly every prod- 
uct, and occasionally the wet prairies, now drained and brought under cultivation, 
present a rich, black loam of unknown depth, and of a richness unsurpassed. 
All these varied soils were deposited by the rushing waters of the period when 
the whole surrounding country was submerged by Lake Erie, or the later period, 


when the barriers were cut through, and the rush of the imprisoned waters seek- 
ing liberty, carried and scattered here and there the clay, sand and alluvium they 
had gathered, to make the fertile farms which are the pride of our county. 

Most of the county was covered originally with a dense forest of oak, walnut, 
maple, ash, elm and hickory. No pines or hemlocks existed, and their species do 
not flourish now, even when planted and carefully nourished. A small cluster of 
tamaracks is found in the prairie of Eel River Township, the only ones believed 
to exist. The chestnut, so common throughout the United States in this lati- 
tude, is unknown here. The Cottonwood flourishes along the river banks, and 

The timber-land was generally wet, and, for a time, it was supposed that the 
land would be cold and wet when cleared, but it was found that, as fast as clear- 
ings were made, the land dried, and many of the richest farms in the county have 
been redeemed from wet forest lands. It has taken time and labor, and two gen- 
erations at least have fallen alongside of the felled timber of this section, but the 
labor and energy of these pioneers have served to bring under cultivation a large 
agricultural area, from which their descendants and successors are now reaping 
rich harvests of grain and vegetables, and grazing stock for the markets of the 
world. The county is still richly timbered, and offers extraordinary inducements 
for manufactures of wood and commerce in lumber, the supply of which cannot 
be exhausted for many years to come. 

The animal fauna of Allen County was as varied as such a densely wooded 
country generally exhibits, and, in the earlier geological periods, it seems to have 
been the favorite habitat of such animals as the mammoth and mastodon. The 
first in the order of time was the American elephant ; a tooth of one of this 
species was found in Spy Run, a few years ago, by H. J. Ruddisill, Esq., and is the 
only remains of the elephant known to have been discovered in the county. 
Next, in order of time, came the mastodon, whose remains have been quite fre- 
quently found in the county. In 1867, parts of the skeletons of three mastodons 
were found while digging a ditch near the line between PerryTownship and Noble 
County, two adults and the other a calf. They had probably mired in the soft 
marsh where found. They were sent to the Chicago Academy of Sciences, and 
were lost in the great fire of 1871. 

The remains of another were found a few years later, near the Whitley 
County line, not far from Areola, which must have been of immense size, one of 
the tusks being nine inches in diameter and nearlv eleven feet in length. Remains 
of another were found on the farm of Peter Notestinc, on the St. Joseph's. All 
are found in marshy places, and, if the great marsh southwest of Fort Wayne is 
ever drained, we may expect to find more of them. Whether they roamed here 
after mankind appeared is not certainly known, but it is presumed they did. 

The Indians and early settlers were surrounded with bears, wolves, deer, 
foxes, beavers, minks, otters, the lynx, muskrats, and many of the smaller ani- 
mals. The bison roamed over the country, before its settlement, as it now does 
over the Western plains. Now, all have passed away, except the deer, which 
comes down from the North in the winter, an occasional mink, the muskrat and 
the smaller animals, which are not so readily exterminated as the larger beasts of 
prey, or were not so eagerly sought for for their valuable skins. The site of Fort 
Wayne was a great point for the trade in skins, and remained so for many years 
after its first settlement. 


Long before the Columbian period, the valley of the Mississippi, which com- 
prehends all the great basin between the Alleghany and the Rocky Mountains, had 
been peopled by a comparatively dense population ; and all research tends to 
prove it was inhabited Ion'/ before the advent of the red Indian, by a people 
whose history is lost forever, but who were more fixed and permanent in their 
habits than were the Indian tribes which succeeded them. This race, whatever 
it was, had some claims to be ranked among those which had made some advance 
in civilization and the arts, although, judging by the standard of modern civiliza- 
tion, they had not yet advanced beyond the conditions of semi-barbarians, and 
perhaps were less civilized than the Aztecs. 

To this race, the name of" Mound-Builders" has been given, on account of 
the many mounds of earth which they have left as the most enduring record of 
their having once existed — the silent witnesses of the former existence of a race 
now totally disappeared. 

The principal home of this race was the great valley of the Mississippi, for, 
though their remains are occasionally found east of the Alleghanies, the prinoipal 
part of their works are found within the limits of the great valley, and here was 
the center of their empire. This valley comprises an area of 2,455,000 square 
miles, and measures thirty degrees of longitude by twenty-three degrees of lati- 
tude. Of this area, 214,000 square miles are drained by the Ohio and its tribu- 
taries, the valley of the Ohio being greater in extent than that of all the other 
tributaries of the Mississippi, the Missouri excepted, and the basin of drainage of 
all these tributaries forms a rich territory, nearly equal to all the empires of the 
ancient world. 

As we descend the Ohio, through a beautiful and ever-changing panorama of 
varying landscapes, and pass down the Mississippi, with its alluvium banks, we 
find, everywhere we go, these mounds and earthworks in great profusion, testify- 
ing to the former occupation of the country by this wonderfully busy and 
industrious race, and in the fertile valleys and plains throughout this vast area we 
are constantly finding some of the treasures of the past — their domestic gods, 
utensils, arms for war and the chase, ornaments of stone and native copper, totems 
of tribes, and articles for sports and games — all testifying to the vast population 
which once occupied this fertile and beautiful region of our laud. Many theories 
have been advanced as to their origin, but it will probably remain forever a ques- 
i that the strongest evidences point to their being | 

tion unsolved. It would 

an offshoot from that wonderful race whose deserted palaces and temples in the 
w. Ids of Central America have excited the wonder and admiration of the world. 
What would be more likely, than that colonies should set out from that quarter 
pass along the shores of the Gulf, enter the mouth of the " Father of Waters " 
and spread through all the country watered by its tributaries, bringing with them 
many of the customs of the parent stock ? What are the mounds of the Missis- 
sippi Valley but the tcocallis of Central America on a smaller scale, generally but 
not always, for some of the mounds arc of as great an extent as arc the teocallis ? 
lo be sure, we find no stone temples or altars surmounting our mounds but it 
must be remembered that the Mississippi Valley is comparatively destitute of 
building-stone, and the structures surmounting them were probably of wood 
which would disappear and leave no trace in the long period which has elapsed 
since their builders vanished. 

What became of them is another question, which will probably forever 
remain unanswered. That they disappeared at once is wholly improbable, as is 
also the theory that they were totally destroyed. The most probable theory is 
that as they met the first irruption of the savage red men from the Northwest, 
and all Indian tradition points to this quarter for the place whence the Indians 
came, they were gradually driven in from their outlying settlements, and finally 
overwhelmed by the constantly flowing tide of ruthless savages, more skilled 
than they in warfare, and envious of their rich hunting-grounds. 

We know it was always the custom of the red savage to incorporate into their 
tribes the women and children, and sometimes the men, of conquered enemies ' 
and it is probable that the remnants of the Mound-Builders were thus incorporated 
into, and amalgamated with the conquering race, which would also acquire some 
of the habits and customs and implements of the conquered ; and that this will 
account for the difference in language and habits of the various tribes found 
inhabiting this area on the advent of the whites. 

The remnants of the Mound-Builders would be pressed back southward, 
whence they came ; and those of the savages who followed them to the south and 
overcame them would retain more of their customs than those tribes of the north 
who amalgamated with them in lesser degree, or not at all. On no other theory 
can we account for the fact that the southern tribes were found to be more 
advanced in civilization, less warlike, and much more given to the cultivation of 
the soil than were the restless, treacherous and bloody warriors of the north. 

Northern Indiana has many proofs of the presence of this race recorded 
almost indelibly upon its soil, and they have left some of their monuments in 
Allen County, but not as many, nor so extensive, as are found in Ohio or the 
southern part of Indiana. While some of them were pushing upward, and 
making great settlements along the tributaries of the Ohio, others had passed 
further up the Mississippi, discovered the Great Lakes, and entered into quite 
extensive copper-mining operations on the shores of Lake Superior. Colonies 
had occupied Michigan, and as far south in Indiana as the Kankakee, and it is 
from them, we think, that Allen County received the marks of their occupation. 
All along the valley of Cedar Creek, in Be Kalb County, their mounds and 
earthworks appear in considerable number, but decrease in number as we proceed 
southward into Allen County, and are totally wanting in the southern portion of 
the county. Few, if any, are found along the Maumee, and the only traces of 
their settlements are along Cedar Creek, or in the vicinity of its junction with 
the St. Joseph's. 

On Cedar Creek, near Stoners, on the Ft. W.~, J. & S. E. R., is a group of 
four mounds. Two of them are in a line north and south and are about forty 
feet apart. About fifteen rods east of these are two others about the same dis- 
tance apart, and on a line nearly east and west. When visited by the writer a 
few years since, three of them had been partially excavated years before and 
were said to have contained a large number of human bones, arrow-heads and 
some copper ornaments. The remaining mound was excavated at the time but 
disclosed only lumps of charcoal and a layer of hard-baked earth near its base. 
These mounds are situated on the high ground between the Cedar and Wil- 
low Creeks, and the Auburn mad passes between them. 

Four miles south of these on the Coldwater road, on the farm of Henry 
Wolford (now owned by Mr. Bowser), is a large oblong mound which was only 
partially explored, but in'wbieh a perforated piece of ribboned slate was found, 
with much charcoal and a stratum of baked earth. 

At Cedarville, on the St. Joseph, near the mouth of Cedar Creek, are three 
mounds about a hundred feet apart, situated on a line running northwest nearly 
parallel with the general direction of the river at this point. None of them 
have been fully explored, but one has nearly been removed to use its earth for 
mending the road, and charcoal was found in considerable quantities, as is usual 
in mounds of this class. 

Descending the St. Joseph on the east, to the farm of Peter Nolestine, one 
of the oldest settlers, we find a circular M fort," or earthwork, situated in the 
bend of the river. It has been plowed over for nearly thirty years and has lost 
much of its outlines. Many relics have been found here, and, when newly 
plowed, numerous fragments of pottery, flints and stone implements are yet found 
in and around its site. A large rude pipe of pottery was found here some years k 
since. The bowl and stem are moulded in one piece and the end of the stem 
has been flattened by the fingers while plastic, to form a mouth-piece. 

Still further down the river, on the west side, opposite Antrap's Mill, is a 
semi-circular fort with its ends on the river bank. It is about (JOO feet in arc. 
The earthwork is yet nearly two feet high, with a. well-defined ditch on the out- 
side. Very large trees which have grown on the embankment have fallen and 
gone to decay. We found in the earth which had been upturned by a fallen 
tree a fragment from the neck of a vessel of pottery with square indentations on 
the surface, and a flint, flat on one side and regularly chipped to a convex surface 
on the other, of the variety known as scrapers, or " turtle-back flints." Still 
further down the river on the east side, at the mouth of Breckenridge Creek, is 


i often 
beveled or 
They are of every 
cabinet of the writer is a beautifully 

a single mound, which has not been opened except by a slight excavation in its 
side whicT> developed the customary lumps of charcoal. This point IS abou four 
miles north of Fort Wayne, and is the most southerly pent in the county at 
which mounds or earthworks are known to exist. 

Still on the ridges, and especially on the ridge terminating on Spy Hun at 
the late residence of H. J. Rudisill, many implements and ornaments of the 
" stone age," and fragments of pottery are found, and few portions of the county 
are devoid of them. Many of them have a beauty of design and polish 
unknown to the Indians found here on the advent of the whites, and may 
undoubtedly be referred to the age of the Mound-Buddcrs. Stone axes and 
hatchets worked from granite or syenite are quite common. 

Flint arrow and spear heads of every variety have been plowed up in nearly 
every field Some are very small and some are very large, and most of them are 
very neatly chipped. Flint knives and scrapers of fine workmanship 
found, and some of the flint spear and arrow 
winding edge to give them a rotary motion wl 
variety of flints or cherts, and 01 
veined agate. . . 

Many of the stone ornaments and totemic emblems are of a material not 
found in this vicinity except in a worked form. The ribboned sillcious slate 
seems to have been held in special estimation by them in forming these ornamen- 
tal and emblematic stones, and they were probably handed down as family heir- 
looms from generation to generation. 

Of course, all of these are not the work of the Mound-Builders, lor the 
same forms of weapons and ornaments were used by both people, as they are by 
all races in a state of barbarism throughout the world. 

The only distin-uishing feature now clearly marked between them was in 
their manner of burying the dead. The former were generally buried under 
tumuli or mounds, while the Indian rarely went to the trouble of erecting large 
mounds over their dead. In this vicinity, several forms of Indian burial have 
been observed. Generally they were buried recumbent in the earth, but some 
have been found in a sitting position. Another mode was to place the body upon 
the ground and build a pen of logs over the remains in the shape of a roof; and 
still another was to place the body in a rude coffin, formed either by splitting a 
log and excavating the two halves, or by using a hollow trunk of a tree in the 
same manner, after which the halves were joined and fastened to the ground by 
driving io crossed stakes over them. 

Three prominent Indian burying-grounds have been disclosed. One occu- 
pied the series of sand hills in the'west end of Fort Wayne, another on the St. 
Joseph, just north of Fort Wayne, and near the site of the old Miami town, and 
a third at Cedarville, on the banks of the St. Joseph. Probably other localities 
will yet develop them, but these arc the most prominent, and a vast number must 
have found their resting-place in these three localities. At the latter place, a 
lar«-e hewn cross of oak was exhumed several years since, indicating that at least 
a temporary mission was established there at an early date, of which no history 
exists, and which was probably abandoned and its cross buried on account of the 
Buperstition of the Indians, who, in their relapse from the faith, attached some 
superstitious dread to the sacred emblem. 

The builders of these earthworks and the makers of these relics of the stone 
a»e have long since passed away, and their remains are rapidly being obliterated 
by the baud -of the agriculturist. In place of the irregular village of huts and 
wigwams atd the throngs of savage men, a modern city has grown, busy with 
the hum of machinery, and of hurrying feet engaged in peaceful pursuits. The 
dense forest * rapidly disappearing before the woodman's ax, and fertile fields 
waving with grain, and golden with the tassels and ears of the corn our Indian 
predecessors have bequeathed to us have taken its place, and they themselves will 
soon live only in the historical past. 

Sentimental regret for the fate of the aboriginal tribes is useless and misap- 
plied. It is the natural fate of all savage and barbarous races. They have never 
in all history become civilized, but have disappeared before die advance of civil- 
ization, and the world is no worse, and probably better that they have disappeared. 
The vast fertile plains of our country were not designed by the Creator for occu- 
pation solely by the wild and savage beasts of the forest, and the no less wild sav- 
age of the forest, who lived by hunting them, and dressed in their skins ; and 
much as we may regret the extinction of a race, we should reflect that it is replaced 
by a better, which knows how to appreciate and use the bounteous gifts of the 
soil which lay waste for so many centuries under the dominion of the savage. 



Preliminary legislative Action.— Process of Organization.- fXeffition of Officers 
Chosen— First Meeting •>/ tin- JJoard doing County Business— Mealing of 
Commissioners to Sell ct » " Seat of Justice ' for Mlm County.— Fort Wayne 
Selected— County Agent ami liis Duties.— Bis First Action — Board of Jus- 
tices, Etc. 

On the 17th of December. 1823, the Legislature passed " An Act for the 
formation of a new county out of the counties of Randolph and Delaware, to be 
included within (be lollowing limits : Beginning at a point en the line dividing 

ilii- State and the State of' Ohio, where the township line dividing townships 
twenty-eight and twenty-nine, north, intersects the same ; thence north with said 
State line twenty-four miles; thence west, to the line dividing ten and eleven, east; 
thence south to the line dividing townships twenty-eight and twenty-Dine, north ; 


thence east to the place; of beginning." Which new county, at the 
Gen John Tipton, the leading spirit in the movement toward organization, was, 
Iron, and after the first day of April, 1824, to be known and designated by the 
name of Allen, in memory of Col. John Allen, of Kentucky, who was killed at 
the battle of Kiver Raisin, on the 22d of January, 1813. 

By the third section of that act, Lot Bloomfield and Caleb Lewis, of \\ aync 
County, Abiathar Hathaway, of Fayette County, William Conner, of Hamilton 
County, and James M. Kay, of Marion County, were appointed Commissioners 
to determine and locate the scat of justice for said new county. Said section pro- 
vided further, that said Commissioners should convene at the boose of Alexander 
Ewing, therein, on the fourth Monday in May, thereafter, and proceed imine- 
diately to discharge the duty assigned. _ 

Pursuant to the provisions of the first section of the act "for carrying the 
laws into effect in new counties," William Hendricks, Governor of the State of 
Indiana, by commission dated April 2, 1824, appointed Allen Hamilton Sheriff of 
■Vllrn County, " until the next general election, and until his successor shall be 
appointed and qualified— should he so long behave well." Under that appoint- 
ment, and ill compliance with a further provision of said section, Mr Hamilton, 
■is micIi Sheriff, gave notice to the qualified voters of Allen County, authorizing 
and directing them to hold an election on the 22d day of May, 1824, "for the 
purpose of electing two Associate Judges of the Circuit Court, one Clerk of the 
Circuit Court, one Recorder and three Commissioners of the county." 

That election was held accordingly, and the following persons were chosen to 
fill the offices designated: Samuel Hanna and Benjamin Cushman, Associate 
Judges- Anthony L. Davis, Clerk and Recorder; William llockhill, Commis- 
sioner for a term of three years from the 22d day of May, 1824 ; James Wyinnn, 
for two years, and Francis Compare! for one year from said date. Subsequently, 
the election of Mr. Cushman, as one of the Associate Judges, was contested, 
unsuccessfully, by Alexander Ewing, and the election of James Wyman and 
Francis Comparet, as County Commissioners, was also contested by Marshall K. 
Taylor, with like result. 

Having been notified by the Sheriff of Randolph County of their appoint- 
ment, as by said act prescribed, said Commissioners met at the house of Alexander 
Ewing, on the fourth Monday, being the 24th day of May, 1824, and, being first. 
July sworn, entered at once upon the discharge of their duties. Among the 
propositions presented for their consideration in the premises, was one by Messrs. 
John MeCorkle and John T. Barr, in which they, as the proprietors of the town 
of Fort Wayne, agreed to pay to Allen County 851)0 cash, and to appropriate, in 
consideration of the location, by said Commissioners, of the seat of justice at that 
town, the following lauds and lots, upon the terms and conditions stated, to wit: 
" All of that oblong square or piece of ground situate and being in the town of 
Fort Wayne, aforesaid, and stained red on the plat of said town, as recorded in 
the Recorder's office in Randolph County, in said State, which is granted as a 
public square, whereon public- buildings for said county are to be erected, 
bounded by Main, Court, Berry and Calhoun streets; 
ground four rods square, laid out at right angles, at the I 
plat of Fort Wayne, west of and adjoining said plat, 
granted for a church and public burying-ground, to be oc 
denomination, but free to all — except. so much of said loi 
said church, which may be occupied by the first church 

in said county, who may erect thereon a house of worship ot convenient size, or 
suitable materials; also, a lot of land, of the same size as the regular lots in said 
town, to be laid off east aod adjoining the lnts of land last above mentioned, 
as a place whereon to erect a seminary of learning; also, lots numbered 8, 9, 
101, 102, 103, and the lots regularly numbered from 104 to US, inclusive; also, 
a tier of lots along the south side of said plat, to be laid off immediately opposite 
the tier of lots on the first recorded plat of said town (opposite 104 to 118), 
which arc to be divided from said last tier by an alley, and, in size and otherwise, 
to conform to the plat of the town lots numbered regularly from 02 to 100, 

lot, ( 

arthwest corner of the 
ivhieh is donated and 
upied by no particular 
as may be uecessary for 
of professing Christians 


■ of each.' 

The proposition was accepted, and Fort Wayne became the seat of justice 
of AHen County, in conformity with the provisions of law appertaining thereto, 
and a deed was subsequently executed by the proprietors to John Tipton, the 
county agent, conveying the said property to him for the use of the county, as 
contemplated in the proposed donation. 

On Wednesday following, the 26th day of May, 1824, being the Wednesday 
succeeding the fourth Monday in May, at the hour of 12 o'clock M., "The 
Board of County Commissioners of Allen County met, in pursuance to the pro- 
visions of a special act of the General Assembly of the State of Indiana, entitled 
' An Act for fixing the seats of justice in all new counties hereafter to be laid off' 
— passed and approved January 2, 1818 — at the house of Alexander Ewing, in 
Fort Wayne. 

"William Rockhill, Esq., produced a certificate from Allen Hamilton, 
Sheriff of Allen County, stating that he, the said William Rockhill, was duly 
elected a County Commissioner of Allen County for the term of three years, on 
which certificate there was indorsed that he had taken the necessary oaths of office. 

" James Wyman. Esq., also produced a certificate from Allen Hamilton, 
Sheriff, as aforesaid.' stating that he, the said James Wyman, was duly elected a 
Commissioner of Allen County for the term of two years from the 22d day of 
May, A. D. 1824, on which certificate was indorsed that he had taken the neces- 
sary oaths of office. 

" Francis Comparet, Esq., also produced a certificate from Allen Hamilton, 
Sheriff of AIIcd County, stating that he, the said Francis Comparet, was duly 
elected a County Commissioner of Allen County, for the term of one year from 
the said 2Jd day of May, A. D. 1824. 

" Thereupon the said Commissioners took their seats," and proceeded to the 
of the business before them. 



The Board then " ordered that Joseph Holman be appointed Treasurer for 
the County of Allen, until the next February session of the Board of County 
Commissioners for said county, and is required to give bond, with two good, suf- 

i of 81,000. 

w, to meet in Fort Wayne at 1 o'clock 

William Rockhill, 

Jas. Wyman. 

ficient freehold securities, in the penal f 

" The Court adjourned until to 
in the afternoon. 

" Attest : 

" A. L. Davis, Clerk." 

And the session of the first day was completed. 

On the dayfollowing(May 27), a full Board was present. The first business was 
the appointment of John Tipton, County Agent", who, pursuant to the order of the 
Board, filed bond in the penalty of $5,000, with Alexander Ewing and Samuel 
*Hanna as securities. The bond was accepted and approved. Thereupon, it was 
" Ordered, That John Tipton, Agent fur Allen County, is hereby authorized and 
required to pay to the following persons, for their services as Commissioners to 
locate the seat of justice in Allen County, the following sums : James M. Ray, 
the sum of S42 for fourteen days' services; to William Conner, S3G for twelve 
days' services ; to Abiathar Hathaway, §36 for twelve days' sci vices ; to Caleb 
Lewis, 830 for ten days' services; to Lot Bloomtield. S30 for ten days' services — 
and take from them a receipt for the amounts, for which he is to render a credit 
on Ills general account." With these proceedings terminated the primary session 
of the Board doing county business. 

The first regular session of the Board commenced on the following Monday, 
May 31, at the house of Alexander Ewing, situated on the southwest corner of 
Ban* and Columbia streets, since known as " Washington Hall." As the chief 
business of the session, the following is noted, because of its reference to the work- 
ing machinery of the new county. The following appointments were made : Hugh 
B. McKeen, Lister of Taxable Property; Lambert Cushovis, Constable; Robert 
Hars, Inspector of Elections ; William N. Hood, Inspector of Flour, Beef and 
Pork, for the Township of Wayne; Samuel Hanna, Koad Supervisor for the 
Township of Wayne ; John Davis and Alexander Coquillard, Overseers of the 
Poor, in Wayne Township. 

" Ordered. That the County of Allen be constituted as one township, and 
called the Township of Wayne." 

John Tipton. County Agent, was ordered to construct a "Pound, of suitable 
size," on the public square in Fort Wayne. This appears to have been the first 
public building ordered on the public square, but the order was rescinded Feb- 
ruary 14, 1825. 

The Board also ordered that the Sheriff "advertise an election, to be held 
at the house of Alexander Ewing, if permitted ; if not, at some other suitable 
place in the township of Wayne, for the election of three Justices of the Peace, 
on the first Monday in August next." They also selected thirty-six names from 
which to choose a grand jury, and forty-eight names from which to choose a petit 
jury for the Circuit Court. 

The rates fixed were as follows : 
" For dimier, breakfast and supper, each.. 

keeping llOt'sp. Ili^liI : ■ ■ ■ ■ I 'l-iv.. 

lodging, per night 

whi-ky, per half-pint. 
brandy, ' 

" cider, per quart 18!}" 


At the same session, the Board fixed the following rates of assessment on 
personal property, for county purposes, for the year* 1824, to wit: 

" On every male person over l lie age of twenty- one years $ 50 

" " horse, gelding, mare or mule, three years old and up- 

wnrd, "each 37J 

ii ■< work oxen, three years old mid upward 18^ i 

" " stud horse, the rate at which he stands per season. 

" " gold watch 1 00 

" " silver watch 25 

" '- pinchbeck watch 26 

" " pleasure cmriage, four wheels 1 60 

two wheels 1 00 


d at the time when Allen County was 
new county was to be located, and the 

Under the laws in force prio 
organized, when the seat of justice 

Commissioners for that purpose having determined on an eligible site for such scat 
of justice, at some town already hud off, had received " donation in lots, money 
and adjoining lands," by the proprietors of such towns, conditioned upon the 
location of the seat of justice aforesaid, the County Commissioners of such new 
county were required " forthwith, after receiving the report as herein provided, to 
appoint some suitable person, a resident of such county, as an Agent, whose duty 
it shall be, after giving security to be approved of by the said Board of County 
Commissioners, for the faithful discharge of the duties of his said office, to receive 
good and sufficient deeds of conveyance, for any land which may have been 
given for the use of the county as above provided, and to lay off the same into 
town lots, streets and alleys, according to such plan as the County Commissioners 
may direct; he shall proceed also, from time to time, to sell the said lots, or so 
many of them as the said Commissioners may deem proper and necessary, on such 
terms as the County Commissioners may consider most advantageous to the county; 
and to collect all moneys arising from the sale of said lots, and pay the same into 
the county treasury ; he shall also make conveyances to the purchasers of such lots." 

Pursuant to that law, the Commissioners appointed to select and locate a 
seat of justice for Allen County, having selected Fort Wayne, a town already laid 
out, and received from the proprietors donations of money, lots and lands, in con- 
sideration of the location of the seat of justice, as aforesaid, the Board of County 
Commissioners then being in session, on the 27th day of May, 1824, appointed 
John Tipton. County Agent, to give bond for $5,000. He gave bond accord- 
ingly, with Alexander Ewing and Samuel Manna as securities, who were accepted 
by the Board, and was sworn to the faithful discharge of bis duties. 

Immediately thereafter, the Board made the following directory record: 

" Ordered, That John Tipton, Agent for Allen County, is hereby authorized 
and required to pay to the following persons for their services as Commis- 
sioners to locate the seat of justice of Allen County, the following sums : James 
M. Ray, the sum of forty-two dollars, for 14 days' lervxeo; to William Conner, 
thirty-six dollars, for 12 days' services ; to Abiathar Hathaway, tbirly-six dollars, 
for twelve days' services; to Caleb Lewis, thirty dollars, for ten days' services; 
to Lot Bloomfield, thirty dollars, for ten days' services, and take from them a 
receipt for the amount, for which he is to render a credit on his general account." 

At a subsequent session of the Board, the Commissioners, on the 16th day 
of August, 1S24, made the following further record in the premises, to wit: 

" Ordered, That the County Agent sell lots 8, 9, and from 101 to 1 33, both 
inclusive, and 92 to 100, both inclusive, that were donated to the county." 

Pursuant to that order, after giving proper notice thereof, Mr. Tipton, 
County Agent, on the 18th day of September, 1824, sold at public sale the fol- 
lowing of said lots for the atnouuts and to the persons named : 


Jean B. KictmrdviUe.. 

Alexander ISwing 

William Murphey 

Walker & Davis... 

Samuel H ■■■ ■ 


Ben. Glasbruner... 


$10 25 


40 00 

02, 94, 93. OH 

90 60 

95, 13C 

24 26 

96, '17 

42 25 

118, IH 

35 25 

115, 122 

28 50 

117, IIS 

41 llll 

119, 120, 121 

82 60 

123, 124 

20 60 


51 00 

102, 131 

40 50 


14 00 

103, 105 

02 60 


:;l 25 


10 60 


10 25 


lei 25 

111. 112 

80 26 


12 ill 


22 iki 


25 00 

The last two were sold at private sale, ten days later, at prices, it will be 
seen, scarcely appreciable, in comparison with the value of the same lots, after the 
lapse of fifty-five years. The comparison, however, is valuable as a manifest 
evidence of the progress of a little more than half a century. 

At the same session of the Board, the Agent was authorized and directed to 
have a jail erected, at his discretion as to size and kind, letting the same out to 
the lowest bidder. The building was erected accordingly on the southwest corner 
of the public square. 

On the 5th of November, 1824, the County Agent submitted to the Board, 
in session, a report of the condition of his agency, of which the following is an 
abstract, to wit : 

Received of John T. Barr and John McCorkle, proprietors of Fort 
Wayne, being the first installment of iheir ca>h donation of May 

27, 1824 $200 00 • 

September — , of Olnsbruner, for Lot 100 22 00 

September 8. amount on lots sold at public sale 321 25 

September 28, received of " Ben," part for Lot 108 10 00 

Cash received $553 25 

May 27, deduct 10 per cent of first installment for county 

library $ 20 00 

Cash paid Commissioners to locale seat of justice 174 00 

Ten per cent retained of amount received on sale of lota... 36 32 

Cash paid for account-book ami onc-bulf quire paper 37J 

=■ 229 69£ 

Cash on hand carried to new account $323 55} 

Subsequently, on the 27th day of November, 1S24, at a session of the Board 
of Justices, the County Agent was directed to sell the lots remaining unsold of 
those donated for. county buildings and expenses of locating the seat of justice, 
including Nos. 107, 109, 125, 126 and 127, on a credit of six months, the pur- 
chasers giving notes properly secured, having first given notice of the time, place 
and terms of such sale by publication thereof in the Richmond Enquirer. And 
again, on the 7th of December, he was further ordered to sell certain other lots 
remaining unsold, upon like terms as in the former order specified and directed. 

Having been ordered, as above, to sell the remaining lots embraced in the 
donation, Mr. Tipton, on the 3d day of January, 1825, submitted to the Board 
of Justices the following report of his doings in the (ffljmises, to wit: 
" To the honorable Board of Justices of Allen Cotfftfy : 

" Gentlemen : Pursuant to your order, after advertising, I sold, on the 
27th day of November last, at a credit of six months, Lot No. 107 for $64, No. 
109 for §40, and Nos. 125, 126 and 127 for $82; and, in pursuance of your 



order of the 7th of December, I sold, on the 11th of said month, on a credit to 
the 1st of September next, Lot No. 128 for 828.50, Lot No. 129 for S38.25, and 
Lot No. 116 For S16.25, making in all S269. The purchaser of Lot No. 109 has 
failed to give bond and security, as required by the conditions of said sale, and the 
purchaser of Lot No. 128 Rave his note without security. Deducting from the 
above sum of S269, S40, the amount for which Lot 109 sold (and the purchaser 
failed to give bond, as above stated), there remains in my hands notes to the 
amount of S229, to which sum add fifty cents received from ' Ben,' a man of 
color, part payment for Lot 108, nulling S229.50 since my last. 

" I have paid the County Treasurer S304, reference being had to my account 
current herewith submitted will more fully and at length appear. A deed has 
been tendered for the donation made the county, which, not being in strict 
conformity to the bond, was not accepted. 

"All of which is respectfully Milmiitted, by 

,„. John Tipton, A. for A. C" 

" 3d January, 1820. 

Account current : 

To cash paid Trensurer booVjck'I 

By cash on hand, as per account $323 5o,, 

By notes on hand, sale of lots 229 00 

By cash received of "Ben"— Lot 108 •*-•■■ 50 

I 00 

.0:1 051 

To bnlance on hand $249 05J 

Which was accepted by the Board and ordered to be spread upon the record. 

On the 5th of September following, Mr. Tipton resigned his agency, and 
delivered over to the Board all the papers, books and money on hand, for which 
the Board gave a receipt and accepted the resignation. The vacancy was filled 
on the same day, by the appoinlment of Charles W. Ewing, who accept, d the 
same and filed the necessary bond. 

Mr. Ewing, on the 3d day of January, 1820, filed his annual report, of 
which the following is an abstract: 

Received payment for lols sold by Tipton, former Agent (and exe- 

culcd deeds to purchasers) $215 '5 

Received of Alex. Ewing, for Lot 107 04 00 

Bnlance $105 12J 


Prior to the first Monday in September, 1824, the county business was 
transacted by a Board of County Commissioners, who, when elected and qualified 
as prescribed by law, were considered and recognized a body politic and corporate. 
From and after the above date, however, the former law was superseded by " An 
Act to regulate the mode of doing county business ; approved January 31, 1824." 
wherein it was provided "That there shall be a County Board of Justices estab- 
lished in each and every county in this State, for the purpose of transacting 
county business ; to be composed of the Justices of the Peace of the respective 
counties, who shall meet together and organize thetiiM-lves, agreeably to the pro- 
visions of this act; and, after being organized, as aforesaid, shall be known and 
considered, io fact, law. and equity, a body politic and corporate, by and under 

the name aud style of ' The Board of Justices of the County of .' " 

The former law being still in force, at the dale of the organization of this 
county, the organizing process was conducted by the County Commissioners, as 
the recors disclose, who, at the proper time, made provision for the election of 
the Justices of the Peace to constitute, on the taking effect of the new law, the 
Board of Justices for Allen County. This election was ordered to take place on 
the first Monday in August, 1824, the time for holding the general election for 
State and county officers. The result of that election was the choice of Alexan- 
der Ewing. William N. Hood and William Rockhill, as the Justices of the Peace 
for Wayne Township, which then embraced the entire territory of Allen County. 
Notwithstanding the law took effect and came into force on the first Monday 
in September, making it " the duty of each and every Justice of the Peace, to 
meet at the place of holding courts, in their respective counties, 1 ' at that date, 
" and then and there proceed to organize themselves into a County Board of Jus- 
tices, by electing some one of their body as President of such Court, and caus- 
ing their names to be entered in the record-book of the county as members of 
such Board," the first meeting ami organization did not take place until the 22d 
day of October following, at the house of Alexander Ewing, the place designated 
for holding courts. 

At that meeting, the Board was organized by the election of a President. A 
seal was adopted, also, by the following order : " Ordered, by the Board of Justices 
of the county of Allen, that the Board make use of a scrawl including the let- 
ters ' B. C. J.,' as their seal until such time as they may procure and adopt a seal. 
One of the first acts of this new Board was to receive the report of Benja- 
min B. Kercheval and Samuel Hanna, Commissioners, on the part of Allen 
County, to survey and locate the Winchester State road, running nearly south 
from Fort Wayne, which was the first road located in the county. The report 
was received on the first day of the term, representing Ohauncey Carter, sub- 
sequently of Cass County, as the Surveyor, and defined the location of a " State 
road from Vernon, in Jennings County, by way of Greensburg, Rushville and 
New Castle, to Fort Wayne." 

The law establishing the Board of Justices prescribed that they should 
meet on the first Monday in January, March, May, July, September and November 

of each year ; but the experience of this county, 
especially those recently organized, where there were Justices 
or two townships elected, that it was extremely difficult to secure a quorum 
the transaction of business; hence, it has frequently occurred here, as elsewhere, 
that regular sessions of the Board were not always held, because of the non-at- 
tendance of the members thereof, for four or five days, sometimes for the entire 
session. This was especially true during the first years of the operation of that law. 
At the January session of the Board, for the year 1825, the County Treas- 
urer, Joseph Holman, presented the first exhibit of the condition of the county's 
finances, which gave the following aggregates: 

Total recci]ils from organization £437 98:, 

Total disbursements for same period 406 40 

Balance on hand $31 58} 

Mr. Holman's report was submitted on the 5th day of January, 1S25- 
The day following, William G. Ewing was appointed bis successor, for a term of 

At the July session of that year (July 11th), the following allowances were 
made by the Board : 

To Allen Hamilton, Sheriff, for six months' services, ending April 9 


the 1 

1 of.. 


To Anthony D. Davis, for services as Clerk of tlic Board of Justices 

and of the Circuit Court, for one year, ending June 30, 1825... $45 00 
To Grand and Petit Jurors, each, per day 50 

Also, '■ Ordered, That the American Fur Company, Fort Wayne department, 
pay the sum of $25 for a license to vend foreign merchandise in the town of 
Fort Wayne, for one year from the 3d of September, 1825." 

On the 3d day of January, 1825, the Board being in regular session, 
Adams TowDship was set apart as a separate jurisdiction by the folluwing : 

" Ordered, By the Board of Justices, that there be a new township consti- 
tuted, which is bounded as follows, to wit: On the west by the line which 
divides Ranges 12 and 13, north by ihe contemplated boundary line of Allen 
County, east by the State of Ohio, and south by the line which divides Congres- 
sional Townships 29 and 30, and to be known and called by the name of Adams 
Township;" and an election was ordered to be held therein at the house of Eli- 
phalet Edmunds, on the second Monday of March, 1825, to elect one Justice of 
the Peace, with Henry Cooper as Inspector. 

The following was the financial showing for the second year of the county's 
organic existence, as shown by the report of William G. Ewing, County 
Treasurer, submitted and filed at'the January session, 1826: 

Total amount of Receipts for 1825 $283 81} 

22 41 

Balance in treasury $260 90 

Thomas Forsythe was appointed Treasurer, to serve for one year from the 
1st day of January, 1826. 

May 2, 182U, it was " Ordered by the Board of Justices, that Alexander 
Ewing be allowed the sum of 820.50 for house rent for the Alien Circuit Court, 
at the February term, 1826, and for Board of County Justices, including this 

It was further ordered by the Board, at the May session, 1828, that the 
Clerk of the Allen Circuit Court be " authorized to procure a seal for the persons 
doing couuty business, with such device as he and they deem best." 

Again, at the November session, 1829, the Board " Ordered that the rate of 
license for keeping a ferry across the St. Mary's River, in Allen County, be 81 
per year." The rates of toll were fixed as follows : 

For footmen each, 6) cents. 

For a man and horse 12$ " 

For each bead of horses and cattle 0} " 

For each head of hogs and sheep 3 " 

For oxen 20 " 

For wagon and two or more horses 50 " 

This was the last session of the Board of Justices in Allen County, the law 
under which it acted having been superseded, and the authority again vested in 
a Board of Commissioners. 


Early Count)/ Legislation— Early Orders and Htat<-ments in Detail— County 
Finantm and their Condition Dwlng the Primary Pertod— Commissioners' 
Seal, Etc. 

Shortly after the organization of the county, the law before in force, 
vesting thu legislative authority in a Board of County Commissioners, was super- 
seded by the law regulating county business, which transferred that jurisdiction 
to a Board of Justices, composed of the several Justices of the Peace of the 
county. This latter law was in force from the first Monday in September, 1824, 
until October, 1829, at which time, the law having been repealed, a new Board 
of Commissioners, consisting of Nathan Coleman, William Caswell and James 
Holman, was chosen, at a special election held on the 12th of October of that 

Among the first acts of the new Board was to fix the rates of taxation for 
the year 1830. What was done, will appear in the following : 

"Ordered, That there he assessed and collected, as a revenue due the county 
of Allen, the sum of 40 cents on every hundred acres of first-rate land, and 30 
cents on every hundred acres of second-rate land, and 20 cents on every hundred 
acres of third-rate land." 


At tlie September session, 1830, the Board ordered ■' that the County Sur- 
veyor for the county of Allen be directed to survey that part of the reservation 
on which the fort how stands, in said county, that part of said reservation for 
which the county of Allen has a pre-emption— for the use of said county, and 
make return of said survey with a plat thereof and quantity of acres, to the 
Board on the first Monday in November next." 

In the mean time, under (he right of pre-emption acquired by act of Con- 
gress of the 31st of May of the same year, the authority to enter twenty acres of 
the west side of the fort reserve, at SI. 25 per acre, by the Associate Judges of 
the county, had been transferred, by an order of the Board, to the County Agent, 
for the use of Allen County. In order to make the purchase when offered for 
sale, under the provisions of that act, steps were necessarily taken to make defi- 
nite arrangements for the procurement of money for that purpose, and the Board 
did so accordingly. 

At a special session of the County Board, held on the Oth of October 1830 
it was 

" Ordered, That Francis Comparet, Agent of Allen County, be and he is 
hereby required to procure money, by loan or otherwise, sufficient to purchase 
that part of the forty acres reserved for the use of the Indian Agency, on which 
Fort Wayne now stands, being that part for which the county of Allen has a pre- 
emption by virtue of an act of Congress, passed and approved May 31, A. D. 
1830, allowing the Associate Judges in said county to enter at the minimum 
price, for the use and benefit of said county, so much of the said forty-acre reser- 
vation as the county has a right of pre-emption to, by virtue of the aforesaid act, 
and that he be allowed to pledge the faith of the county therefor, if necessary." 
Pursuant to that order, the sum required was procured of Henry Hudisill, and 
the purchase made as therein contemplated. 

At a subsequent meeting of the Board, on the 27th of the same month, 
after the purchase had been consummated, the " County Agent was ordered 
to lay off into lots that part of the Fort Wayne reservation for which the 
county has a right of pre-emption, and make out a plat thereof." This order, 
too, having been complied with, the proceedings thereunder were reported to the 
Board at the November term of the same year. The territory so ordered to be 
platted, was divided into seventy lots, including such as were fractional ; where- 
upon the County Agent aforesaid was directed to sell the same, and he sold them 
accordingly, on the 17th of the same month, at fair prices for the times. 

Again, on the 0th of August, 1831, the services of the County Agent were 
called into requisition, and he was directed " to cause the cuttingoff of the brush 
aid stumps from the public square, to be let to the lowest bidder at public sale, 
and certify the amount to the Board, who will allow the amount to the person 
doing the work, the same to be done immediately." Under the order of the 
Board, also, dated March 5, 1832, the Agent was authorized to lease to James 
Wilcox, on his own application, thirty feet front by fifty back, at some remote 

corner of the public square, at the yearly rent of per year, allowing him to 

hold it for four years if he so desired. During the same term, the following 
further order was made : " The Board orders the County Agent to agree with 
Wilcox at the following rent : At the corner of Main and Calhoun streets, of 
the public square, 810 ; at the corner of Main and Court streets, 88, and on the 
corner of Court street and Perry or Ban- street, 86 per year." Afterward, at a 
special session of the Board, held in June, 1834, further direction was given the 
County Agent, " authorizing him to lease to David H. Colerick a piece of ground 
for eight years, at the northwest corner of the public square, fronting on Main 
street twenty-five feet and running back forty feet, for which the said Colorick is 
to pay the county, for each and every year, 810, at the end of each year." 

At the January session, 1833, the ninth year after the organization of the 
county, the Board fixed the rate of taxation for the current year as follows : 

On each poll 50 

On each mare, horse or gelding, mule or ass, three years old 37i 

On each four-wheel pleasure carriage §1 50~ 

On each two-wheel pleasure carriage 1 00 

On each brnss clock 50 

On each gold, silver and compnsit inn watches, each 25 

Each work-ox over three years old 25 

On the 6th of January, 1834, the first legal notice directed to be published 
in a public newspaper printed in the county was ordered by the Board to bo pub- 
lished in the Fort Wayne Sentinel, in the case requiring the County Agent to 
give notice that he would employ the County Surveyor to establish the corners 
of the county additions to Fort Wayne. Two days alter, an allowance was 
made to Tigar & Noel, proprietors of the Sentinel, for the publication of that 

In October, 1834, at a special session of the Board, it was " ordered that L. 
G. Thompson be employed to attend the poor-house for one year from this date, 
at two shillings per mile for visits, and one shilling for each dose of medicine pre- 
scribed " — cheap doctoriug, compared with the experiences of the medical profes- 
sion and its practice at the present day. 

The following items of legislation appear among the records of the County 
Board, and are important, us indicating the steps taken toward providing for the 
wants and treatment of the poor of the county : During the first ten years of the 
county's existence, no organized action had been taken looking to the ultimate 
accomplishment of such a purpose. This record bears date in January, 1834, 
and refers only incidentally to the fact that an iufirmary had been built and a 
poor-farm purchased, without any details as to the plan and management. By 
the act of the Board, however, on the 6th of May following, the Clerk was author- 
ized " to advertise for the furnishing of medical supplies and attendance for the 
poor at the poor-house, in the Fort Wayne District, for one year, and William 
Rockbill was appointed to procure a suitable person to take charge of the poor- 
house and make contracts for keeping the poor, and to act, at present, as Superin- 
tendent of the Poor-House and Poor-Farm." 

At the session of the Board on the 6th of January, 1835, the poor farm was 
let for six years to Jeremiah Bowers, he to have the poor and take care of them 
and receive S2 per week for boarding, making and mending, and clear twenty-five 
acres of land, " eighteen inches and under," and make a fence six rails hi"h and 
" double rider " the same. 

At the session held in May of the saun year, an order was made directing 
that notice be given for a meeting of the citizens of the county, at the Court 
House, to consider the propriety of organizing a County Agricultural Society, 
lhis appears to have been the first effort toward the formation of such an associ- 
ation in Allen County. 

The Board also, at the same time, under the law then in force, requiring the 
rate of taxation of property to be upon the valuation thereof, " ordered that there 
be levied on every hundred dollars iu value, of real and personal property, in said 
county of Allen, thirty-three and one-third cents; for road purposes one cent on 
every hundred dollars. Polls to be collected at the rate of seventy-five cents on 
each person." 

While the September term, 1837, of the County Board was in session the 
following further order was made in reference to the organization of a County 
Agricultural Society : ' 

" Ordered, That the Sheriff be directed to cause the voters of Allen County 
to be notified that there will be a meeting held at the Court House in said county 
on the first Monday in January next, for the purpose of forming an Agricultural 

At the term following, in November, 1837, the Sheriff was ordered to erect 
a " Public Pound," on the southeast corner of the public square, hem" the corner 
fronting on Court and Berry streets, in the town of Fort Wayne. 

C. V. N. Lent, M. D., was employed to attend the poor at the alms-house, 
at the March term, 1830, to receive 25 cents per mile traveled, 6! cents for each 
dose of medicine, and S200 per annum lor surgical operations, or 50 per cent 
below usual charges. 

To encourage the killing of wolves, the County Board, under the law apper- 
taining thereto, at the September session, 1840, 

"Ordered, That for each and every wolf killed in this county, if over the 
age of six months, the killer thereof shall ho entitled to the sum of three dollars, 
and, if under the ago of six months, one dollar and fifty cents, to be paid out of 
the county treasury, and that the Clerk be governed bv the old law in granting 
certificates for the same." The law under which this o'rder was made provided 
that, for each wolf supposed to be six months old and upward, killed within 
eight miles of any settlement, the killer thereof should be allowed and receive 
SI ; and for each wolf under six months old, 511 cents, to be paid out of 
the State Treasury on the certificate of the Clerk of the Circuit Court of the 
county where the same was killed. A further provision authorized the Board 
doing county business to allow, to the holder of any such certificate, an additional 
sum, not exceeding 82, for a grown wolf, and 81 for each under six months old, 
to be paid out of the county treasury. Before issuing the certificate provided 
for, it was made the duty of the Clerk to administer to the killer the following 
oath or affirmation : 

" You, , do solemnly swear (or affirm) that the scalp or scalps pro- 
duced were taken from a wolf or wolves, killed by you within this county, and 
within eight miles of some one of the settlements thereof, and within thirty days 
past ; and that you believe such wolf or wolves, from which they were taken, 
were under or over six months old fas the case may be), and that you have not 
spared the life of any wolf or wolves, in your power to kill, with the design to 
increase the breed thereof." This law was necessarily stringent, and its provis- 
ions were, as a rule, rigidly enforced. 

On the 1st day of March, 1841, the Board made the following order, that 
" G. W. Wood, having filed his proposal to print all notices, orders, etc., for the 
county for one year from date, for the sum of nine dollars and fifty cents, it is 
therefore ordered that the Clerk cause all orders, etc., for the county, to be pub- 
lished in the Fort Wayne Times until March, 1842." 

The following is the device for the seal to be used by the County Board in 

attesting its official acts, as piLScrilaal by the Hoard at its sessi September 9 

1841 : r 

"Ordered, That the following described seal be used as the seal of the Board 
of County Commissioners of Allen County, Indiana. The following is the device : 
Britannia seated on a shield and grasping the trident of Neptune, with the words 
' Britannia, Rex. Fid. Dep.' — to be used until such time as another seal can bo 
procured by said Board." 
On the same day, it was 

" Ordered by the Board, That the County Agent, be and he is hereby author- 
ized to procure a seal for the Board of Commissioners, bearing the following 
device and letters, viz.: A sheaf of wheat in an upright position with a sickle 
sticking therein ; and, in the background, a field of corn with a reaper at work. 
And in a circle surrounding said device, the following words : * Commissioners of 
Allen County, la. Seal.' The word seal to be in M. and the sheaf of wheat." 

At the session of December 8, 1841, an additional bounty for wolf scalps 
was offered, making 85 for a full-grown wolf, and S2.50 for every scalp of a half- 
grown wolf, killed in the county. 

Because of the progress made in building a new Court House, there was a 
necessity for removing the obstructions on the public square, to put the area iu a 
more presentable shape. The Board, at the March term, 1843, directed the 
County Agent to cause the buildings east of and adjoining the Auditor's office, 
to be removed from the public square ; also, the stable on the square ; to grade 
the square, and grade and curb the sidewalks oo Calhoun street. At the same 
session, a contract was entered into with Benjamin Mason, Charles French and 



John O'Conour, for the erection of a building on the southeast corner of, the 
public square, suitable for one court-room and two offices^ , 

' For the use of the First Presbyterian Church, in Fort Wayne, the Board, 
at the June tern, of the same year, authumod the County Agent t, make exe- 
eu.e and deliver to the Trustees of said Church, a deed for Lot No .bi , in 
county addition to said town, the order bearing date June 16, IBii. Un the 
following day the Board further ordered the County Agent to purchase Lot No 
51S in^Hanna's Addition to Fort Wayne, for the purpose of building a jail 
thereon, for the sum of 8500, payable in three annual installments. This same 
lot has since become the property of the Berry Street Methodist Episcopal 
Church, and is the she now occupied by the church edifice of that congregation. 

September 5, 1S43, the Board received and adopted a seal to be used by 
I hem in their official capacity, substantially the same, dcscnptionally, as that pro- 
posed by the County Agent on the nth of September ,1841. 

At the June term 1814, the Board fixed the following as the rate ot taxa- 
tion for the year 1845 : 25 cents on each *100 valuation, and 20 cents for the 
year 1846, for the purpose of building a jail. 


Circuit Oourt Organized— First Circuit and Associate Judges— Court Officers— 
Character of Mrst Business On- Adjudication— Probate Court— Its Sphere 
—Court of Common Pirns— Jurisdiction— Officers— Length of Term—Abol- 
ishment— Criminal Court, i tc. 

The judicial system of the State of Indiana in force during the existence of 
the constitution of 1S16, prescribed that "the Circuit Courts shall consist of a 
President and (wo Associate Judges." This Court, in every county of the State, 
had common law and ehancery jurisdiction, as also complete criminal jurisdiction, 
subject to the restrictions imposed by law. " The President alone, in the absence 
of the Associate Judges, or the President and one of the Associate Judges, in the 
absence of the other, shall be competent to hold a court, as also the two Associate 
Jud"es, in the absence of. the President, shall be competent to hold a court, 
except in capital cases and cases in chancery. 

Under that system, also, the State was divided into as many circuits as the 
exi"cncies of the Slate from time to time demanded, with a President Judge for 
each circuit, who should be a resident therein, whose jurisdiction was co-extensive 
with his circuit. The Associate Judges were Tor the county only, and were 
elected by the people thereof at the general election, while the President, or Cir- 
cuit Judges, were appointed by joint ballot of both branches of the ueneral 
Assembly, each holding office duriug a term uf seven years, if he so long behaved 
well. The Clerk of the Circuit Court was elected by the people of each county 
at the general election, and held office for a term of seven years. The Sheriff, 
however, held his office for two years only, and was elected by the people of one 
county. ' Prosecuting Attorneys, under the law in force from and after the first 
Monday in August, 1824, were appointed by the Governor, the term of service 
being one year only. At a later period, his appointment was by joint ballot of 
the Legislature, and his term of service fixed at two years. 

Allen County, by the provisions of the law approved January 20, 1S24, was 
placed in the Fifth Judicial Circuit, of which William W. Wick was Judge, 
who resigned, and Hon. Bethuel F. Morris was appointed in his stead, his com- 
mission bearing date January 9, 1825. 

The first term of the Circuit Court in this county, was held at the house of 
Alexander Ewing, commencing on Monday, August 9, 1824, at which the President 
Judge of the Circuit was not present, the court being held by Samuel Hanna and 
BenJ. Cushman. The following is the official account of the first day's proceedings : 
" The State of Indiana, Allen County, ss. 

" Monday, the 9th day of August, in the year of our Lord one thousand 
ei"ht hundred and twenty-four. This being the day appointed by au act of the 
General Assembly of the State of Indiana, entitled, ' An act to regulate the 
judicial circuits and fixing the time of holding courts, approved January 20, 
1824,' for the meeting of the Circuit Court of the county of Allen and State afore- 
said. The Honorable Samuel Hanna and Benjamin Cushman produced com- 
missions from His Excellency, William Hendricks, Governor of the State of 
Indiana, appointing them Associate Judges of the Circuit Court, in and for said 
county, on which said commissions were indorsed the oaths of office, as required 
by law ; whereupon, they took their seats." 

Anthony L. Davis, commissioned by William Hendricks, Governor, on the 
15th day of June, 1824, for and during the term of seven years from said day, 
and until his successor be appointed and qualified, was duly sworn, having filed 
bonds in the penalty of $2,500, with John Tipton and Benjamin B. Kereheval 
as sureties. 

Allen Hamilton, Sheriff, produced and filed his commission as such, to wit : 
William Ilendnekt, Governor of the State of Indiana : 

To all who shall see these [.resents — Greeting : Know ye that 1 have commissioned, 
and do by these presents commission. Allen Hamilton. Sheriff of the County of Allen, 
until the next general election, and until his suece-sor shall he appointed and .|ii iliried. 
should he so long behave well, and do herele, uulhorize and empower him to do and perform 
,ill and whatsoever to the office and dotv of Sheriff dolh in anywise belong or appertain 
[I.. S.] Given under my hand and the seal of the Slate, at Corydon, this ad day ol 
April, in Ibe year of our Lord ■ ihoo I eight hundred and twenty- 
four, the eighth year of the State, and of the Independence of the 
United Slates the forty-eighth. 
Ily the Governor. William Henpbicks. 

It. A. New, Bantery of State. 

" Charles W. Ewing, Esq., was appointed by the Court Prosecuting Attor- 

n6y ' Tim Sheriff' returned the venire before issued to him, with the following 
■n-und jurors by him regularly summoned, to wit : John Tipton, I aul laber, 
William Suttonlield, Alexander Ewing, James Hackley, Charles Weeks John 
Davis, William Probst, Horace Taylor, James Wyman, James Gannon and 1 eter 
Felex Peter Fclcx was discharged for the term, when, a sufficient number being 
present, the court ordered the Sheriff to fill up the panel from the traverse jury 
whereupon Cyrus Taber and William N. Hood were summoned. The panel 
being full. John Tipton was appointed foreman, aud then the first grand jury 
of Allen County was duly sworn and charged. 

William G Ewing was then admitted and sworn as an attorney ol the Allen 
Circuit Court, and Alexander Ewing was licensed to keep a tavern in the town of 

On the following day, which was the first business day of the first term, the 
case of A. Canada vs. Nathaniel Canada, on petition for divorce, was called, when, 
it having been shown that the defendant was a non-resident of the State, the 
court ordered that notice be given him by publication in tin- Richmond Enquirer. 
The first case upon the docket, however, was that of Richard Swain vs. Joseph 
Froutncr, for trespass, which was continued. The territorial jurisdiction of the 
Allen Circuit Court, at that period embraced the counties of Adams, Wells, 
Huntington and Whitley, as they are at present located. 

At this first term, the grand jury found seventeen indictments — two for 
adultery, one for assault' and battery, four for playing at a game (of cards), and 
ten for retailing spirituous liquors. Upon return of these indictments, on motion 
of the Prosecuting Attorney, it was ordered by the court that a capias issue 
against, the defendants named in the several indictments found as aforesaid, 
returnable instantcr. In response to said writs, nine of the ten defendants for 
selling intoxicating liquors came forward, pleaded guilty to the charge, and were 
fined by the court S3 and costs, respectively, except one, whose floe was 44. 
Two of the defendants charged with " playing at a game " submitted their case 
to a jury, and were fined $70 and costs. One charged with adultery was also 
tried by a jury and acquitted, while another, a female, charged with a like offense, 
was tried by a jurv, found guilty and sentenced to fifteen days imprisonment in 
the county jail, hut was released, on finding bail, in a penalty of §100. The 
grand jury attending at that term were allowed SI. 50 each for their services, and, 
on motion of the Prosecuting Attorney, the court ordered that a capias issue 
against each person regularly summoned as a grand juror who failed to attend and 
serve as such, returnable at the next term. 

Other allowances at that term were made to Robert Hare, as Constable ot the 
Court seventy-five cents per day, and Allen Hamilton S16.62, services as Sheriff 
for four months. This first, term closed on Thursday, August 12, 1824, having 
been in session four days. _ 

At the second term, which convened on Monday, June (i, 1S25, Hon. Bethuel 
F Morris, President Judge of the Fifth Judicial Circuit of the State, was present, 
and presided. He had been previously appointed Judge of their circuit, January 
9, in the place of William W. Wick, resigned, to serve as such until January 2, 
1829, and had been sworn ill by Hon. Isaac Blackford, one of the Judges ot the 
Supreme Court. This term was held at the residence of Alexander Ewing, Hon. 
Samuel Hanna acting as the Associate of Judge Morris. During that term 
which lusted but five days, James Rariden and Calvin Fletcher, the former of 
Richmond, and the latter of Indianapolis, Ind., were admitted as attorneys. In 
after years, both of these gentlemen won an honorable distinction as lawyers, as 
legislators, and in other departments of public business. At the same term, 
Henry Cooper, also, was admitted to the practice of law. 

The third term of the Circuit Court was held at the house of William Sut- 
tonfield, commencing on the 21st day of November, 1825, at which term, the 
President Judge being absent, Hon. Samuel Hanna and Benjamin Cushman, Asso- 
ciate Judges, presided. At this term, Charles W. Ewing reported a device for a 
seal to be used by the Clerk of Allen Circuit. A seal with a device was not, 
however, ordered to be procured until May, 182S, when the Clerk was authorized 
to order one, " with such a device as he may deem best." Calvin Fletcher pro- 
duced his commission as Prosecuting Attorney, and was sworn as such at the same 

The fourth term was held at the residence of Alexander Ewing, during 
which, the President Judge being again absent, Messrs. Hanna and Cushman, 
Associates, presided, Mr. Fletcher acting also as Prosecuting Attorney. Hiram 
Brown, of Indianapolis, and Moses Cox, were admitted and sworn as attorneys. 
This term commenced on the 13th day of February, 1826. The grand jury 
found two bills of indictment at that session, one of them against Sag-a-na, an 
Indian, for murder, the other against Elisha B. Harris, for larceny. Neither of 
these cases ever reached a trial, cither on the ground of informality or for want 
of prosecution. There is remaining of record, however, something of a financial 
character, "rowing out of the capture and imprisonment of the Indian, who, it 
seems, was the first prisoner confined in a county jail in Allen County. Cyrus 
Taber was allowed 82.1.12'., for guarding jail and dieting prisoners. 

On the 13th of August of the same year, the fifth term of the Circuit 
Court was begun, and held at the usual place of holding courts in Allen County, 
at which Hon. Miles C. Bggleston, of Madison, Ind., presided, with Benjamin 
Cushman, Associate; Cyrus Tuber, afterward of Logansport, Ind., acting Sheriff, 
and Hon. Amos Lane, of Lawrenceburg, Prosecuting Attorney. At this term, 
the grand jury returned a report of the condition in which they found the county 
jail, upon examination thereof. The following is the opinion expressed by them : 
"that the criminals' rooms are not a place of safety for persons committed 
thereto ; that the debtors' room, upper d partuient of said jail, is not in a suit- 
able condition for the reception of debtors, from the want of locks, floor and 


No marriage record having been previously kept, Judge Eggleston, amon" 
other things, looking to the better management of business, prepared and presented" 
as a guide to the Clerk, forms for properly preserving records of marria«cs in the 
S*u- y ' c <t «"?§ tllls ', thc " ext scss!on of 'he court was held at the house of 
William Suttonfield, on the 27th of August, 1827. Present, Hon JI C I'l—les 
ton, President Judge, William N. Hood and Benjamin Cushman, Associates; 
Abner Gerrard, Sheriff, and Oliver H. Smith, then of Connersville [„d Prose 
outing Attorney. At this term, William Quarles, afterward a prominent lawyer 
at Indianapolis, was licensed to practice in the courts of Indiana 

I9fi A p m C "SS V hic !: w , s heId at the house °f Benjamin Archer, on the 

12th of May 1828, Judge liggleston being absent. Messrs. H„„,l and Cu-1 

Associate Judges, presided. Charles H. Test, Prosecuting Attorney, and other 
officers as at the preceding term. Hon. Andrew Ingram was admitted to prac- 
tice at this term. Judge Eggleston was again absent at the ter 
November 10, 1828, the Associates presiding as before. David Walla 
ward Governor, acting as special prosecutor of the pleas of the State, and suc- 
ceeded in the conviction of Joseph Doane, for felony— the first from Allen 
bounty. He was sentenced to the penitentiary for three years. 

At the succeeding term, commencing on the 11th of May, 1829, Judge 
Eggleston, President, and William N. Hood, Associate Judge, presided Haiti,, 
M. Ray acting as Prosecutor. Among the proceedings of the term, Joseph Car- 
vtlle was convicted of larceny and sentenced to confinement in the State Prison 
at hard labor for three years. 

On the 14th of October, 1829, Anthony h. Davis, Clerk, resigned bis office, 
which made the immediate appointment of a successor necessary. Accordingly' 
at a of the Associate Judges. Joseph Holman was appointed in his ,|ead 
to serve as such until the next annual election or until a success,,,- was chosen. 
Subsequently, Hubert H,,od was elected, his term eoniuicncin-' February 15 lS'-JO 
May 10, 1830, another term of the-Circuit Court commenced, with' Hon' 
Charles H Test, President, and William N. Hood, Associate Judge ; Robert 
Hood, Clerk, and James Perry. Prosecuting Attorney. At this term, Ne-we- 
lmg-gwa a Miami Indian, was tried and convicted of the murder of a half-Indian 
and halt-negro woman, whom he recognized as his slave. Upon conviction, the 
jury recommended him to mercy, and he was subsequently pardoned by the Gov- 
ernor and finally emigrated to Kansas in 1848, with others of his tribe. 

"The firs, restraining case that came before the Court of Allen County, was 
that of Maria Caswell vs. William Caswell, to prevent the latter from sellin- cer- 
tain property during the pendency of a suit for divorce. This case came up at 
the September term, 1830, Judges Hood and Cushman presiding." At the 
April term. 1832, Gustavus A. Evarts and John S. Newman appeared as attor- 
neys, and David H. Colerick, producing a proper license, was admitted and sworn 
as a practitioner at law. 

This much must suffice for the early history of the Allen Circuit Court, the 
after proceedings of this court having become so voluminous that a digest of 
them at this time would be entirely unnecessary. 


The probate system of Indiana was not brought into practical operation in 

Allen County until the fall of 1825, more than a year after the organizatio id 

been otherwise perfected. Under the law in force at that date, the Circuit Court 
was vested with jurisdiction over "matters relating to the probate of wills, grant- 
ing letters testamentary and administration, the settlement and distribution of 
decedents' estates, the protection of minors, lunatics and idiots and the security of 
their estates, and the trusts, rights and interests arising from the relation of 
guardian and ward," in the several counties in the State; Probate 
Judge, as a separate officer, was elected at the time the other officers were chosen. 
The Associate Judges of the Circuit Court, however, by virtue of law, became ex 
officio Probate Judges. The following is the record of proceedings' at the first 

' " Monday, November 14, 1825. 

" Ihe Allen Comity Orphans' Court and Court of Probate, for the settle- 
ment of intestates' estates for the county of Allen, met at the house of Alexander 
Ewing, in the town of Fort Wayne, in aud for the county of Allen and State 
aforesaid. Present, the Hon. Samuel Hanna and Benjamin Cushman, Associ- 
ate Judges of the Allen Circuit Court and sole Judges of this Court, at which 
time Samuel Hauna produced a commission from His Excellency Williiin 
Hendricks, Governor, bearing date the 15th day of June, 1824. appointing him 
Associate Judge of Allen Circuit Court, for the term of seven years from June 

. William Cushman produced a like commission. Then the Sheriff pro- 
claimed the Probate Court of Allen County in session and ready for business 
Letters were granted in vacation to Benjamin B. Kerehcval, one of the executors 
named in the last will and testament of Adolphus Mariani, deceased, with Samuel 
Hanna as surety, which proceedings of the Clerk were approved, and the business 
of the first term was closed. 

The second term met as above, on the second Monday in February, 182G, 
but, no business appearing, the session ended with one day's service. 

On the 13th of August, 1827, the third term of the Allen County Probate 
Court met as usual, at the house of Alexander Ewing, and then adjourned to the 
house of William Sutlonfield, Benjamin Cushman and William N. Hood appear- 
ing as Associate Judges, the commission of the latter bearing date April 3, 1827, 
and signed by James B. Ray, Governor, and for a term of seven years. The Brat 
business was the appointment of Joseph Holman as guardian of Andrew H. 
Stinson, a minor, aged twelve yenrs, the 24th of August, 1827, until he should 
be twenty-one years old. Then the court adjourned until Wednesday morning 
August 15. At that time Benjamin B. Kerehcval, guardian of Jane S. Wells, 
having removed from the State, his letters were revoked, and Allen Hamilton 

(not at her request) was appointed and required to file bond i„ 

c^t™™ ° rnettassecttritie3 - ti " 5c »"" ' 

On the first Monday, being the 5th day of May, 1828, the fourth term 

nTnTX "VT'n- bcf °, rc "'° Same Jl,ll " es as '" the f °™ e ' '°™. ■">* »* ">e 
usual place of holding the same. At this session Samuel D. Taber was 
appointed adm.msl, -„.,„• „f Paul Taber, deceased, will, Cyras Taber as his seeur 
i J , a( the same !,„„., „| „ |,|,.,| .,„ i,,,,,,,,;,,,,,,,^ of the personal property of the 
fhelT'ofT '"-' '" ""' , '-7 ri "'" e "' S1 . ,3s - sn . '"g<-thcr with an account of 
" °* *" S; "',"'' "r ntm 8 "' " Ui SU1U ° f * 73693 *- As » P^ °f "is 
lepoit, he bled vouchers lor payments made in the sum of $'"11 7'" leavin i 
his hands, of the proceeds of said sale, a balance of S I 15.71 l.'ycl to be accounted 
for. Among the further proceedings at that term, letters of administration on 
the estate of James Haekley were issued to Joseph llohnan, and Rebecca Hack 
ley, the widow, hating filed the necessary bond. In this estate, owing to the 
complication of its affairs, on the petition of the administrator, Gcor-o B^Walker 
and Joseph Holman were appointed commissioners to adjust and settle the claims 
uled against it. 

At the same term, because of the removal of Benjamin B. Kercheval from 
the State, the loiters testamentary before issued to him on the estate of Adolnhus 
Mariani were revoked aud Samuel Hanna appointed in his stead 

Letters testamentary, on the estase of Abraham Burnett, bavin" been issued 
in vacation, by the Clerk, to Samuel Hanna, the proceedings were Improved" by 
the court; and, afterward, on application of the executor of that trust he was 
directed « to expose at public sale, as soon as may be convenient, after the con- 
sent ot the President of the United States is obtained, all the rWit and title of 
the said Abraham Burnett in and to one section of laud granted to said Burnett 
at a treaty held on the Wabash River, in the month of October, 1S26 between 
Lewis Cass James B. Ray and John Tipton, Commissioners on the part of the 
United States, aud the chiefs of the Miami tribe of Indians, lying on the north- 
west side of the Wabash River, at the Winemac Prairie, appraised at the sum of 
wll 1 ?™ 1 , * •* * another by the same Indians, on the 

VV abash River, nearly opposite the mouth of Deer Creek, appraised at the sum 
of S1.2D per acre. And further ordered by the court, that previous to the sale 
the same shall he advertised in the county as the law directs, and returned to this 

Robert Hood, representing the estate of Alexander Stinson, late deceased 
produced, also, in open court, an inventory of the personal property of the dece- 
dent amounting to 8104.12.!, also, vouchers for a like sum disbursed in that 
behalf, showing a final settlement, which was approved. Then, with an order to 
the Commissioners appointed to settle the claims against James Haekley deceased 
to file a report at the next term, the business of the court was completed. 

The fifth term commenced on the first Monday, November 3, 1829, at the 
house of Alexander Ewing ; present, Benjamin Cushman and William N. Hood, 
Judges. There was no business and the 'court adjourned until Friday, the 7th 
to meet at the house of William Suttonfield. On that day, letters of administra- 
tion were issued to Joseph Holman on the estate of La Gro, a Miami chief- and 
on Saturday, the 8th, Messrs. Holman and Walker, Commissioners, tq settle the 
claims against James Haekley 's estate, filed a report of their proceedings. This 
was the business „f ihe term, ami with it the probate man;, gemot by the Circuit 
Court was concluded also. 

At the next term, commencing on Monday, May 3, 1830, William G 
Ewing filed bis commission as Probate Judge of Allen County, and continued to 
act as such until ihe close of the August term, 1833, when he resigned, and was 
succeeded by Hugh McCulloch, who was appointed by Gov. Noble, to serve in his 
stead until the election in August following. He was then elected his own suc- 
cessor, and served as such- until November, 1835, when he resigned, and Thomas 
Johnson succeeded him by appointment, dated November 17, 1S35, who served 
until the August election in 1830. Lueicn P. Ferry was the successor of Mr. 
Johnson, and served until 1839, when Reuben J. Dawson became Judge, and 
held the position one year. After him, Samuel Stophlet was Judge until May, 
1844, aud was followed by George Johnson, who held the position until Febru- 
ary, 1847. The next and last Probate Judge of Allen County was Nelson 
McLain, who occupied the bench until January, 1853, when the Probate Court 
was abolished and the jurisdiction transferred tq the Court of Common Pleas, 
upon the incoming of the new State Constitution adopted in 1852. 

This court was organized under the Common Pleas act of 1852, which took 
effect in January, 1853 ; but the act defining the time of holding courts in the 
several counties of the State, being passed at the session of 1853. did not go into 
effect until March 19, 1853. Of this court, Hon. James W. Borden was elected 
the first Judge, his first term commencing on the 3d day of November, 1S53. 
The jurisdiction of this court was concurrent with that of the Circuit Court with- 
in certain prescribed limits, and, in addition, had exclusive jurisdiction of probate 
matters. The Clerk of the Circuit Court was also ex officio Clerk of the Court 
of Common Pleas, and the Sheriff' of the county was alike the executive officer of 
both courts, but the Common Pleas had its own District ( or Prosecuting ) Attorney. 
Judge Borden held this position until November, 1857, when he was succeeded 
by J. Brackenridgc. The Common Pleas Court was abolished by the act of 
February 8, 1873, since which time the Circuit Court has had probate jurisdiction. 


By the Legislative enactment of 1867, a Criminal Court was created having 
general criminal jurisdiction in Allen County. It was established here in the 
early part of that year, of which, in the month of April. Hon. James A. Fay 


was appointed Judge, and K. S. Taylor, Prosecuting Attorney. At the election 
in October of Hint year, Hon. James \V. Burden was chosen for that position, and 
tilled it satisfactorily to his constituents. He holds it now. 


This Court was organized under the provisions of an act of the General 
Assembly of the State of Indiana, approved March 5, 1877, consisting 
"of one Judge, who shall hold his office for four years, and until his suc- 
cessor has been elected and qualified, if he shall so long behave well. The 
Clerk of the Circuit Court and the Sheriff of the county shall be respectively 
the Clerk and Sheriff of said Court," As provided by Section 10 of that act, 
said "Court, within and for said county, shall have original and concurrent juris- 
diction with the Circuit Court in all civil cases, and jurisdiction concurrent with 
the Circuit Court in all cases of appeals from Justices of the Peace, Board of 
County Commissioners, aud Mayor's [or] City Courts in civil cases, and all other 
appellate jurisdiction in civil cases now vested in, or which may hereafter be 
vested by law in the Circuit Courts, and said Court shall also have concurrent 
jurisdiction in all actions by or against executors, guardians and administra- 
tors." Tho Hon. Robert Lowry is the Judge of said Court, the sessions of 
which are held in one of the rooms of the Court House. 

By the provisions of an act of Congress, passed at the session of 1878-79, 
a branch of the District Court of the United States, for the District of Indiana, 
was authorized, subject to location, as Judge Gresham might deem expedient and 
for the best interest of tho cause of prompt justice. Under that provision, the eourt 
was established here early in the spring of this year (1879), when Judge Gresham 
came here to hold the first session, but not finding a room suited to the purpose, no 
court was held; subsequently, however, suitable rooms being found, the court was 
located, and now holds regular sessions at stated intervals. On the 6th day of I^T'.I, the first case was filed for adjudication. "Thomas Sharfe and 
Alonzo Sharfe vs. Alfred Stoll ; Note, demand 82,0110 ; Plaintiff from Kosciusko 
County, the Defendants from St. Joseph's County. Process to issue as soon as 
Marshall Dudley appoints a Deputy. This is the first case filed in the court." 
[News item, Ootober 7. 1879.] 


This; Cuurt was organized under the law rippertainine: thereto, in the early 
snmmer of 1S79, and is held in the office of Robertson & Harper, west of 
the Court House. 


J. M. Morris. W. H. Withers, L. M. Ninde, Isaac Jcnkinsnn, D. P. 
Whcednn. Joseph K. Edeerlou. R. Breekenridge, Jr.. William W. Carson; L. P. 
Ferry, died August 20, 1S44; Charles W. Ewing, died Jan. 9, 1843; George 
W. Ewing, F. P. Randall, John J. Glenn, E. A. McMahon, John Hough, Jr., 

Worthington, William Coombs, Thomas M. Coouibs, Henry Cooper, E. F. 

Coleriek, J. G. Walpoole, S. J. Patrick, William H. Jones. J. C. Jacoby, A. 
Bennett, Mu>es Jenkensou, A. F. YeaeaT, John B. Dubois; Samuel Bigger, 
died September '.'. lslti; Joseph Sinclair, died September 7, 1854; "David 
Coleriek, Hugh McCulloch ; Thomas Johnson, died September 18, 1843; Will- 
iam M. McCarty. 




It appears to have been contemplated by the frauiers of the law for the selec- 
tion and location of eligible sites for seals of justice in new counties, that the pro- 
prietors of new towns or owners of eligible sites for such, so located as to be deemed 
within the purview of the law defining what constitutes an eligible site, should 
donate a number of hits, suitable traets r,f l;md. or otherwise appropriate money, 
sufficient fur the location of the first public buildings and the expenses incident 
thereto, as a consideration or inducement for tie- location of the seat of justice 
on the site so deemed to be eligible. The observance of this method in selecting 
Fort Wayne as the shire town of Allen County, was not without its motive. 
The consideration in this instance was the donation of a large number of lots 
adjacent to the proposed public square, and the appropriation of a considerable 
sum of money, which, with the proceeds of the sale of those lands, was to be 
appropriated toward the erection of public buildings suitable for the purposes of 
l he new county. The management of this original fund was placed in the hand, 
of a County Agent, to be expended in the method prescribed by law. Before 
the erection of the necessary public buildings, the courts were usually held in the 
principal room of one or another of the primitive tavern buildings, either that of 
.Mr. Suttonfield, on the northeast corner of Barr and Columbia streets, or of 
Alexander Ewing, on the southwest corner of the same streets. Tie- first term 
of the Commissioners' Court was held at the house of Alexander Swing, hut 
where the first session of the Circuit Court was held, the record does not disiLse 
probably at the residence of William Suttonfield. Courts were thus held for 
several years, succeeding the organization of the county. 

The first steps taken toward the erection of a Court House, so fur as has 
been ascertained from the record, were at the May session of the County Board 

in 1831. On the 7th day of that month, it was decided to build a Court House, 
a plan was agreed upon, and the Clerk was ordered to advertise for bids. Notice 
having been given, the Board let the contract for the building of a new Court 
House, to John S. Archer " to furnish the brick, James Hudson to lay 
up the brick and furnish the lime and stone, and Hanna & Edsall to do the car- 
penter work and furnish all lumber, timber, nails, glass, etc., for So, 32] .75. The 
citizens of Fort Wayne subscribed 8499 in material and labor, and S149 in cash 
toward the erection of the Court House." The rest was paid out of the county 

This building, which was illy adapted to the purposes contemplated, was 
never fully completed, being little more than a shell, with some of the rooms par- 
tially finished, while others were scarcely tenantable. The first meeting of court in 
this new edifice was on the 7th of May, 1832, just one year from the date of its 
original projection, though the building was not completed, as the record shows. 
After that dale, however, it was nominally completed, but was never a substantial 
building, though used, in the absence of a better, until the fall of 1841, when, it 
having become apparent that the old building was totally unfit for the purpose 
and insufficient in capacity, action was taken by the Board preparatory to the 
building of a new one. On the 9th of September, 1841, " it was ordered that 
an allowance be made to A. Miller for the best draft or plan for a Court House in 
Allen County, Indiana, the cost not to exceed S15,000. Said draft was pre- 
sented by A. Miller, and drawn by Porter oi Rice, of Hudson, Ohio, as architects 
for said Miller, builder, and in answer to an advertisement by the Commissioners 
for drafts and plans." 

As a further preliminary step in the process of rebuilding, " the County 
Agent," September 10, 1841, "was authorized and required to sell the ' Allen 
County Court House' to the highest bidder, after having given due notice of the 
sale. The building to be removed from the public square in thirty days after sale." 

December 8, 1841, "the Board ordered that John Spencer be allowed the 
sum of S300 and the old Court House for his buildings on I he public square. 
The Court. House to be removed in one year from this date." [Payment to be 
made, 8150 down and S150 next March], "Possession of the buildings to be 
given in March next." 

Dnring the existence of this old building, and after it became unfit for occu- 
pancy, a one-story edifice, designed as a temporary Court House, the principal 
room suitable for holding courts, with jury and other rooms, was built on the 
southeast corner of the Court Square, fronting on Berry street, in the summer of 
1S43, the contract for which was let by the County Board on the 1 1th of March 
of that year, to Benjamin Mason, Charles French and John Oeanour. The 
price was not named, the order stating that it should be "suitable for one court- 
room and two offices." At the same tiuie, a further order was made for a 
" building to be put up on the northeast corner of the public square," to be used 
as offices for the Treasurer and Auditor. The old Clerk's office was on the north- 
west, and the Recorder's office on the southwest "corner of the square. The 
court building contemplated by the foregoing order was erected by Samuel 
Edsall, the contractor, aud completed in 1847. This was a two-story edifice, of 
brick, and designed for court and general public purposes. 

"At the time of the erection, and during the occupancy and use of the first 
Court House, * * the old County Jail stood on the southwest 

corner of the square." On the oUth of April, 1S53, a contract was let to Charles 
G. French to build a Clerk's office on the northwest corner of the public square 

15th of October, 1S53, at a price of 81,856.20. 
1 accepted at the time prescribed, 
in 1S47, had been in use about eleven years, 
ig of greater capacity and better adapted to the 
nifested itself, the County Board, in view of the 
ide a levy of 15 cents on each 8100 

10 be completed on or before the 
It was completed accordingly, an 

The Court Horn 
when, the necessity for a buildi 
public want having definitely in; 
situation, on the lltb day of Jl 

valuation of real aud personal property for the purpose of buildii _ 
Court House. Upon this levy, the Treasurer, on the 1st day of June, 1859, 
reported that he had collected the sum of S7, 183. 56, at which term an additional 
levy of 20 cent on each SI 00 valuation was made. The tax collection for this 
purpose, as reported by the Treasurer on the 6th day of June, 1860, was 
812,271.03. The condition of the finances being such as to warrant further pro- 
ceedings, the Board, in the mean time, had requested the presentation of plans 
and specifications for a building of suitable proportions to meet the present and 
anticipated wants of the public for court purposes and county offices. Many such 
plans were received, and on the 21st of June, 1859, "the Board, after examin- 
ing some plans presented for a Court House, defer the same for fnture examina- 
tion." Three days later, " the Board now proceed to examine the plans and 
specifications submitted for the erection of a Court House, and, as none of the 
plans submitted have full specifications, and are not accompanied with an estimate 
of the cost in whole or in part of said building, and the Board wishing further 
information upon the subject, do, for the purpose of obtaining, hereby postpone 
the further consideration and examination of the subject until the 26th day of 
July next, and order public notice tu be given by publication in the Fort Wayne 
Sentinel, and * * * inviting further plans and specifications, 
accompanied with estimates of cost of a firi-prouf building." 

At a special session on the 28th day of July, further proceedings were had 
concerning the matters under consideration, as follows: "The Board, after 
having examined the plans and specifications for the building of a Court House 
submitted to them for their inspection, and having received a report from the 
Advisory Committee, heretofore appointed at the request of some of the citizens, 
upon the same subject, was of opinion that no one of the plans examined was 
satisfactory to ihem to adopt ; but, in the plans of Edwin May, Esq., and Samuel 
McEH'atriek, Esq., are points desirable for the purpose of forming a plan differing 
from either, the Board hereby agree to purchase each of said plans and the 
specifications accompanying each, ['ur the sum of 8100 each. And the County 


Auditor is hereby authorized to issue said* May a county order for $100 for his 
plans and specifications; and, also, to said McElfatrick the sum of $100 for Iris 
plans and specifications." 

Again, on the 12th of August following, at a special session, " the Board of 
Commissioners now resume the examination of new plans for the erection of a 
Court House, and, after mature deliberation and examination, a majority of the 
Board (T. M. Andrews dissenting) do approve and adopt the plan having a 
central tower, presented by Edwin May, Esq.; provided that, upou examination 
of the detailed drawings and specific estimates of the same, hereafter to be made 
by said May, the whole cost of said building does not exceed §05,000." 

At a subsequent special session, on the 25th of August, the aforesaid plan 
and specifications having been adopted, it was " Ordered by the Board that' the 
Auditor be and he is hereby authorized and required to give public notice by pub- 
lication in the Fort Wayne papers and the Slate Sentinel, that sealed proposals 
will bo received by the Board of Commissioners, at the Auditor's office, until the 
12th day of January, 1860, for the building of a Court House in Fort Wayne, 
Allen County, according to the plans and specifications furnished by Edwin May, 
Esq., and heretofore accepted and adopted by the Board, payment to be made 
quarterly upon the estimate. 

" Ordered by the Board that Edwin May, Esq., be and he is hereby appointed 
architect to superintend the erection of the Court House, to be built after the 
plans and specifications which he has this day furnished the Board." 

The Board not being unanimous on the question of appointing Mr. May, the 
dissenting member, Mr. Andrew's, filed the following protest : 

" I protest to the appointment of Mr. May as architect, for the reason that 
it is contrary to the agreement made between the Board at the August special 
session for 1859. Signed, Thomas M. Anbbews." 

On the 12th of January, 1S60, the Board met in special session to open the 
bids that had beeu received in answer to their advertisements. Previous to the 
consideration of the bids, the Board propounded the following interrogatories to 
each of the builders, to be answered in writing: 

" 1st. Are you a mechanic, and, if so, what kiud ? " 

" 2d. Do you follow your profession for a livelihood ? " 

"3d. Have you a partner in this bid; if so, who? " 

" 4th. Do you intend to build the Court House under your 
do you inteud to sub-let it out? " 

These requisitions having been complied with, the Board, 
day, opened the bids in the presence of the bidders, but, not arrii 
sion, they adjourned until the day following, at which time the si 
read in the presence of the bidders and ordered spread on the 
were thirteen of them. The highest was 894,000 ; the lowest 
which was evidently not considered a responsible bid. 

The contract was awarded to Samuel Edsall & Co. (Samuel Edsall, Virgil 
M. Kimball, Ochniig Bird and Lewis Walkie), at. their bid of §03,613, and 
they gave bond in the sum of 8100,000 for its fulfillment. 

For all services rendered by him, Edwin May was allowed 8875, including 
plans, specifications and estimates, and the 8100 before allowed him. He was 
then employed as Superintending Architect, at the rate of 3-1 per cent, on the 
entire cost of the building. He was, however, discharged from that position, by 
order of the Board, on the 15th of March, 1861. On the 22d, Samuel McEl- 
fatrick was appointed Superintitiding Architect, for the consideration of 3 per cent 
on the estimate cost of the building. 

Finally, at a meeting of the Board on the 23d of July, 1862, the building 
having been completed in accordance with the contract, the announcement was 
officially made by the Superintending Architect in the following: 

Fort Waysk, July 23, 1802. 
Tolhe Honorable B lard »/' Oommimimrs of Allen County : 

Gestiemes— I do hereby certify that the Court House built by S. Edsall S: Co. is 
completed according to the plans and specifications, except such alterations as were 
acknowledged by your Honorable Hoard and indorsed on the contract for building said 
Court House. 

(Signed) Samuei, McElfatrick, Superintendent. 

Then the building was officially accepted by the Board of County Commis- 
sioners, in the name of Allen County, Ind. 

Some differences of opinion having arisen between the contractors for build- 
ing the Court House, Messrs. Edsall ec Co., and the County Commissioners, 
Joseph K, Edgerton, E. R. Wilson, Jesse L. Williams, I. D. G. Nelson and 
Pliny Hoagland were selected as arbitrators, each party agreeing to abide their 
decision. When the "report of these gentlemen Wits submitted, a final settlement 
was made, with S. Edsall ec Co., showing that they had been paid the ag<.n"oite 
sum of 874,271. 

The total cost of the Court House, including the amount paid the architects 
and Superintendents and for the bell, etc., was about the sum of $78,000. 

On the 1st of August, the Hoard ordered the issue of Court House bonds to 
the amount of $10,000, and sold to meet the indebtedness thus incurred, 
redeemable in 1867, with legal interest. 

The following is inscribed on the corner-stone: 

Laid Willi Masonic IVremoiiies, 
MAY 1st, A. D. 1861— A. L. 5,861. 
By Sou D. Bavless, P. G. M. 
MicnAEL Crow, ) 

County Commissioners. 

uperviston; or 

on the following 
ring at a conclu- 
:veral bids were 
ninutes. There 
vas for 862,700, 



S. Edsali. and V. M. Kti 

Designed by Edwim M 

Saperiiilendent— Micoaki. Mo 


01' the public buildings contemplated by law, and for the erection of which 
the funds placed in the bauds and under the control of the County Agent, after 
the public " Pound," for the safe-keeping of ..stray animals above two years old 
taken up within twenty miles of the C mrt House, the attention of our county 
legislators appears to have been next directed to the building of a County Jaii. 
for reasons best known to themselves, having in view the well-being of society 

The first action taken by the Hoard in ivI'eivniT thereto appears of record anion" 
their proceedings at the August term, 1824, where it is " Ordered by the Board 
of County Commissioners that the Agent for the county of Allen be authorized to 
have a jail erected, let out to the lowest bidder, on the public square in the town 
of Fort Wayne, at his discretion as to size and kind." 

„,.n TI, \ Cont ''" Ct f °; *™ l,,lil ' li "" »' ; " Id to David' Irwin, Robert Douglass and 
William N. Hood. The cost, as nearly as can now bo ascertained from the data 

at command, was §579, and was ready for o-onpancj in tl oily summer of 

1825. At the August term, 1820, of the Circuit Court, a little more than a 
year after, the grand jury, in their report of an examination made, find : 

We, the Oram! Jury empaneled for the county of AUon and State of Indiana ofler 

examining the C.unly Jail, are of I lie opini hat the criminals' rooms are ....I a place 

of safely for pers.. ns committed thereto: that Hie .lelilors' i-t i. upper department of said 

Jail, is not in a suitahle condition lor the reception of debtors, from the want of locks, 
floor and bedding, Jons 1'. Hedges Foreman 

Which shows very conclusively that the building was of very little conse- 
quence, considered as a place of confinement. This condition was almost 
unchanged two years afterward, for, on the 5th of July, 1828, the Boartl 
"Ordered that M. K. Taylor be and be is hereby authorized to contract with 
some person to put glass in the debtors' room of the County Jail, and to lath 
and plaster the same, and make any necessary repairs." This building stood on 
the southwest corner of the Public Square. Having served ils purpose for a 
period of twenty years, it was destroyed by fire in 1847, 

About that time, Lot No. 518 had been purchased, with the design of erect- 
ing another jail building thereon, but at the June term, 1847, this lot was 
directed to be sold and another lot purchased in ils stead. It was sold accord- 
ingly, and Lot No. 577 purchased, the consideration for which was $500 cash, 
and Lot 518, valued at $500— equal to $1,000. Upon this lot the new jail 
was built, the same upon which the present jail is located. At the same session, 
the Board ordered the levy of twenty cents on each S100 valuation of the real 
and personal propirty in the county, for the purpose of creating a fund to erect a 
County Jail, this levy to bo made upon such property for the years 1848 and 

Having taken these preliminary steps, the Board, being in regular session, 
on the 8th day of May, 1849, entered into a contract with Charles G. French. 
John B. Coneannon and Aaron J. Mershon, for the erection of a Jail and She? 
ifFs residence on Lot No. 577, for the sum of S4 ,955.34, the building to be com- 
pleted on or before the 1st day of May, 1S50. The building was completed in 
substantia] correspondence with the proposed plan. 

The first positive steps taken toward the erection of an asylum for the poor 
of Allen County, is shown in the purchase of the northeast quarter, and the west 
half of the southeast quarter, and the east half of the east half of the north- 
west quarter of Section twenty-nine (29), Township thirty (30) north, Range 
twelve (12) east, in the month of June, 1853. On the 24th of June, of the 
same year, a contract was entered into between the county and John A. Robin- 
son, to build a house suitable for present use, for the sum of §750. Subsequently, 
on the 9th of December, George L. Parker was employed to keep the paupers at 
the Poor-Farm, one year from December 20, 1853, for the sum of $600. 

On the 14th of June, 1854, William Robinson was appointed agent to super- 
intend the building of an addition to the Poorhouse, and 8300 was appropriated 
for that purpose. 

J. B. Reinioke, on the 30th of December, 1854, was employed to keep the 
paupers on the Poor-Farm for a period of three years, for 8400 per annum, with 
the use of the farm. He was re-employed in March, 1858, to keep them for an 
additional period of six months, for $1.7.5 per week, and to pay $250 for the use 
of the grounds to put in a spring crop. 

This method was continued with occasional changes until 1860, when the 
necessities of the situation required an enlargement of dimensions and increased 
facilities for taking care of the poor and infirm. 

On the 5th of July, 1860, the Board made the following order in the prem- 
ises : The Board, after some consultation on the proposals for letting the County 
Asylum, do not accept any of the same, not deeming it prudent or advisable to 
continue the present system any longer. " The Board now appoints James M. 
Read, Superintendent of the County Asylum, two years from the 2d day of Sep- 
tember next." Mr. Read to superintend the farm, to take care of the inmates, 
to furnish a team of horses, wagon and harness, four cows, and farming -utensils, 
sufficient to cultivate the farm, and receive 8800 per annum. The county to . 
furnish provisions and clothing. This arrangement appears to have been quite 
Satisfactory, for an examination of the record shows that on September 3, 1S62, 
James M. Read re-appointed Superintendent for two years, from September - : 
same terms as above. It was, however, soon demonstrated that the capacity of 
the buildings already erected were insufficient ; hence, on September 10, 1S03, 
the Commissioners resolved to build a new building for an asylum or infirmary, 
and purchased a plan of Edward Burling, an architect of Chicago, 111., for 8100, 
w ben the plan and dimensions of the new asylum were fully determined upon. 
The Board, in view of the fact that the farm belonging to the. county \on which 
the asylum was situated) is distant from Fort Wayne and not adapted to pauper 



Iftboij purchased, on the 14th of December, 1863, a tract of land of Robert E. 
Fleming, on the west side of the St. Mary's River, near Beauer'a Mill, for $60 
per aore. on which to erect the new asylum, which was better adapted to the pres- 
ent wants of the county in quality as well as in area 

Afterward, on December 14, 1863, the Auditor was ordered to advertise for 
proposals for the erection of a new asylum. Nut ice was accordingly given, and 
numerous plans were submitted for the consideration of the Board. Having 
agreed upon a plan March 16. 1864, a contract for the building of the new asy- 
lum was let to David J. Silvers, he to build and complete the same for 814,468. 
Mr. Silvers at once began to collect materials and prepare for the erection of the 
main building, on the grounds recently purchased for the purpose. 

Subsequently, at the June term' 1864, the Board sold 140 acres of the old 
farm to William Craig, for the sum of 85,51)0. Afterward, at the September session 
of the Board, in 1864, Mr. James M. Read, formerly in charge of the Poor 
Farm, was appointed Superintendent of the Asylum, for a term of four years 

alary of 81,000 per annum. 
\sylum having been fully and satisfac- 
i Silvers and paid him in full for the 
;. and the further sum of $1,028.12, 

mge- nf plan and structure, making ihe 

?as sufficiently large for the immediat 
and appliances equal to the most approved 
uken the one step in advance of the old 

of such determination i 
i contract was let for (be 
i due time, they were com- 

rrom September 2, of the 

Oo the 8th of June, 1865, th 
Unity completed, the Board settled 
work, the original contract price, * 
for extra work occasioned by ncees; 
whole cost of the building at that < 

The building thus construct* 
needs of the county, with arrangem 
suggestions of the day. But, havi _ 
order of things, other additions and reformations be 
riences developed other elements of improvement. In the course of time, under 
the impulses of an enlarged domain of humanity, it was determined to construct 
additional wings to the main building, and notice 
given accordingly, and on the 26th of June, 1871 
erection of such wings, at the price of 815,100. and. 
pleted and ready for occupancy. 

Beside these wings, other buildings for the convenience and better manage- 
ment of the different classes of inmates, as well as fbr the comfort of all, have 
since been constructed, so that to-day. there are, probably, lew buildings in the 
State better adapted to the purposes for which it was intended, than the new 
Asylum of Allen County. 

From the recent report of the Superintendent, exhibiting the condition of 
the institution for the six mouths ending September 1 . 187 9, we are permitted to 
make the following extracts : " Condition of inmates — idiots, 9 ; insane, 40 ; blind, 
2 ; all other causes, 25 ; total, 76. Of these, there are males, 41 ; females, 35 ; 
total, 76. Average daily number, SI ; number of days relief furnished in six 
months, 14,672; average cost per day, 20 cents. 

1 And 6nally, as a very appropriate addenda to the description and plan of the 
institution, it is proper here to state that, under the superintendence of Mr. John 
Spice, the present incumbent, the several departments are kept in remarkably good 
order, cleanly and economically, and, as such, is a credit to the county, and an 
excellent model from which other counties may well copy. 



The question of an organized movement on the part of the farmers of Allen 
County to secure to themselves the advantages to be derived from the combined 
experiences of others in the department of agriculture, was agitated for a consid- 
erable time in Allen County, us in most other counties, before there was a suf- 
ficient unity of sentiment and action manifested to form the necessary nucleus 
for such a society. The first effective movement in this direction was in the 
spring of 1841. At that time, as a result of much canvassing, a meeting was 
called to take the matter into consideration. The following is a statement of the 
proceedings of that meeting: 

At a public meeting of the farmers of Allen County, held at the Court House in 
Fort Wayne, on Saturday, May 29, 1841, in pursuance of public notice, EUas Waters, 
K-i[.. Mil- called to the chair, ami li. K. Fleming wn- :i]>jn.ini el Secretary. 

On motion of Col. Wines, the fi.llowiri" reeolulioTj was passed : 

Jirtolved, That a committee of five tie appointed to give (he necessary notice of a 
meeting for the organization of an Agricultural Society, and to report a constitution, to 
be submitted to the meeting, for the L'ovenmii-nt -a -:iid society. 

The Chairman appointed (he foli^ii,..- i .,-..■ - : Marshal! S. Wine-'. Henry Kudisell, 
Samuel Henna, F. P. Randall and R. B. Fleming, u the committee. On motion, the fol- 
lowing were added to (he committee : KhIhti ]'. I'.rownwell and John S. Archer. 

On motion of Judge Hannn, 

Uuolved, That il be the duty of (he committee heretofore appointed to request some 
individual to address a meeting of (he citizens al such places as the said committee des- 
ignate, on the subject of agriculture. 

On motion of Dr. Thompson. 

Resolved, That the proceedings of the meeting bo signed by the Chairman and Sec- 
retary, and published in the Sentinrt aivl Tunes. 

E. Watkhs, Chairman. 

H. S. FlBMHCO, Stcretary. 

The following editorial notice in the Sentinel of the Saturday preceding, was 
the first formal announcement of the intention to hold such a meeting: 

■A neeling of the formers and agriculturists of Allen County will be held 
at the Court House, in Fort Wayne, on Saturday, the 29th of May, at 1 o'clock 
P. M., for the purpose of fanning an Agricultural Society. All who feel an 
interest in the advancement of that noble science are invited to come." 

The result of the meeting thus held, was the publication of the fol- 

" Notice to Farmers. — WHEREAS, The citizens of Fort Wayne, making a 
practice of monopolizing all the institutions of the county under their own 
especial supervision ; and, as another attempt is about to be made in the forma- 
tion of an Agricultural Society, it is proposed that the real farmers of Allen 
County meet at the American House, in Fort Wayne, Saturday, the 26th of 
June, at 11 o'clock A. M., to take such measures as may be thought necessary to 
secure their interests in the formation of a County Agricultural Society. Signed, 
William Hamilton, L. S. Bayless, Greorge Builard. R. B. Clark, Thomas Griffith, 
N. A. Woodward. June 7, 1841." 

The meeting was held as proposed in the foregoing notice, of which the Sen- 
tinel, of July 3, makes the following mention: 

"At the agricultural meeting, held in Fort Wayne City, on Saturday, the 
26th of June, the following persons were elected officers and Directors for the 
following year: Col. N. A. Woodward, President; Hon. Samuel Hanna, Vice 
President ; J. Barltey, Treasurer ; Henry Rudisell, Secretary. Directors — Joseph 
Morgan, William Hamilton, Elias Waters, L. G. Thompson, Marshall S. Wines, 
Rufus McDonald, John Valentine, W. S. Reid. Adjourned to meet at the office 
of Daniel Reid, on Saturday, July 10, 1 P. M." 

Alter this organization, meetings were held with considerable regularity for a 
few years, and occasional lairs were held, which had the effect to create an emu- 
lation among the more enterprising of the Allen County farmers. The organi- 
zation and the meetings held under its auspices, bad another effect, also, in the 
indiu'euicnt.s offered, to cause the better class of farmers to examine and compare 
the experiences of others with their own, and to observe more carefully the con- 
sequences of improvident farming in contrast with the results obtained from cul- 
tivating the soil in the light of science, which imparts a knowledge not only of 
the properties of the soil, hut of the processes of cultivation best adapted to the 
common products of the country. 

While, a few years subsequently, the interest waned, yet the good seed 
already sown had taken root so effectually that the early efforts to maintain a 
healthy society were nut wholly lost. It was not, however, until after the legis- 
lative action of 1852, when the current of public opinion spread abroad, that a 
healthy awakening was manifested among the farmers of Allen County. 

On the 16th of August, 1852, an organization perfected and the following 
permanent officers elected: President, T. D. G. Nelson ; Treasurer, O. W. Jef- 
fords; Secretary, F. P. Randall. 

From that time forward, more rapid advances were made in the practical 
application of new methods of culture, whereby better results were obtained in 
the increased productiveness of the soil. Four years after the organization of 
the Society, the staple productions were shown to be, for the year ending June 1, 
1S56, 110,333 bushels of wheat, worth an aggregate of 8146,303; 408,913 
bushels of corn, valued at 898.273; 12,080 pounds of wool, valued at 82,853; 
1 93,285 bushels of oats, valued at $41,765 ; 38,975 bushels of potatoes, valued 
at 819,380; 11,055 tons of hay, valued at 859,352, and nearly all other farm 
products in like proportion. 

During that year, the Allen County Horticultural Society was organized, 
with I. D. G. Nelson as President; Dr. M. W. Huxford, Treasurer, and H. J. 
liudisell. Secretary. For many years afterward, in this department, meetings 
were held weekly, at which times the discussion of horticultural and kindred 
subjects were quite animated, as they were found to be intrinsically profitable. 
The condition of the Society and its influence are thus spoken of in the report 
to the State Society in 1S57 : 

" Farming operations have been much improved in this county within the 
last five years. Many labor-saving implements and much improved stock have 
been introduced. This improvement is due in a great measure to the influence 
of the Society, and this is expected to increase until the Society occupies the 
high position its soil and climate justify it in assuming — the equal to the best in 
the State." 

The following year, owing to an unusual amount of wet weather, the prod- 
ucts of principal crops were comparatively less than some others, yet, aside from 
this, the interest and competition in the county fair of that season were greatly 
in advance of former experiences, the fair being " very well attended, and giving 
very 'j.- u< ral satisfaction." The aggregate value of firm products was estimated 
at $658 573— a fair showing. 

In 1865, on invitation of this Society, the Indiana State Fair was held in 
this county, which, it is said, proved one of the most successful ever held in the 
State. These circumstances did much toward giving encouraging impulse to 
the movements promotive of agricultural economy. On the same day, the State 
Horticultural Society met here by special appointment of Mr. I. D. G. Nelson, the 
President. The occasion elicited much interest, many visitors from neighboring 
States being present, among these a large number of prominent horticulturists 
from New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Michigan, Illinois, and other States. 
Newspaper reporters from Philadelphia, New York, Chicago, Cincinnati, and 
other noted places, were also present, who, in their respective journals, gave a 
glowing account of the proceedings, discussions of the occasion, in addition to a 
very clever view of the people of the county and city, and of the business as 

The result of this joint meeting of these two State societies was a joint 
encouragement, also, of the kindred interests developed in these two departments 
of industry. In 1870, official reports show that there were in Allen County 
4,916 farms regularly cultivated ; that the yield of wheat was 432,752 bushels ; 
of butter there were 5411, 1122 pounds. The appraised value of the real estate of 
the county was S9,030,000 ; of personal property was 83,133,500, and the total 
estimated value of all real and personal property was shown to be for the year 


_ For greater efficiency in the management of the separate departments of 
a-m-ukurc and horticulture, in 1873 the Allen County Agricultural Society 
and the Horticultural Society were merged in one, under the JmjKaate name of 
"The Northern Indiana Agricultural and Horticultural Asocial',,,, " with 1„„|. 
quarters at Fort Wayne. The officers were F. P. Randall IV-riuW ■ Vllen 
Link Treasurer and William Lyne, Secretary. Tins Association held lis third 

fT W '" tT ' ° n ""7 gr0 "" dS Wi , hin " 1C C< "'P° rate limit » »'• "'" • i'V of 
tort Wayne. These grounds comprise about sixty acres of land peculiarly 
adapted to the purpose. Though the season was especially untavnraul' ll„. ',:,„■ 
was successful beyond expectation. The report says: '-Bad as the weather 
was, however, the receipts from all sources amounted to oyer *7 11(10 ■ the „,,, 
m.ums awarded, a little oyer S.-i.HOI,. Our exhibition in every department was 
large and floe, and if the society is successful in getting its debt, paid it will 
doubtless be one of the most useful associations of the kind in the State as the 

attendance ,s always large from neigl ,.;„„ colmties> „„: .,„ , ]u , ^ 

ac.littes required for such a purpose. Great improvements in stork of all I, s 

have been made m this county within the past year, as was evidenced at our last 
exhibition. In this connection, the followhicr item, descriptive ,,f the ,™l„.i r ,l 
formations of the county, will be of special interest : ° ° 

" The soil of the county is composed principally of drift of the slaeial 
period, and consists of vegetable mailer and black loamy muck soil, the surface 
being sprinkled with bowlders deposited during that period. It varies as to pro 
ducliveness I n the western portion, along the Toledo, Wabash & Western 
Kadroad, there is a large amount of wet prairie land, which can only be eulii 
vated at great expense, but when onee put in order, it is inexhaustible The 
uplands are rather unproductive, while the bottom lands and a greater portion of 
the remainder of the county yield immense crops of all the cereals and other 
staples common to this climate. The county is abundantly supplied with water 
by the Mauniee River, which is formed by the conjunction of the St Marys 
and St. Joseph's Rivers, at the city of Fort Wavne. The area of the county is 
670 square miles, with a population of 50,000. Fort Wayne, the county seal 
does an cxten.-ivc manufacturing and wholesale business, and contains a popula- 
tion of 30,000 — in 1876. ^ ^ 

In September, 1877, the Association held its fourth annual fair which is 
represented as having been a very fine one, notwithstanding the weather' was very 
unfavorable. The report says : " We had a very fine show of overvthiic thai 
goes toward making up an agricultural fair. Gov. Williams honored "us will, hi. 
presence, and gave some excellent advice, especially to the young, which was well 
received. * * * ■ This is the fourth annual fair under the auspices 
ot the new organization, which, in consequence of extensive and costly improve- 
ments, had become seriously embarrassed. The Association, however is now out 
of debt, and has a small surplus in the bauds of the Treasurer. It. is hoped and 
believed that the experience of the past will enable the managers to steer the ahip 

t to avoid similar breakers in the future 
From the tabulated statements accompanyin 
State and County Fairs for 1877, 
ble statistics : The number of ac 
was 155,211, and the total a 
wheat, 27,636 ; of corn, 37,274 
of pasture land, 95,702. There 


ual Report of the 
e gather the following interesting and valua- 
5 of improved land in Allen County, reported. 
Jage given was 507,441 ; , the acreage of 
of oats, 16,543; of meadow land, 29^150; 
194,821 bushels of wheat; 807,946 of 

of 1 

376,615 of oats ; 87,269 of potatoes ; 277,371 of fruit, and' 25,391 tons 

From the report of 1878 i 
; the true status of agricultural 

i the following facts of value in determin- 
ers in this county during that year. The 
Secretary of the Association, Mr. I. D. G. Nelson, furnishes the following state- 

"The Northern Indiana Agricultural and Horticultural Association held 
their annual fair at Fort Wayne for 1S78 during the second week of September 
The show, in every department, was very full. The receipts at the "ate amounted 
to 84,896.91. The weather was favorable, and the exhibition highly favorable 
to the county. For, although the name indicates a great deal more, still it is 
the auspices and in the main an Allen County show. 
The show of stock was about as follows : Number of entries— horses, 60 ; 
54 i, P™". 1 '?' 106 l agricultural, 110; horticultural, 268 1 
e arts, 175; educational (Norma! 



mechanical, 308;" textile fabi 

School) 21. 

" The improvements in Allen County, during the past few years, in agricult- 
ure has been very great, and it is increasing with wonderful rapidity. It" horti- 
cultural products have been well understood for many years. Horses cattle 
sheep and hogs of the best breeds are now raised in all parts of the comity' 
whereas, a few years ago, but few farmers gave special attention to stock-raisin- 
The stock exhibited at our last fair was nearly all raised and owned in Allen 
County, and would go very far toward making up a creditable Slate fair. Total 
receipts for the year, about. §8,000, and expenditures about the same." In the 
statistics of that year, Allen County stands as follows: Bushels of wheat, 549,- 
838; of com, 942,224; of oats, 611,540; of potatoes, 167,970; grass-seed 
16,151 ; flaxseed, 24,996; tons of hay, 23,346 ; pounds of bacon Hi] ST.", of 
bulk pork, 1,663,937 ; of lard, 180,340 ; of wool, 41,431. 

On the 8th of November, 1S79, the annual election of the Association took 
place, resulting in the election of William A. Kelsey, President ; Wright 
Rock hill, Secretary. 

The following report of the proceeding of that meeting, copied from the 
I'ort Wayne Daily Gazette of November 10, 1S79, gives a very complete detail 
of the transactions, as well as a full statement of the condition of the affairs of 
the Association: 

" The annual meeting of the Northern Indiana Agricultural and Horticult- 
ural Association was held in the Court House on Saturday morning, President 

F P. Randall in the chair. The only business transacted was the reception of 

officers reports and the election of Trustees. reception ot 

" The Secretary's report called attention to the healthy financial condition of 

the Association. It goes on to state that the last exhibit, v;ls succe^ Ja° 

premiums having been paid and quite a number of old claims. The Surer" 

mSfjS, *7wr , ° f * 1 ' 196 - 08 ' H ° <** attenti - l ° the Zrove 
ment of the stock of the county, as well as the agricultural and horticultural 
products, as shown at the late fair. He predicted that th, ' 

products by the last fair ^^"j^Mw^S***' ^ * '*"* 

"The closingjjaragraph of the report was a short statement of the Associa- 

How it had seen dark days, but 

tv in a prosperous condition. He 

lis last official act, but that he 

of the Associa- 

" The Treasurt 

'eport i 
Muii uiu-ing the Secretary's offici " 
eventuallyT;leared-the_difficulty, i 

announced that the document-! 

would have all the solicitude of past years fbr (he '"rcat'er" 
tion. ° 

i report was full and complete, dating from Deccmbet 

(From December 20, 1878, to July 17, 1879.) 
From loan, track tickets, sale of lumber, license, gale receipts at 

concerts, etc j 7?g 46 


(From December 26, 1878, to July 18, 1779.) 

Milanes, music, labor, etc 14n 9f( 

Balance in treasury '.'."'"" ' 130 ly 

*** ssi; 

(From .July 18, 1879, to August 9, 187!).) 

?? on hand « $139 16 

Gate money, etc M 1? 

Total ( $226 33 


(From July 18, 1879, to August 9, 1879.) 

Music, repairs and salaries 'j; 55 q 

Balance in treasury ,j.- „,, 

To,ftl $220 33 

(From August 9, 1879, to November 7, 1879.) 

Balance on hand * , Rr „„ 

Furr.clc DwebaU 'Jlc.fc. ''"{•" 

County Treasurer, show license ."""!!!.."!"..." " 3o 00 

George S, Fmvlei , A.-si-Nini Secretary i n<n oc 

17,126 IT. cent.. ... .. ,.,' s ™ 

*- UJJ to " ;J14 85 

u99 grand stand " 25 ,; 1"4 75 

Gate and grand stan.t receipts, mustang race 217 95 

ll.ui Harmon wheel privilege .V™" „, qq 

B. Monock, beer privilege g gr 

L. Hnssard, " n ""!""! 6 65 

G. Unleib, *■ " .'.'.'.'."."."!!!!!!".".".'"".'.".'." 10 00 

P., Ft. W. Sl C. R. R., l,r,|:; udtiiis.~n.ri coupons. t i •„'.". u-nt* .. 403 26 

Ft. \\\, M. & C. R. R., 2C6 " ■• 26 '■ 66 50 

G R.&1.R R..762 « « 25 « ZZ 190 50 

L. Lentlivcr, tieer privilege o,|Q qq 

A. C. Perrin el al., use ot" track !!!!!.".".".""!!!!"!!.""" 60 00 

George S. Fowler, Assistant Secretary, entrance money for Es- 

leIla 20 00 

Totftl $7,87:1 75 

(From August 11, 1879, to November 8, 1379.) 

R. J. Fisber. rebate on track tickets $ 2 75 

W. Saunders, sprinkling wagon .... ]j qo 

T. Sargent, gate-keeper, salary '.V.V..'."'.'."."." "."." 20 00 

G. G. Smith, ropaira to pumps jo qq 

Fort Wayne Paint and Painting Co .....".'"..' 6 76 

Col. Pettit. half proceeds of mustang race 108 '.17 

Ticket agents and police, ■• •• 20 00 

Tom Sargent, gate-keeper, salary in full no 00 

94 revenue stamps, for bank checks igfi 00 

•in percent discount on 71 tickets sold M. E. College :i 55 

Amount paid on warrants for 1879 ,; h , ( l6 

1&78 209 50 

" to Couniy Treasurer, rebate on show license 187**... 4!t 00 

Balance in treasury 1 196 08 

TotaI $7,873 75 

,v The reports were reported to the proper committees, after which the elec- 
tion for Trustees was proceeded with. The fojlowioe gentlemen were elected- 
W. A. Kelsey, M. E. Argo, F. H. Wolke, F. P. Randall, D. C. Fisher O. P 
Morgan, Matthias Glynn, William H. Myers and Edward Evans. The meeting 
then adjourned. 
then adjourned. 

" The Trustees will meet on the 22d inst. and elect officers." 



Total receipt! 56511,962 88 

Total disbursements 434,116 67 

Total casli in treasury 5125,845 G(j 

Namely, for- 

County purposes 531, UJl on 

School ami Township Trustors 91,878 93 

W B. Payton and Bird & Bowser. 238 11 

Corporation of Mnnromlle 628 34 

A 6 ric» 10 00 

School Pnn.l. principal 939 97 

School Fund, interest, redemption, liquor licenses, less 

Refunders 458 81 

Total cash 5126,845 66 

THE YEAR 1879. 


Value of Lands 

Value of Lots 

Value of 


Wa ne 








































StaCe Senators, — Adams and Allen Couuties, Hon. John D. Sarnighausen ; 
Allen County, Bon. T. J. Foster. 

Rtpraentaiives. — Hon. Oliver E. Fleming, Hon. Elihu Reichelderfer. 

Courts. — Circuit Judge, Hon. Edward O'Rourke ; Circuit Prosecutor, James 
F. Morrison ; Superior Judge, Hun. Robert Lowry ; Criminal Judge, Hon. James 
W. Borden ; Criminal Prosecutor, Samuel M. Hench. 

County Officers.— Clerk Circuit Court, Martin V. B. Spencer ; Auditor, Martin 
K. Argo; Recorder Joseph Momnu-r, Jr. ; Treasurer, Michael F.Schmetzer; Sheriff, 
Charles A. Munson ; Coroner, William Gaffney ; Surveyor, William H. Goshorn ; 
County Superintendent, Jerry Hillegass; County Attorney, Robert C. Bell. 

County Commissioners.— Jacob Geogleio, Francis Gladio, Harvey K. Turner. 

County Asylum. — Superintendent, John Spice. 



On the 4th day of July, 1860, the following Old Settlers met at the Rock- 
hill House (south side of Main, west of Broadway, Lot 46. RockhiH's A. M. 
Addition), according to a previous call. The term " Old Settlers " was declared 
to mean all who had settled here, or within 100 miles around, and on or before 
1840. Col. G. W. Swing, having saved from the ruins of an old trading-house, 
located on or near the southeast corner of Columbia and Clinton streets, a small 
quantity of timber from the old Fort, had it made into a number of canes, and 
presented them to the following Old Settlers, or their friends present : William 
Rockhill. F. P. Randall, Samuel Hanna,JohnW. Dawson, D. H. Coleriek, Allen 
Hamilton, Samuel Edsall, R. E. Fleming. F. D. Laselle. Madison Swcctzer, John 
P. Hedges, William Hedges, C. E. Sturgis, W. A. Ewing, Jr., *Thomas Tigar, 
M. Jenkinson, * Joseph Brcckenridge, Samuel Stophlet, Smallwood Noel, John 
B.Dubois, B. D. Miner, Hugh MeCulloch, John Cochran, *Lott S. Bay lees, 
^William S. Edsall, Ochmig Bird, Samuel Lillie, J. H. Klinger, S. C. Evans, Philo 
Rumsey, Fort Wayne ; Gen. Grover, J. W. Wright, Israel Johnson, Logansport, 
tod.; John Roach, James R. Slack, Huntington, Ind.; James T. Miller, James 
Aveline, Peru, Ind.; James S. Collins, Columbia City, Ind.; Rev. John Ross, 

Kokomo, Tnd.; A. M. Thompson, California, Ind.; Gen. Curtis, Antwerp, Ohio; 
Col. Stephen Johnson, Piqua, Ohio; James Riley, Celina, Ohio; Capt. Dand, 
Columbia Junction, Ohio ;* John Johnson, Cincinnati, Ohio ; *Richard Chute, 
St. Anthony Falls, Minn.; Gabriel Franchere, New York City; James Orniiston. 
Bast Springfield, N. Y.; Hon. William Rockhill, Chairman ; Rev. John Ross, 



The ultimate practicability of a canal along the Maumee Valley, through 
Fort Wayne to the Wabash River, thus creating a passage by water from Lake 
Erie to the Mississippi, was, perhaps, first suggested by the French voyageurs 
while they were traversing the portage from the waters of the Maumee and St. 
Mary's to Little River, to the Wabash, in the latter part of the seventeenth een- 
tury. However this may be, it is true that Capt. Riley appears to have 
been the first Surveyor that was sufficiently attracted by the surroundings to test 
the question. 

After the treaty of St. Mary's in ISIS, and its subsequent ratification, when 
the lands ceded by the Indians had come into the possession of the United States, 
and it was necessary to have them surveyed preliminary to settlement, Capt. 
James Riley, a Deputy United States Surveyor, having in contemplation a con- 
tract for surveying these lands, visited Fort Wayne for the purpose of reeonnais- 
ance. From his impressions at the time, it would seem that Gen. AVayne, also, 
must have considered the commercial as well as the military value of the situa- 
tion, since " by occupying Fort Wayne, the communication between Lake Erie 
and the Ohio, through tlie channels of the Maumee and the Wabash (which is 
the shortest and most direct water route from Buffalo to the Mississippi River"), 
was cut: off, or completely commanded." He, at the same time, suggested the 
importance of a canal from St. Mary's to Little River, and that sucli a channel 
might very easily be cut sis miles long, uniting the Wabash with the St. Mary's, 
a little above its junction, giving it as bis opinion that the swamp might afford 
water sufficient for the purposes of navigation. So strongly was he impressed 
with the practicability of the matter that, when he was here the folloyving season, 
for the purpose of surveying the public lands in the viciuity, he ran a line of 
levels across the portage, from the St. Mary's to Little River, the result of which 
was still favorable, and the information thus acquired, with the information 
accompanying, came to be of much consequence in the subsequent surveys made 
for the location of the Wabash and Erie Canal. 

From this standpoint, speaking of the probable future of Fort Wayne, he 
says : " The country around * is very fertile. The situation is 

commanding and healthy, and here will arise a town of great importance, which 
must become a depot of immense trade. The fort is now only a small stockade ; 
no troops are stationed here, and less than thirty dwelling-houses, occupied by 
French and American families, form the settlement. But, soon as the land shall 
be surveyed and offered for sale, inhabitants will pour in from all quarters to this 
future thoroughfare between the East and the Mississippi River. * * This 
is a central point, combining more natural advantages to build up and sup- 
port a town of importance, as a place of deposit and trade, and a thoroughfare, 
than any I have seen in the Western country." 

These opinions of a practical man were CDinmunicated to Hon. Edward 
Tiffin, Surveyor General, and through him, no doubt, to the attention of Con- 
gress, tor, at the session of 1823-24, an act was passed authorizing the State of 
Indiana to " survey and mark through the public lands of the United States, the 
route of a canal by which to connect the navigation of the rivers Wabash and 
Miami and Lake Erie ; and ninety feet of land on each side of said canal shall 
be reserved from sale on the part of the United States, and the use thereof, for- 
ever, be vested in the State aforesaid, for a canal, and for no other purpose what- 
ever." This, perhaps, was the first official action taken preliminary to the 
building of the canal, by which the ideal of uniting the waters qf Lake Erie 
with those of the Mississippi River was subsequently realized. 

Further action was taken by Congress, at the session of 1826-27, in the 
passage of an act granting " to the State of Indiana, for the purpose of aiding 
the said State in opening a canal to unite, at navigable points, the waters of the 
Wabash River with those of Lake Erie, a quantity of land equal to one-half of 
five sections in width on each side of said canal, and reserving each alternate sec- 
tion to the United States, to be selected by the Commissioner of the Land Office, 
under the direction of the President of the United Slates, from one side thereof 
to the other; and the said lands shall be subject to the disposal of the Legisla- 
ture of said State, for the purpose aforesaid and no other." This proposition was 
accepted by the State of Indiana, in the terms of an act of the Legislature, 
approved January 5, 1828, the second section of which provided " that a Board 
of Commissioners be organized, to be known and designated as the Board of Com- 
missioners of the Wabash and Miami Canal, and to consist of three Commission- 
ers, who shall be elected by joint ballot of the Senate and House of Representa- 
tives, and shall serve two years, and until their successors shall be elected and 
qualified — unless superseded," etc., " any two of whom shall compose a Board of 
Commissioners, and have full power and authority to act as such." 

The third section provided that: ''Whenever the chief of the brigade of 
the United States Engineers, employed in making the survey of the line of the 
canal * * * shall make his report, it shall be the duty of the 

Governor of this State to furnish the Board of Commissioners with a copy of the 
report, and all the information in bis possession on the subject." Then, " It shall 
be the duty of the Board of Commissioners, immediately * * * to 

to said report, be selected." ' ' according 

*J!toXriEZ$ rt n i bM ! i *&S* 7 ith ' " ,e act P"' ite *•» «>e other 

provisions supplemental theieto should then be carried out 

Meantime a preliminary survey of the route by a corps of United States 
Topographical Engineers, under the command of Col^amcs'si, ve by orde of 
the War Department, was made, commencing about the M of J „ '« 

■ ■ ■ y was suspended for I ho season, having advanced no farther than to 



■chief, th 


then called. 

Little River." Early in June of the following ye»r>e work 
the direction of Col. Asa Moore, formerly the assistant of the En-ii 
late Col. bhriver, commencing where the work of the war or >vi ° 
Under the new corps, the survey was continued down 'the Wain- 

rathe Tippecanoe River, to the head of steainb ivi"ation as it 

because steamboats came up frequently as far as" l.i nWHo ; 

of the route from Fort Wayne/down" the faumec tow^iake "1^ 

ILrT Col Moore, also, fell a victim to the climatic disease then 

pevahent. 1 he remaining portmn of the route was subseqentl, surveyed by 
corps Stausbury, who, from the beginning, had been a member of the 

Previously in the winter of 1827-28, under the provisions of the law of 
that session, a Boa rd of Commissioners having bee,, created, Samuel IW ° f 

Fort Wayne, David Burr, of Jackson County, and liobcr, J , „f V ,' , k'l 

County, were selected to constitute that Board"' Anion, other ,l,i, ,s they were 

b litvToTt ° f, ,nf ° the I'™"'™!' 11 ";- ° f «» route "proposed, bS the pX 
bihty of obtaining the necessary supply of water for the canal makin- i, advisable 

' oneTlt rf 7^ " f "' t^''*' *' M ^ "'abash and Milu e 
one oi more- of them, according to the quantity required. It appears to have 

lioaid at lot W y no was during the summer of 1828, when the question of 
sufficient and available " feeders " for the proposed canal was generally . ,. , 
and it became apparent that there was no engineer present, and Ine „f the nee 
essary instruments to enable then, to gauge with accuracy the relative or asSe 
gate capacity of the several rivers named. As an ultimatum, Judge [fann a P o- 
posed and was authorized to procure the requisite apparatus! II.Tvi,' ' procured 
these, with the assistance of John Smyth, of MiumWnirg, Uliio, ,l,e I! Jd some 
time in the early part of September, proceeded to examine and determine the 
o„ P ,h?4 I, rf iT ' i' W,lid 'iM WI ' S 'bond to be sufficient, and they so reported 

' ', P^T^- T i" S rc P° rt was concurred in, and from that day " 

says the writer (Fort Wayne Time,, of December 10, 1858), « went on a work 
winch has proved so great a benefit to Indiana. In this capacity, Judge Hanna 

in Oc i,; r ^ ■;, ' d ,,lil i"'' i '" J a f ale ? e " cd at Logausport, after some delay, 
Wayne " 6 ° Pe m St WMk '" 0,;tol)CT . 18a2 . 'it Fort 

been m^d'" 6 "V !r OnSr0S , ° f M " r ° h 2 ' 1827 ' to which refere,lce >»» "'ready 
"i ' ide grannng "every alternate section of land, equal to five miles in width," 
on both sides of the line of the canal, it was further provided, as a conditio,, of 
said giant, that the work of construction should commence within five years from 
hat date, and to be completed within twenty years. To make the appropriations 
,L„ I , 1 I, tore - ,t Y aS 6SSential '"at the work should be put under 
contract and actually commenced, prior to the 2d day of March, 1832 Accord- 
ingly the C o„„„,..,o,,ers of the Wabash and Eric Canal," says the Cos*' (A In 

Times, of March 2 1832, « met at Fort Wayne on the 22d ult., for the purpose 
of carrying into effect the requisition of the late law of the Legislature of the 
Ml V \Vi, s , " 1C cou i™«>eoment of said work, prior to the 2d day of 
i,,l 'f l i- ; , wl ' l,, ';: l ,'l."" 1 ' ""' Commissioners appointed the anniversary of the 
hntl, of the Lather of his country, as the day on which the first excavation should 
pe made on said canal, and, by an order of the Board, J. Vigus, Esq., was author- 
ized to procure the iiccc-snry tools and assistance, and repair to the most conven- 
po'se aforasa™ " JoseI)ll ' s ftede1 ' line > at 2 °' clock ° a «»d day, for the pur- 

" The intention of the Commissioners haying been made known a lar"e 
number of citizens of the town of Fort Wayne and its vicinity, togcthcr'wi'tlw, 
numbeT of gentlemen from the valley of the Wabash, convened at the Masonic 
Hal, tor the purpose of making arrangements for the celebration of this itnpor- 
taut undertaking; whereupon, Henry Hudisell, Esq, was called to the Chair, and 
David H. Colenck, appointed Secretary. 

,1, «',' Th i" P, ooe |, s . ion > baving then formed agreeably to order, proceeded across 
it St. Marys River to the point selected, when a circle was formed, in which 
the Commissioner and orator took their stand. Charles W. Ewing, Esq, then 
o-c, and, m his usual happy, eloquent manner, delivered an appropriate address 
"Inch was received with acclamation. J. Vigus, Esq., one of the Canal Com- 
i"i>s,„,,crs, , an, the only one present, addressed the company; explained the rea- 
son why his colleagues were absent; adverted to the difficulties and embarrass- 

oicnts which the friends of the canal had e»cou»t m l ami : noti 1 the 

'"iportance of the work and the advantages which would ultimately be realized 
and then concluded by saying, • I am now about to commence the IIV,„./« „„,/ 
-n,_ Canal, ,n the name and by the ,mlh;r!l 9 of the Stale ,,/ Indiana.' Hav- 
«g thus said ha 'struck the long-suspended bl,a- '-broke ground-while the 
"iiipany hailed the event with three cheers. Judge Hanna and Capt Murray 
two ot thc ablo and consistent advocates of the canal in the councils of the Stale' 
next approached and excavated the earth, and then commenced an indiscriminate 

fe?f an i 0Utt ??-- Tbo/r^on then marched back to town in the , 
it went forth, and dispersed in good order " 

was^lnTt'lT ° f , the Cana ' f '° m F » r ' Wayne to the mouth of Little River 
was first located and put under contract. Under the first contracts for the con 
.tract on oi this division, the work was not completed, and hence was re ,o 
early m the spring of 1835, when it progressed with such live energy that i 
was completed about the 1st of July, when, the water being let I, on the 3d he 
first boats went through on the 4th. ° ' tlU! 

Such was the interest taken in the enterprise by the entire community that 
It wasmade the occasion of a local, as well a ' a national, jubilee. y ' ' 

"° following account of the ceremonies attendeut, and copied from the 

XK$- JW Juiy w ' ™°> tf~ a <•* -bibi't, wi,,,:,;:, 1 ;:. 
& ie s, [WJSjisiS'jsyaA Bs^.taKi 

summit and four miles of thc feeder and ten miles west, which bad Been h, ; b 
June, LS32; the St. Joe feeder dam and four more m les of he . inal ^ in the 
autumn of the same ycar-the next part of the firs, division, extendi "t o 
forks of the Wabash th rty-two miles, was let in May, 1833-and The whole 
I ,r ty-two miles completed early in the summer of 1835.' This event was the iet 
dent of tic times and the 4th of Jul, of that year was consecrated, also, to a ee - 

can Tu I C , ^Tr the , WaU "' 3 °'' th ° SL LaWrc " w ; ""' "'- Mississippi. I 
canal-boat called 'Indiana, commanded by Capt. Asa Fairfield, loaded with a 
large number ot people, passed through the canal to Huntington, where lived 

ffi P f P M°n T' he d ' l73 ' ?T- ma M ?"V; Geor K° 0. Fate. W. S. 

Edsall, Pat McCart, and Samuel Moore. To that date. place was better 

known as the < Flint Springs,' taking its name from some large and very valuable 
springs, winch then, as now, gush from the north bank of Little Rive/ at which 
many a pioneer slaked his thirst. 

H.I™' Th r """I °i,"', e phlCe WaS th u ' FI!nt S P ri "S'' ke P' b y J^ 1 and Champion 
Helvy a long double log, oncstory house, on the bank near the springs. This 
was afterward raised another story, and was the place, and hard enough at that 
BM.T"a T, ' andisthe ™ er "ble residence of Squire Lewis 

Hatheld, a German of large proportions, who dispenses justice a /a • Von Twiller ' 
— we suppose. 

■ <• The incidents of this canal celebration, en route, were dancin^ on the boat 
ami drinking good whisky— even getting funny-a thing to which our venerable 
friends who yet live were no strangers, especially on great occasions. The oration 
was delivered by Hugh McCulloch, Esq." 

The estimated cost of the canal from Fort Wayne to the State line, as shown 
, J «, , L 1 ?,"'','f ( . h " ;■"■-"!<*,■■ V? charge, was an average of 87,052.17 per mile, 
oi MJ-l.fl.-l.l.J, tor the whole distance of nineteen miles and thirty chains. This 
division was let and in process of construction early in the same year ( 1835 1 
and was completed in 1843. l h 

a. T, Mr ' , W ', l,iams . principal engineer; ip his report of December 10,1835 to 
the board ot Canal Commissioners, makes the I'ollowiu" showin" as to the di'/is 
ion first completed : 

an i " Plr tota ' cos , t of this aivision of *e canal, including all repairs up to the 
dOth „f November last, and including, also, the sum of 82,000 for "ravelin- the 
towing-path, and for other small items of work not yet completed, may be stated 
as follows, to-wit : ' 

The St. Joseph's feeder, ti miles ond 34 chains, including dam...$ 70,067 57 ' 
Main hue Iron, uioitth of t'cclcr to lower end nf See, ion 50, 
near the mouth of Little ltiver, 2o miles and 25 cliains 142.419 27 

Total, 31 miles and 50 chains 5212,780 84 

Add superintendence and incidental expenses, as nearly a 
be separated from other charges 

15,000 00 

Toto1 $227,78U 84 

which gives an average of 87,177.00, nearly, per mile, incluijing all expenses." 

On the 4th of July, 1843, the canal having been opened from Toledo to a point 
on theWabash River, below La Fayette, at which time the meeting of the waters of 
Lake Erie and of the Mississippi, anticipated by the early projectors of the enter- 
prise^ had been consummated, the event was appropriately celebrated. On this 
occasion, Gen. Lewis Cass, one of the firm friends of the improvement, was thc 
orator of the day. An extract from that address will not be out of place here : 
" We come here to join in another commemoration, to witness the union 
of the Lakes and of the Mississippi, to survey one of the noblest works of man 
in the improvement of that great highway of nature, extending from New York 
to New Orleans, whose full moral effects it were vain to seek even to conjecture. 

" And fitly chosen is the day of this celebration. This work is another 
ligament which binds together this great confederated republic. Providence has 
given us union and many motives to preserve it. The sun never shone upon a 
country abounding more than ours does, in all the elements of prosperity. It 
were needless to enumerate the advantages we enjoy, which give us so distinguished 
a position among the nations of the world. I shall not enter into the comparison. 

" Our railroads and canals are penetrating every section of our territory. 
They are annihilating time and space. They arc embracing in their folds the 
Ocean and the Lake frontier, and the great region extending from the Alleghany 
to the Rocky Mountains, through which the mighty Mississippi and the countless 
tributaries find their way to the Gulf of Mexico. Once let this work be com- 
pleted and we are bound together by cords which no strength can sunder. 

" But I have found the oanal-boat a more comfortable conveyance lhan the 
ba'k canoe; and this change is not the least improvement which has accom- 
panied the march of the white man. Your valley was 'then thinly occupied. 



The stock of the county in this road having greatly depreciated, at ameot- 
iDE of the Board, on the 25th of October, 1802, il was determined to sell such 
stock at the best price tho same will command in market, and Byron 1). Minor 
and William W Carson were appointci Special Agents to execute the purpose of 
the Commissioners in said order prescribed, and for the best mterests of the 
county ; also to invest such proceeds of said sale in the bonds ot the county then 
outstanding, issnod in 1851 and felling due in 1866, if they could do so. On 
the 4th of March, 1863. Messrs. Minor and Carson, Agents as aforesaid, reported 
that thev had sold S3:p.siio worth of railroel stock, in a rdanee with instruc- 
tions for S-M 8'W 75 the county still the owner of 8100,000, which they 
did not feel them-lves authorized to put on the market without further instruc- 
tions, the price ranging fr..u, 55 lo 673 per cent. Subsequently, on the 1 1 lb of 
March, lsii;:, on a prop .-itioi, submitted by Mr. Hauna, the county sold to him 
the remaining 8100,0011 stock, and the proceeds of the interest-stock in consider- 
ation of eighty-seven of the outstanding bonds of the county, calling for 88 ,,000, 
leavio" outstanding bonds to the amount of 813,000. 


Those marked individualisms of character which strikingly distinguished 
the career of personages whose nobility is acknowledged by the world of mind, 
are the features that, now and heretofore, have commanded and fixed the atten- 
tion of mankind ; hence it is that history only records the pencilings of genius, 
standili" "Ut in bold relief on the tablets of memory. Eccentricities ot talent 
and character, endowed with a sufficiency of motive power to vitalize those talents 
and characteristics, never fail to leave behind distinct traces— landmarks— such 
as will not fail to secure recognition and be acknowledged by all. A striking 
illustration in proof of this is afforded in the life of him whose name stands 
at the head of this article. John Tipton was born in Servier County, East 
Tcnn., on the 14th day of August, 1780. His father, Joshua Tipton, was a 
native of Maryland, anil a man possessing great positiveness of character, with 
keen perception and uncommon executive power. These peculiarities induced 
his early removal from his native State and settlement in a move Western home, 
where he was a leader in the defense of their frontier against the hostile Indians. 
In open warfare, the Indians feared his superiority in courage and tact. The 
consequence was that a band of Cherokees waylaid and murdered him on the 
ISth day of April, 1793. 

Left thus early in life, in the midst of a frontier settlement, surrounded by 
the perils incident thereto, the son, inheriting the sagacity and self-reliance of his 
father, soon began to develop that positive energy of character which distin- 
guished his after life. 

Though young in years at the time of his father's death, he early became 
the chief support of the family. 

In the fall of 1807, with his mother, two sisters and a half-brother, he 
removed to Indiana Territory, then just beginning to acquire notoriety. His 
place of settlement was near Brinley's Ferry, on the Ohio River. One of his 
first acts was to purchase a homestead for his mother, consisting of fifty acres, 
which he paid out of his scanty earnings, acquired by chopping and splitting 
rails, at 50 cents a hundred, in addition to the maintenance of the family, of 
whom he was now the responsible head. These early experiences laid the foun- 
dation of his future success in life. As early as June, 1809, upon the formation 
of a military company in the vicinity of his home — called the " Yellow Jackets," 
from the color of their uniforms — he enlisted and became an active member. 
This company was designed for active service, in case the exigency of the times 
demand' '■ ind was placed under the command of Capt. Spear Spencer. The 

oci tail ii - presented itself, and the company was ordered to the fvontiev, for 

the protection of the settlements. On the 10th of September, 1811. the com- 
pany entered upon the campaign, which terminated in the battle of Tippecanoe. 
While on the march, he was chosen Ensign, and in that position he entered the 
battle-field. Early in the engagement, all bis superior officers were killed, and he 
was promoted to the captaincy of the company by Gen. Harrison, when the con- 
flict raged fiercest. Subsequently, he was promoted, by regular gradation, under 
the military regulations of the State, to the rank of Brigadier General. 

At the first election under the State Constitution, he was the choice of the 
people of Harrison County for Sheriff, and continued in that position until near 
the close of his second term. Meantime, he was elected to represent Harrison 
Count? in the State Legislature at tho session of 1819-20. 

While a member of that body, he was chosen as one of the committee to 
- Lei lie site lie the location of the State Capital. The result of this commit- 
tee's action made Indianapolis the capital city of Indiana. The selection was 
made on the 7th day of June, 1820, and confirmed by legislative enactment, 
approved January 0, 1821. 

In Aii"ust 1821, he was re-elected to represent his county, having acquired 
extensive popularity as a discreet and active legislator At the session following, 

h ■ was chosen one ofth ■ C missiouers on the part of Indiana to act with like 

Commissioners on the part of Illinois in locating the boundary line between the 
two States. The work was expeditiously and satisfactorily accomplished the sue- 
needing summer, and ratified by the Legislatures of the two States at the session 

lf 1 Hewas appointed, in March, 1823, by President Monroe, General Agent 
for the Pottawatomie and Miami Indians on the Upper Wabash and Tippecanoe 
Rivers and immediately moved to Fort Wayne, the scat of the Agency His 
success^ i„ this Held was no less marked than in the execution of other trusts before 
renosed in him. At his instance, the Agency was removed from I'ort Wayne to 
Ligansport, in the spring of 1828, where he continued to discharge the functions 
of his trust with fidelity and success. • 

Anterior to his removal of the Agency, under appointment of President J. 
O Ad. ins in the fall of 1820, he was chiefly instrumental in securing the impor- 
tant" provisions of several treaties with those tribes over which he had jurisdiction, 
whereby valuable land interests were opened to the public. 

At the session of the Legislature in December, 1831 , he was. elected U. 8. 
Senator from Indiana, to fill the vacancy occasioned by the death of Hon. James 
Noble. Again, at the session of 1 832-33, he was elected tor a full term of six 
years While there, he was distinguished for his sound judgment and indcpond- 
;„t action upon all questions involving the interests of his State or the General 
Government. His views in reference to a re-charter of a United States Bank 
were strictly opposed to those of Gen. Jackson, favoring, in a most exhaustive 
speech on that question, the continuance of that institution as the best means of 
securine a standard currency of uniform value everywhere. He recognized no 
party in determining the line of duty, always acting from motives of public right, 
his unbiased judgment controlling the effort. 

As a civilian and citizen, he was alike successful in directing and executing, 
to the extent of his power, whatever purpose his conscience approved or his judg- 
ment dictated. , i • c -i 

Havin" determined to make Logansport his home, and moved his family 
here he directed his energies toward securing all advantages incident to cultivated 
society and the development of natural resources. One of his first steps was to 
effect the organization of the Eel River Seminary Society, the erection of a suit- 
able huildin- for school purposes; the employment nod support of teachers, ihis 
was accomplished in the fall and winter of 1828-29. For this purpose, also, he 
contributed largely of his means and influence. In after years, his numerous 
business cares did not detract from his efforts to secure the permanent prosperity 
of the schools. , ... 

Under his direction, the settlement was supplied with grist and saw mills, 
simultaneously with the other enterprises inaugurated by him. In short, he was 
the instigator of, and the motive power that gave form and imparted energy to, 
every enterprise calculated to improve society and induce progress toward the 
unfuldment and utilization of all the natural advantages with which Cass Gounty 
has been so bountifully supplied. 

He was the proprietor, also, of four separate additions to the town ot 
Logansport, aod was interested with Mr. Carter in the plan and location of the 
original plat thereof. During the summer or tall of 1838, he was delegated with 
the discretionary powers necessary to the successful removal of the disaffected 
Indians, who. having disposed of their lands, were yet unwilling to remove peace- 
fully to their home beyond the Mississippi. The decisive measures adopted by 
him permitted no delay. Difficulties seemingly insurmountable were promptly 
overcome by his superior tact and courage, and the work accomplished with 
satisfactory dispatch. 010 ... 

Mr Tipton was twice married ; the first time, about the year 1818, to miss 

Shields, who died less thau two years after their marriage. The second 

time was in April, 1825, to Matilda, daughter of Capt. Spear Spencer who was 
killed at the battle of Tippecanoe. The second Mrs. Tipton died in the spring 
of 1839, about the close of her husband's Senatorial career. 

The prestige of h 
military leader, did no 1 
of the Masonic Fratel 
He received the first 
year 1817. He was 
Lodge at the first 

itatesman, added to his fame as 
re of honor He was a member 
the Orde 

, Ind., 


of I, 

, Ky., i 

jented that 
in was elected 
lecarne Grand 
in 1828. In 
ands of Coui- 

in of the Grand Ll 
id Warden, holding that position until 
Master. Having served one term, he was re-elect 
1822, he received the Chapter degrees at Loiiisv 
panion Snow, of Ohio. 

He subsequently filled many important positions in the Grand Lodge, ana 
was chiefly instrumental ill the institution of Tipton Lodge, No. 33, in 18L.8, and 
Loean Chapter No. 2, in 1837. in both of which he achieved the highest honors. 

On the morning of April 5, 1839, after a few hours of unconscious suffering, 
he died, in the meridian of life, and received the last sad honors of his Masonic 
brethren on Sunday, April 7, 1839. 


bit aoi... «x. :b. zdozdg-e. 


It wits only natural that a people situated as the people of Allen County were 
at an early day, should be not only patriotic in their feelings, but that they should 
be imbued with a military spirit. Many of those who, at the commencement of 
the Mexican war, in 1846, were in the prime of life, had been waked from their 
morning slumbers, during their early years, by the stirring notes of the reveille, 
and soothed to sleep at night by the musical strains of the evening t;i!too, wafted 
on the air from the confines of the " Old Fort." The " pomp and circumstance " 
of war was before their youthful eyes continually, and that it produced a lasting 
effect upon their minds was evidenced in after years by the fact, that at the first 
call for volunteers for the Mexican war, two full companies were recruited in Fort 
Wayne, in a very few days, comprised of citizens of Allen County, and their ser- 
vices tendered to ami accepted by the Governor of the State. 

Of Capt. D. W. Lewis' company, we have been able to get a copy of the 
muster-roll, through the kindness of Hon. F. P. Randall, but it is impossible to 
get a copy of the muster-roll of Capt. John McLain's company. A list of the 
commissioned officers is all we are able to present. 

The two companies were ordered to report at New Albany, in this State, and 
left Fort Wayne for their destination on the 16th of June, 1846, taking passage 
on canal-boats as far as Cincinnati, and from there by steamboat. 

A long procession of parents, friends and sweethearts followed the boats to 
the " Lower Lock," as it was called, five miles east of Fort Wayne, when, almost 
despairing of ever seeing any of the "bold soldier boys" again, they returned, 
disconsolate, to their homes. 

Upon their arrival at New Albany, the companies were mustered into the 
service of the United States, June 23, 1846, and assigned to the First Regiment 
of Indiana Volunteers, commanded by Col. James P. Drake. On the 2d of July, 
the regiment embarked for the seat of war. On arriving at New Orleans, it 
encamped fur three days on (hat historic battle-field on which Gen. Jackson fought 
on the 8th of January, 1S15 ; and again embarked, this time on a sailing vessel, 
the Sophia Walker, and, after a rough and tempestuous voyage of four days, 
landed on the island of Brazos Santiago, near the mouth of the Rio Grande River 
— a low, sandy strip of land, a sand-bar in fact, destitute of vegetation, and afford- 
ing only brackish water to drink. 

A few days after, the regiment was ordered to the mouth of the Rio Grande, 
and performed guard duty at that point for some time, until it became very monot- 
onous, when it was ordered to the front, which at that time was at Saltillo. After 
a tedious march of over one hundred miles, over a rough, mountainous country, 
passing through Oamargo, Micr and Ceralvo, the command was met at Burnt 
Ranche with orders to return to Matamoras, near their former location. With 
feelings that language was ton feeble to express, the regiment obeyed orders, and 
returned to near its old camping-ground, where it remained until the latter part 
of February, 1847, when it was ordered to Monterey, an order which was gladly 
obeyed. Marching to within about five miles of that place, at Walnut Springs, 
the command met Gen. Taylor, with the entire army, and went into camp. 

It remained at that place until ihe period of service for which the regiment 
had been mustered in. had nearly expired, when it was ordered to Oamargo, where 
it embarked on a steamboat and went to the mouth of the Rio Grande, and 
marched thence to Brazos Santiago, and there took passage on the Desdemona, a 
sailing vessel, for New Orleans, arriving at that place June 15, 1847. It there 
re-embarked on the steamboat Cincinnati, the same boat that had taken it down 
the river about a year before, and the two companies from Allen County were 
landed at Cincinnati, a few days after. They at once took passage for home, on 
canal-boats, and were greeted with warm manifestations of joy and welcome. 


Captain— David W. Lewis. 

First Lieutenant — Brad B. Stevens. 

Second Lieutenants — Samuel H. Chapman, William Hunter. 

First Sergeant — David W. Magce. 

Sergeants — John Reiser, Peter MeGuw:ui, I'aniel Edgerly. 

Corporals — "\V 11 ] i ii i±i Trnder, David Kudos, Abijuli A. Cox, Moses U. Ross. 

Privates — Peter Bayles, John A. Bower, Simpkin Butt, Neoly Bongo, Michael Bixler, 
Tlirtiii'is Cornelius, diaries Clincsmith, James L. Doddard, Joseph Ll. Kvans. David Foley. 
Daniel Fox, Charles Huntington, Simon Hamilton, Andrew Hollinger, Tliomas Hurley, 

John R. Iloaton, 

Watson Moore, Isaac It. N 

Ross, Perry Spratt, Louah 

B. Leach, Clint. m l.ofnvoiir, John MeMahon. Cornelius Martin, 
"'—an, Kennedy O'Brien, WilHun, Ho/ell, Charles Rozell, Levi 

Thomas, George A.Tingley. William Thompson, John Wii-o- 

aon WntkinB, Enos P. Wiley. 
Russell, resigned Sepk-mber 22, 184(1. 

in. discharged December 11, 1846, for disability. 

discharged September .. 1846, for disabilitj \ Joseph Din- 

•4b, lurdi-:ibility ; Siiimn II. Gilte-pie. discharged July (J, 
(Mora, uisahai u<"! Lugusl I I 1846, for disability ; Charles 

•<l <>,,.,,„.,. v.] M(i: lt Wvlh-r.di-.-hargrd ik-,..U-r 17. 1Mb; Albert F. Roycc, 

mnt Isabel, Cex., October 12, l>-4<.: isaac B. Rozell, died at Camp Belknap 
-":. IS4'.; Juhn .;. i;„Tr, died at M.o.iercy. M.-xi.-.i, May'Jl, 1847; Dennis 
lied "■! lb.' Mississippi River July 6 1846 j Alexander Kirkley, died at Brazos 

July 27, 1Mb; Ans»n Lawn-ru-i-. dit-d ul Malamtmis. Mexico, October 8, 1840; 
Menelly, drowned in Ihe Rio Grande River December 11, 1846; Ebenezer 
ied at ntoulh of Kin Grande October 1':;, 1S46; George W. Frye, killed by Mexi- 
• Monterey, Mexico, May 14, 1847. 

1846: i 

died ut" 

Captain — John MoLain. 

First Lieutenant — Thomas Lewis. 

Second Lieutenants — Charles Colcrick, George Humphries. 


Tn October, 1847, after the muster-out and discharge of the First Regiment, 
another call for volunteers having been made by the President, Capt. Lewis com- 
menced the organization of another company, which was soon completed, and it 
was mustered into the service of the United States at Madison, Ind., January 6, 
1878, and was assigned to the Fifth Regiment, commanded by Col. Jas, H. Lane. 

A few days afterward, (be regiment departed for the seat of war, and. pass- 
ing down the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers and crossing the Gulf of Mexico, dis- 
euib.-iiked at Vera Cruz. 

The war being practically ended, the only duty the regiment ever performed 
was that of garrison duty at different points, while the questions involved in mak- 
ing the treaty of peace were being settled by the two governments. 

The questions in dispute having been satisfactorily disposed of. the troops of 
our Government were withdrawn, and they returned home, the Fifth Regiment 
being mustered out at Madison on the 28th of July, 1848, and the members of 
Capt. Lewis' company dispersed at that place, to reach their homes, as each saw fit. 

Captain — David W. Lewis. 

First Lieutenant — Thomas K. Lewis. 

Second Lieutenants — John B. Suwtell, Ira G. Williamson. 

First Sergeant— Joseph II. Weaks. 

Sergeants — George A. German, Albert U. West, Luther M. Swarhvout. 

Corporals— James Barter, David C. Coleman, John P. Bales, Israel Horner. 

Don Fn 


aml'-i Alb- 


. \liii 

Joel P. Brooker, Curtis 
Conway, John C. Clay- 

Drupcr, .luiiios Durden, 
T. Goodrich, John 



Jucnb Miller 

M. Pa 

M. Marie 
..In. Meors- 
Parker, Isaac Privet, Martin Parr, Samuel 
Henry z, Newtun Short, Samuel Tur- 
George Tevaull, John B. Voiisha, John Ward. William Wallace, Andrew White, John 
Q. A. Woodwoi-th, Louis Tamron. 

Miles C. Armstrong, died at Molino Del Key, Mexico, April 20, 184S. 
Hiram Banks, died in hospital at Jalapa, Mexico, May ">. 1848. 
Michael Morebovy, died on steamer Rio Grande July 12, I84S, en route from New 
Orleans to Madison, Ind. 

Jacob Quinlan, died at Los Vego, Mexico. June 27, 1848. 
John C. Ward, died in hospital at Vera Cm/ April 6, 1848. 
John Cooper, di^char^ed for disability, at Vera Cruz. 
Alexander Hewitt, discharged for disability, at Vera Cruz. 
Selah I.ebrnm. discharged for disability, at Vera Cruz. 



The same spirit that actuated the people of Allen County in the Mexican 
war -hown in the war of the rebellion. No sooner had the toesin of war 
sounded throusrh the land, than more Loops than could be accepted were at once 
tendered to the Governor of the State. One company Was tendered three days 
after the first call was made, and was assigned to the Ninth Regiment, three 
months' service. The quota of this State, under the first call of the President, 
being filled, no more could be mustered into the service of the United States : 
but a tew days after, two companies were mustered into the Twelfth Regiment, 
which waj m inis ■! aa a regiment in the State's service for one year, but was, a 
short time after, transferred to the service of the United States. From this time 
until the doae'of the war, a continual stream of men— in regiments, in compa- 
nies, in squads and singly— poured to the front, and no military organization of 
which men from Allen County formed a component part, ever disgraced the flag 
it carried or the uniform it wore, or but could point with pride to its record. 

tine reason of it was, every man knew that his loved ones at home were 
being looked after and taken care of by a free-hearted and generous people. 

A full record of the action taken by the citizens of this county toward the 
soldiers in the field and their families at 'home should be given in full, but our 
limits forbid it. Suflice it to say that Allen County paid- to the soldiers that 
went into the 6eld to fight the battles of their country, from this county, the 
magnificent sum of 8353,800 as bounties, and paid to their families and children 
$48,000 to assist in maintaining them, and, add to this the amount paid for inter- 
est on bonds issued to raise that, sum of money at once, when needed ($26,500), 
and it shows that the people of this county paid out of the public treasury the 
sum of $428,300 in addition to the very large amounts that were paid as private 
contributions to the Sanitary Fund, for the benefit of soldiers in the field, and 
ill,, n mills that were paid in the same way to aid and assist their families. 

The payment of money to the families of the soldiers did not terminate with 
the close of the war, but the records show that in 1868, three years after the 
war had closed, there was the large sum of 86,581 paid to the wives and children 
of those who had lost their lives or health in the service of their country. 

To the liberality of the people at home, as well as the patriotism of the sol- 
diers, no doubt, can be attributed the fact that the records show fewer desertions 
from'the army, in proportion to the number that went into it, from Allen County, 
than almost, if not quite, any other county in the State. The soldiers knew that 
their loved ones were being eared for, and that anxiety was off of their minds. 

A condensed history of each regiment that was composed, more or less, of 
men from this county is given, except in a few cases where the number was so 
small as to be of no general interest, followed by as complete a list of the mem- 
bers of it Irom this county as can be made from the material obtainable. Where 
parties' names are omitted, except those who left the service with a tarnished 
record, it is either their own fault or the fault of their officers. The names of 
those given are, as far as it is possible to do so, only those that were honorably 
discharged, killed or died in the service. It can do no good to perpetuate a 
record that may have been marred by some thoughtless or accidental act. The history 
of one regiment from each army or army corps that was more largely represented 
by men from this county than any other, has been given more fully than that of 
others and reference made to it. It is hoped that all will see the justice, or 
reason of this, and no offense will be taken. The history of ten regiments in 
the same corps would, necessarily, be almost identical. 

In all cases where no remarks are made opposite a man's name other than to 
show promotion, it must be understood that he served out his term of enlistment 
and was honorably discharged at the termination of the same. 

Note.— This list is as near i 
wonder if there are mi omissions 
Major and Brevet Colonel— 
Captains— Clarence Bailey. 


The Nineteenth United States Infantry had a number of men on it 

rolls from Allen County during the war of the rebellion. 

furnished by Wesley Johnston, Esq., is as near complete as 

the material at hand : 

George Ilouser, served three years : wounded al Stiiloli. 

Edward Harrigau, discharged on account of wounds. 
Wesley John-ton, served llirc-e years and nine months; was 
nine months after his enlistment expired. 

Oniric- .lames, died of wounds received at Shiloh. 
Aaron I.ulher. killed in bailie of .Stone River. 

Manning, died of wounds received al Shiloh. 

William Miller, served three years. 

? Quinn, killed in battle of Stone River. 

Smith, served three years. 

Scherniire, served three years. 

Peter Spillman, serred three years. 


Allen County furnished one company for this regiment, one of the first in 
the field. The regiment was organized and mustered into service at Indianapolis 
on the 25th day of April, 1861, for the period of three months, with Robert H. 
Milroy as Colonel. 

It was the first regiment that left the State for Western Virginia, and 
arrived at Grafton, in that State, June 1. Thence it marched to Philippi, in 
the column commanded by Col. Kelly, and took part in the surprise of the rebel 
camp at that place on the morning of June 3. Returning to Grafton, the Ninth 
was assigned to Gen. Morris' Brigade, and participated in all the marches and 
skirmishes of that command during its brief campaign, and in the engagements 
at Laurel Hill and Carrick's Ford. The regiment returned home in the latter 
part of July, and was mustered out of the service on the 29th day of that month. 
With the exception of two men slightly wounded, it met with no casualties. 

Cnptjiin— William P. Segur. 

First Lieutenant — Henry A. Whitman. 

Second Lieutenant — William S. Story. 

First Sergeant — Robert II. Harrison. 

Sergeants— John Srincr, dr., Iirntns A. Bouric, Henry W. Lawton. 

Coi-oni-als— Douglas 1,. I'hrhis. John W. Tiuitt. lieo. II. Robinson. Ceo. A. BashforU. 


es Biideu, Isaac Barr, Frisbee T . 
Oscar B. Corwin, Isaac Carter, 
mas F. Dean, Antoine Dusliane, 

Kelkev, John Koons, Charles Lincoln, Frank L&yanwaj, Michael Mason, William M. 
McMlvain. He Groff N. McDonald. .Uin S. Moore, John Noel. Henry Nolcsline, John 
O'Connor, John R. Parker. Jnha D. Rex. William K. Melt, George A. Reynerd, Henry 
RcJcker, Kdmoiul li. Stribley, Richard M. Slrihley. Lorenzo Snider, Henry D. Shaw, 
Samuel Sboatf. Edward II. Smith, Frederick IV. Sleine, William 1} Stevens. Martin L. 
Stewart, David Trnby. Thomas Tasney, Andrew J. Tasney, Charles R. Weitzel, Henry 
Welch, Charles A. Zollinger. 


This county was represented by nearly fifty men in this regiment. 

The regiment was organized at Indianapolis, and mustered into the service 
31st day of August, 1861, with Lewis Wallace as Colonel, and left for the front 
September (i, arriving at Padneah, Ky., September 9. Here Col. Wallace was 
promoted to be a Brigadier General, and Lieut. Col. George F. McGinnis was 
promoted to the colonelcy "of the regiment. 

The regiment remained in Paducah until February, 1S62, when it took part 
in the battle of Fort Donclson, and afterward, on the 7th of April, in the battle 
of Shiloh, losing heavily in killed and wounded. It then took part in the siege 
of Corinth until its evacuation by the rebels, when it was ordered to Memphis, 
120 miles distant, which distance was accomplished by forced marches, thence by 
steamer to Helena, Ark., from which place it marched to Clarendon and returned, 
a march of 130 miles, encountering strong bands of guerrillas on the route, 
winch caused the loss of a number of men. 

During the winter, the regiment was engaged in several expeditions to White 
and Tallahatchie Rivers, Duvall's Bluff and Yazoo Pass. 

On the 14th day of April, 1863, the Eleventh joined the army of Gen. 
Grant, at Milliken's Bend, and was assigned to McGinnis' Brigade, Hovey's 
Division of McClemand's Corps. The regiment took part in the battle at Port 
Gibson on the 1st day of May, capturing a rebel battery. 

On the 16th of May, the regiment was engaged at Champion Hills, losing 
167 men in killed, wounded and missing, and on the 21st, it moved into the 
trenches surrounding Vicksburg, where it remained until the surrender of the 
city and rebel army, on the 4th day of July. 

After the fall of Vicksburg, the Eleventh took part in the pursuit of Gen. 
Johnston's army to Jackson, Miss., when it again returned to the vicinity of 
Vicksburg, whence it was transported by river to New Orleans, where it remained 
until March 4, 1864. In the meantime, it was ordered on numerous expeditions 
against the enemy, always acquitting itself with credit. 

On March 4, 1864" the regiment having veteranized, left New Orleans by 
steamer for New York, and thence to Indianapolis by rail. 

Upon the expiration of the regiment's veteran furlough, the Eleventh left 
for New Orleans, arriving there May 8, 1864, and remained there until July, 
when it was assigned to the Nineteenth Army Corps and ordered to Fortress 
Monroe, arriving there on the 28th of July. From there it was ordered to Har- 
per's Ferry, where it joined the army commanded by Gen. Sheridan and took 
part in all the marches and battles of the famous campaign, during which were 
fought the battles of Cedar Creek, Winchester, Fisher's Hill and Opequan 
and numerous other engagements of lesser note. ' 

Uptn the conclusion of Gen. Sheridan's campaign in the Shenandoah Val- 
ley, the regiment marched to Baltimore, arriving there January 7, 1865, and 
remained there on duty until mustered out of the service July 26, 1865. 

Edward Bufford, discharged for disability. 

l.H.ll'i II Ulan : 



Simon D. Brady, veteran, mustered out August 8, 18liij. 


Privates — Henry Crumley, veteran, promoted Corporal July 2G, 1865; James Cain, 
Jesse B. Curler, Charles Cotton: William t'raigmill, unaccounted for; Solomon Cramer, 
killed at Champion Hills May 10, 181,3. 


Andrew Ennis, veteran. 

iiitt., niiiinm ll. I(i|i|ic(iie, [red- 

enck Smith, William A. Watson. Join, $., 

Corporal — Henry Ptronu veteran nm 
I*rivni..s-(Jpnr p V M.Ii.vk .,.,.,-,„,,. 
George W. Depcw, vi-ii-t, 
poralJuly26, 18G6 Israel KolToncicr ■ I 7 1-,.;, u ,11'i , 
26, I8G0; Clnmc-* \] n.irh. veteran pron 
ney, veteran, July 2H. lsi;: ); .1.,],,, \\, '...,, 
18(36; Jeremiah .\inlu-u-. .Ii-rl.:iii:i- l ( .tunc ' 
Teteran, discharged Novembei : 1864 
I'liilip Cubic, veteran, killed ul \\i,„l, ,..<,,., ' 
killed at Cedar Creek, Va., October 19, 186* 

' 19, 1864; Jolm Pi 

Kavcny. John W. Lee, Wham E. OaborVwiiiam' H. Rollins. B^V' Sto."^..,. 

fro,,, Tl'" 8 r !S men ^ contatne . d two complies from this county, and was or-inivod 

remained until the 23d day of July. nvansvillc, where it 

On the 18th inst.. orders were received from the War Department t™, 

faring the regiment to the service of the United States fi,r the c , ,' ion 

-™ ; SrJS, b St^ , r^t , ft r ffi S±sn bc 'r "/" T - ,fth > 

it w.,;'J aS 0I AT\ T u° m the u? f° Sa " dy Hook - Md " nel »' Harper's Ferry where 

William H. Lift Fort V!Z '^'L^U Z^iT '* ^ ™ 
Hook until the 16th day of August, when it moved' will 1, 2 !7'\ I 3 ' 
town, where it lay in can.,, for some ti„„. <• t i y ° H ? Ms - 

to be on the oppoL side of the PotonTc n«Le^° ^ ^ « 
erate force, and this march was made with a view tc . p^ent h* Smg'he 

The time until the 11th of October was occupied in camp duties and a few 
marches to surrounding points, and on that day the iv-im .,,, , , • 

and inarched to WiHiamsp,,,,, above H^-,.,,^ F .„ „ „', ™ , t ,c "ther 
the regiment was stationed along the river in detachment- in ,„ 1 

^;t d *^^ 

the follow'™ mornin! '"", ' f h"""'- Wi ' h ^ """V nMr Winchester, and, on 
tlie follow ing morning, entered that city, in advance of the army. 

Shenandoah ni^Xm™^^^' ^ '^" 0S £ ^ 
ing of the battle of Winchester aPtieS the TweTw T ^ u^' 

re-enforce that place; |„„ I,,.,;,,,. ,. h,"', ',,'">. "'"" l " ordered back to 
*at the battle nad ,„,,,, i„ „ v,!, ^It.' ^ Z'^Z^ 
... .its weie needed when it retraced its steps to Aldie, and IV„u, there to War 

spired the Iwelfth was finally mustered out May 14, 1862 

All that went from this county returned, except one who was killed 
Lieutenant Colonel-William 11. Link, promoted Colonel. 

.J 10 '-'' "'""I'liro.i-s, Lieutenant Colonel 

Adjutant— Oscar M. Hinkle. 
Sergeant Major— Ferdinand F. Boltz. 

t^mE^J^-SSlr^T* n"7 ?' P— ■■"■°™ Ken- 

•loin, II. Moiloii... .l„|„, ll. \i,k,.,. \: h , , I,,.'. :,lk v ■ l-"»-i«. Ceorpe A.Lewis, 


>econd Lieutenant— Elhevt D. Baldwin. 

['"' >' ■-■• ol I i:.e |le„N. .1 , . 

owiSonf'* - '° S ^iCl ' 0y ■ jMOpl1 " Ai "-»""l'. Prank II. Aveline, Albert S 

^ifrs:::,-;7^;i.^I;:;;-:: ri L„:t^,,^- f • — —„„. 

.uosiciau — l.lhiiileo (i. I'aiee. 
Wagoner- John Scipls. 

'"''f' v '" '■'■■'"'.''' Vn:;;;;,t^i!: i vV^' l ', Al ^' lw - I!c ' ,s,<i "' A " d ''«»' j ->'«iow, 

,U I li ,..' ' ,t ""'I'™"' ,„'"" ln 1. (.n.lw.iclil. Ilcnrv !•'. Ilrowes \ ,„!.,. 

Seiple. .1 V. She 

■ «'. Nlmire,., .I„li,i Nle 
l P. Taaker, 'I'lnold.-u.s 

Sylvester R. Larason, recruit 
Marion E. Griswold. recruit. 
Captain— George Nelson. 

( killeJ r nV:u"'.\ ,,i i. i ■','.!,'" m'j 'Yum '''■ s'"l'.swi D ' 0a '' ey ' Jo1 " 1 '' yler ' Jnmcs M.Bingllnm 

^:x:^;'£;: K ^EF '^ <*«**, ^ „. Yo „„g, ScoH SwnM 

.Musicians— Andrew K. .McCurdy. 

Privates— Leonard Aker. Marlin \me* \i, c Pi wo WIT li 

II. Ilrowning, John II Crnlccr. .lolinson M.' Help,,. „ I,,.,' h |,,' „,."',"" ,'","'", i" 1 " 
■lercmmb Fennessoy, Cyrus Ferringlon, Hiram I John Fuller Sin In i 

(promoted Sergeant), Willinm Hard wick, I>„vid tin,. 1,1,01 loin, lie, ' '""('| /' rr0 ' 


numb^oVrfcS n^ ' "Tl'l"" '[• '" !"''' f "'" "'" i,V c '""I' :l " ira ' ; "> d <**** 
Department toed v 1" isc /",', ' V ' - 1 " '"" S " : ' " f an "^ of "'» W « 

or d or , ,- t ,' I" 1 ' ' ,'■'■ n "-""""' " :,s '•'-"^anined fur three. years 

„' , l" ," ' U ,' " '■ '"" l; - '•" »W ' "ending officer, as Colonel, 

Suit. OnT th?'-', n ''':"' ' V "' •'-"' '" ' V '"-" in ^ "'" "'™ "'» ■>*' Kirby 

17th Of-Nnfu'', "'"""'I" 5 Wi ' S r""" '^ '° " ,C C ° l0n<!lC y ° f the re k™OHt OU the 
1 Ith of November, and soon afterward, the regiment liavi,,.- 1,,,., exelnn-ed as 
prisoners of war, was ordered to join the Army of the Tennessee uudcr° Gen 

9Rfh Le T™Tf Ind! . ana P°' is °" the 2M of November, it reached Memphis on the 

. ', , , , ','1";., ■""".,'," i ! "" ,i,v - y ' 1Hra . »" rl »' H'o following 

I V ' ' ■ y , ' Coll,era " lle . Tt ""- ^-'li"K 'he line „f the Me,,,- 

b„r,- I ;'nd JU ?„ e ; IS 'l'' "',, TWl ' mh Wi ' sl "* red "> J™ the army surrounding Vicks- 

buig. and , „„ reneliing there, was assigned ,„ fi,„. |„, ,-, Vi }„.,. ulh Al , " c 

skilishes and'batto!" 8 rCnU,in<k "' "* ^ ^ P^*« "' »» h »^c"es,' 
Upon reaching the line of investment around Vicksburg, the raiment went 

mtched't: j's:;;;',, 1 ", t"? i-' w '"' n,,p "■■ si ^- ■■■ -«"• had c,„ r ,:„/„, „,;:. v;:r:;;,;; i ;::; , : , i :", ;•;::; tt'z::;^ i,my ' 

Alter this campaign, the regiment went into camp until the L'Ntl, „f Septem- 
ber, when ,t was ordered to Memphis, and the ok par, i„ the longmareh 

across the country o Chattanooga, in order to relieve th Army of the Cumber 
land from its terrible straits at thai place. J ^umDer- 

Rid„°°,„"r,f J ' ""'' i,nd 2 , ,h ' iUo " k ■" Prominent part in the battle of Mission 
Kdge and th, movements that preceded it. I„si,„. mi ,„ cn .„„! „«„„„;„ 

Bond I, wounld" 1 " 1 ' inClUdi ° S CaPt ' Fri " lk B ' AvdiDe ' kalGd ' and Ad J«' S D 

and mantitt: fflh 'thtS 7 7^'l 1"t' ^^ 

"i-'Ko,, :: ,„,,i,;,,, t,. :i,t i :!:.,;,:;;;;; 1 ^ , ^ „ u t ro„red w by r ^ 

superior force ot tbe enemy under (Jen. I g,trcet. Alter relievi,,.- (fen Burn 

A t'wur b't ':;; i^wii,.'. 1 '; ',»'.!«««'" Tlvo " ih retraced ils s, " i,s '" •" co,sbor °' 

nooM tobuV^r ''?■ "' , M:, - V ' ' "'' ' ''"' T, "' lf ' 11 marehed with its corps to Chatta- 
,. , .ik, pait in the Atlanta eali,|,a,gii, in which it .participated from first tn 
last, and was engaged in the battles of liesaos V„, I r . .... fliur.-l, I) ,11 J? 
saw Mountain, Atlanta, July - .,,,,1 -s ami .)!,,'.' |,!, r „ | ; '"' Kc °f", losing 2-111 in killed and wounded ditri,,.. the eaior ,i -„ It ,| ,?'. ' L 

part in the chase alter Hood's army, through Northern G gia "and Vlab-imi 

Return.ngto Atlanta it aceoinpanied Sherman's army on it's" march I, , the sea" 
UhhS December. W ° f N<>Vember ' a " d "^ beftre S -a"nah on rtc 

and from tW, & ,M uf . S ™ab. /he regiment P^ceeded by sea to Beaufort, S. C. fion. there marched to Columbia, the capital of the State, thence to Golds: 
hS b S- a ? d R " CSt t0 * M * h - On this long march the Twelfth was en-aled 
in the battle at Bentonvillc, and in numerous 

norther l t i 1 ,V" r '' 1 '| d v l ' , ' U, ;"- J " ll ". s( '"'' s ""'.V at Kaleigh. ,1,,. Twelfth started 
north, foi Richmond, Vs., and upon its arrival at that place, the war Peine vir 

seiteTlirSth^Vjun'r'isof " °* W '' CrC " ™ »— "* ^ *« 



The regiment returned to Indianapolis, 270 strong, on the 14th of June. A 
number of recruits and drafted men, whose term of service had not expired, were 
transferred to other regiments and kept in the service a month later, when they 
were mustered out at Louisville, Ky. 

The Twelfth participated in twenty-eight hard-fought battles, and hundreds 
of skirmishes, during its term of service, and was considered one of the best 
drilled and most efficient, regiments that left the State. 

Colonel — William II. Link, wounded at Richmond, Ky., August 30, 1862, died from 
wounds September "JO. 1M"2 

Adjutant— Jared 1>. Bond, resigned January 22, 1864. 

Captain — Elherl D. Baldwin, promoted Major and Lieulenanl Colonel; resigned May 
-".. 1865, 

First Lieutenant— Frank II. Aveline. promoted Captain, and killed in battle at Mis- 
~j-.ii Ki.lL.t- November -_'.">. 1m.:;. 

Second Lieutennnl — William H. Harrison, promoted Firs! Lieutenant and Captain. 

Firsr Sergeant — Alfred L. Stoney, promoted to First Lieutenant. 

.Sergeants — Claude llugenard ; Charles Fisher, promoted First Sergeant; Eugene 
Liahhvin, discharged November 2C, 1S<',2, for disability. 

Corporals — George Hare, promoted Sergeant; Ferdinand King, promoted Sergeant 

Veier'in Keserve'Ci.rp* August Hi, lsil-l; i harles l'.vard, died at Corinth, Miss., Novem- 
ber 3, 18(53; Wesley Iba, died at Camp Sherman. Miss., August 24, 1868 ; Casper Miller, 
killed at Mission Ridge November 26, I8US. 

I'liinpniiv 1'— Israel If. Ilensey, John Krune'ly, promoteil Corpora] ; John Merrillett, 
transferred to Forly-eightli Regiment : .Mm W. Ogden, promoted to Quartermaster Ser- 
geant; Daniel Sunk, transferred to Forly-eiiilith Regiment; Silas L Slater, transferred 
to Porty-eiebth Rejrimcnl : l.-tn- Mi-rrillett. died m i , lmiiiiin...gji,Tenii.. November 7. 1864. 

Company II— Charles tl llarr 
transferred to Fifty-ninth ltegun 

i Regiment. • 

■ightli Kcgiineitt ; Henderson 

re. transferred lo Fni'ly eiditli 

Regiment ; Charles D. Peak, 

I March 12, 18G5. 
10, 1862, for disabilitv: Hoi 

ttshoro, Ala., April 13, 18 

fi.-rrL-'l u 

• v 

1862; I- 

1862; . 

.lied on 


d, I. f . in 

killcl ai 


at Gran. 

13. 186< 

at Resac 


-in. Ail... ( 7. 1m;:j : John Linton, 
>4; John Meyer, died at Memphis, Tenn., 
III., November lit). 1m;:,' : Henry Noll, died 
John Rodgers, killed at Resaca, Ga., May 
». Ala., April 2D, 1*64; Levi Spitler. killed 
;illed iu front of Atlanta, Ga., August 21, 

Recruits— Benjamin F. Bethel). Henry Blounker, Ernest Hilzman, John Fridley. 
transferred lo Fifty-ninth Regiment ; Michael riotl'mim, transferred to Fifty-ninth Regi- 
ment; Monroe Johnston, transferred to Fifty-ninth Regiment; John W. Pio, transferred 
to Fifty-ninth Regiment, promoted Sergeant: .lame- I. Se ulelt, transferred to Fifty- 
ninth Regiment; George 1'. MinlVr. tr m-l.-n-l to Finv niutli Regiuu-nt ; John Sullivan, 
transferred to Fifty ninth Regiment; i hri-iian Simmon-, transferred to Pifly-ninth Reg- 
iment; Charles Smith, transTerred t.. Pifty-ninth Regiment; James Allinan, unaccounted 
for; Thomas K. Scott, unaccounted for: Richard Reed, died Augusts, 1864, of wounds; 
Henry D. Shaw, died at Atlanta, Ga., August 1, 1st, 4. 


This regiment contained eighty-two men and officers from Allen County, 
distributed among a number of companies. It was originally accepted for State 
service for one year, but was subsequently transferred to the service of the 
United States. It was one of the first regiments to enter the service for a term 
of three years from IndiaDa, and was mustered into service at Indianapolis June 
19, 1861. with Jere C. Sullivan as Colonel. On the 4th of July, it left for the 
field, and on the 10th of July it joined the forces under Gen. McClellan at Rich 
Mountain, W. Va. On the next day it participated in the battle of Rich Moun- 
tain, losing 8 killed and wounded. 

From that time until the 7th of November, the regiment was constantly 
engaged in hard marches in the broken mountainous country surrounding it, and 

On the 7th of November, it marched, under command of Gen. Milroy, to 
Alb uliany, and, on the 13th of December, participated io the battle at that 

On the 18th of December, the Thirteenth joined the Inrces under Gen. Lan- 
der at Green Spring Run. where it remained until spring. 

In the spring of L862, the regiment was attached to Shields' Division, and 
moved up the Shenandoah Valley, participating in the battle of Winchester, on 
the 22d of March, losing 6 killed and 33 wounded, after which it followed in 
pursuit of Stonewall Jackson's defeated and flying army as far as New Market. 

The Thirteenth remained in the Shenandoah Valley until the 28th of June, 
when it was ordered to Harrison's Landing to re-enforce Gen. McClellan, arriving 
there on the 2d of July, just at the close of seven days' terrible fight- 
ing, both armies really too much exhausted to continue the struggle. It 
remained on duty in the swamps of the Chickahominy until the 16th of August, 
when the whole army moved in the direction of Yorktown, reaching there on the 
20th, and the regiment remained there until the 30th, when it ascended the 
Nansemond River to Suffolk, and encamped near that town, where it remained 
until the 29th of January, 1863. During this time, the regiment, with the com- 
mand to which it. belonged, was actively engaged in making demonstrations on the 
line of the Roanoke & Seaboard Railroad, at the point where the road crosses the 
Blackwater River, with varying success. 

On the 30th of January, the command discovered the enemy at a locality 
known as the " Deserted House," about eight miles from Suffolk, and promptly 
attacked him and drove him six miles, when pursuit was abandoned. 

On the lllth of April, a rebel force under Gen. Longstreet appeared before 
Suffolk and proceeded to besiege that place. The siege was maintained until the 
4th of May, when it was raised, and the Thirteenth at once started in pursuit of 
the enemy, but he escaped with but slight loss. The siege lasted twenty-three 
days, and the Thirteenth lost Lieut. Couran, of this county, mortally wounded, 
and 8 enlisted men wounded. 

On the 28th of June, the regiment sailed for Charleston Harbor, where it 
took part in the assault upon Fort Wagner, on the 7th of September, and was the 
first regiment to enter the fort. 

In December, 1803, a portion of the regiment re-enlisted as veterans, and 
left for Indianapolis on their "veteran furlough," arriving there January 1, 

On the 23d of February, 1S64, the regiment joined Gen. Seymour at Jack- 
sonville, Fla., where it remained until the 17th of April, when it was ordered to 
return to Virginia, and landed at Bermuda Hundred on the 5th of May. 

The Thirteenth took part in all of the operations of Gen. Butler's army south 
of Richmond, and was conspicuous in the engagements at Whitehall Junction on 
the 7th of May, Chester Station, May 10, and Foster's Farm, May 20, at which 
the regiment lost nearly two hundred men. On the 1st day of June, it joined the 
Army of the Potomac at Newcastle, with which it was engaged at Cold Harbor 
June 3, and in all the operations near the Chiekahominy until June 12, when it 
returned to Bermuda Hundred. 

On the 15th, it crossed the Appomattox River, and was engaged in the 
assaults upon the rebel works in front of Petersburg. 

The non-veterans of the regiment left on the 19th of June for Indianapolis, 
arriving there June 24, and were mustered out of the service. On the 30th day 
of July, the regiment was engaged in the charge on Petersburg, after the explo- 
sion of the mine, after which it remained in the trenches until in September. 

On the 15th of September, the regiment participated in the battle of Straw- 
berry Plains, and was employed in the operations against Richmond from the 
north side of James River, engaging in the battle of Chapin's Bluff, and the 
assault on Fort Gilmore on the 19th, and the assaults on the rebel lines in front 
of Richmond on the 10th day of October. 

In November, it was sent with other regiments to New York City, to pre- 
serve order during the election excitement ; and, on returning, sailed with the 
first expedition to Fort Fisher on the 3d of December, after which it returned to 
Chapin's Bluff on the 31st of December. Upon the muster-out of the nnn- 
veteraus, the veterans and recruits were, by order of Gen. Butler, on the 6th day 
of December, 1864, re-organized into a battalion of five companies. This bat- 
talion was subsequently made a full regiment, by the addition of five companies 
of drafted men. 

On the 3d day of January, 1865, the Thirteenth sailed with the second expe- 
dition to, and engaged in the second attempt at the reduction of Fort Fisher on 
the 15th of January, and also participated in the capture of Fort Anderson on 
the 19th of February, and the occupation of Wilmington, February 22. 

After remaining at Wilmington some weeks, it took part in the advance 
upon Raleigh, where it remained until the 20th of July, 1865, when it was 
ordered to Goldsboro, where it remained until the 5th of September, when the 
regiment was mustered out of the service, and the men and officers returned to 
their homes. 

Nor more gallant regiment than the Thirteenth ever formed a line or made 
a charge. 

First Sergeant — Bernard Conran, promoted Second Lieutenant; died April 22, 1863. 

Privates— Lewis Buchtold, veteran, tmmferrod lo Thirteenth Regiment, re-organized ; 
Greenherrv ( iu-p. veteran, tiansfcrred to Thirteenth Regiment, re-organized; William 
Cromer, Francis ('lan-on. promoted Corporal ; .lames B. Humbert, Patrick Kelley, 
Andrew Uughlin, William L>. \etllei„n; Joseph Christen, killed at Chester Station, Vft., 
May 10, 1864; Ferdinand Light, died at Clarksburg July 16, 1801 ; Charles W. 
Truax, promoted Corporal, died June G, 18li<i. of wounds received id Cold Harbor, Va.; 
William Whitney, died of wounds received til Winchester, Va., March 28, 18'i2. 



Corporal—Lara Buchtold, veteran. 

mev'"^7"Z!'"""\ ,V i ;. , .'"s, F 1 ' n "'!'l' i0 T, r, "''' ,J ? l l° DC1 """' Benjamin """•"■on, A«,.» 
receive,! „r l-.„ , |',.|„. r ' N T 0,J ; Tll0Illlla Johnson, died May -J?. 180S, „f „■„,„,. U 

at PcSurir' '" 1 "' ArCllI!r; Sai,1Uel °' WinM8 ' ««Unl7 4. 1301. of wounds received 
Kndf e r£SfLT„^.°Z ar ei^Er C ™ e ' "^T" »»■* ■"''«• ****« 

ne™, ; ,„ „,„■,,, ,,. s„T,.i, ,; 1 " , ra'-i ; , ;; , ;: ; V ' ,'"."'";;'". 'i';!-;',; J * >'■£■•-. 

■noted Corporal ■ M,.K,M,. II II,,, .Jehu II. lyiike : llcury I.. While. ,„„. 

l=r»onvillc Prison; James I. Stewart, died in 


melt. Gboi 
Allen Mil 
May 1. If 

, February IS, 1865. 
■s-George W. Boyle, Joseph Dales ; Archibald Richmond, 

',.'"■'.'■ i"y.'!~!'<" ,'. '". S, 'J' ' ',",' '' li,, -' i, "enti George 

Privates— Will 

W. Anderson ; George I, 
ner. promoted Corporal • 
tcentli Regiment Joh 
Campbell, Theodore Ca 

.Si-rcii'lrviiil, t!..' .','.' 

''„!'I ."" > „ lc ' 1 Cjr P ora ' : John D. Rankin: 
HtRcl. David II. Rineharl. George Run 
Iroud, Solomon Summers, Richard Trou 
:o Veteran Reserve Corps April [2 l^-r, 
Usability ; George Rumbaiigh, discharge 
tilled by explosion nl Fort Fishei He 
isher. N. C, Jan. 10, 1865; Richard M 
or, died Fob. 3, 18G",, of wounds receive 

t Fort Fisher. 

Corporals— Henry Monasmith, Sylvanus S Current 

1 rivates -Thomas Arler. Ahram F Collins lames ir,,„.n n , t 

William T. 
■ecnih Rcgi- 

'.?,.?-'"i 1 m ™ n \ transferred to SeVeu'teonlh'iteg'imcnl • 
So'l,'", 1 :,^ "" ■* ™W,™l™,«L*™il 

IS on arc ,,»" f '""'"' ' | l ""ii ■"' ' ""'"''' '"'■ "'''-'■ David Boyle 

wounds. T ',. \T"r,ll , "",' ""'," d ' 1 , discharged May 

■ Wilii.m II I '"■"". ■,,- I. i,o-.l ,\,,v.. „,!„.,■ |,| | S|; ., 

■ml*. di..-h,,*T'u •'"■'', ,"''i' !-'," '"'"■' "'• ,861 ' °" "«ount. of 
.....II ", . , . ■ ■ """■ of disability. 


M ,- ' .■•..,., „,,uii n. ono,-,, .iai 

flSo, T, ' 18 ?. 5: ''"'"' P - F ' eene '- Jied »' "'"■ 
A 18bo ; Thomas B. Jones, died at Raleigh, N. C, J 

; 10. I so; 


-Jacob Stroud 

Privates— Thomas T. Andn 
nnis Ryan. 

, John Duchlink, Isai 

Flam .1. McKinz 


This regiment contained one company from this county, and wis orraaiied 
Mount™ on the 11th, while the battle of that ,,a„„: was 1 , ' 

"n S;tnn "7 of the puKuing f r c afW the def ^ -r;; M a„d n i " 

VaH.i \ l " 1:l " y P nson0 »- II remained in that vicinity' i„ |.;n ■„.,„ , 


Tullahoma campaign it formed a part of Crittenden's , L< I st, Vl ,„ ( "„ w ' ni T 
w^saTS;"': " ^ rebel kft >~ cdinVorc/ng Bra^rft 
CHctmzl^aTw™™''^ "i* a ™y; wh!o11 culminated in the battle of 

mops, to the relte of Get, Burnside, at Kno.yille-ma^hing „ , „'„ 
mite „ the winter, many of the men without shoes an/all on very short 

; a, , 1 l„r B„r,,s..„ ,i,,,y. While there, a portion of the regiment re 2 1 , , ' 
■ ,i». It ■emtuned there until the expiration of the tern of service „f the 

on tile ..■Hot June, 181,4. A detachment of veterans and recruits were 
hi behind, and they were transferred to the Seventeenth Regiment , „ I, 
Volunteers (mountetl infantry,, and served with that organization until Au ,'u" 
b, 1865, when they were finally discharged. 


K»,lT, "^'"'l-rel. promoted Major and Lieutenant Colonel. 
I irsi Lientenant— Oliver II. Ray. resigned March 23, 1802. 
July 23 n 8C2 "'"' "' MoQu;U V. P«"»«»l K»t Lieutenant, and resigned 

,.i \i, 

liner; John Slroud. discharge, 
Deoember 1(1, 1863, of wound's 
'ohnson ; William Dougall, pro 

January 2, 180;!. 

promoted Second Lieutenant and Captain : killed 
lischnrged \ : .iii I. 1802, for disability ; John B. MoAllis- 

.'""'.'"■ ,| '"'-' "" May 81, 1804; Lewis A. Foster, vet. 

h Regiment May 81 1SH4 ; Andrew J. Miller, died 

, died lolouarv 26, 1868, of wounds received at Stone 

" p '' 1 '" '"-'. | - 1 '''-. for .lisaliiliiy ; Joseph Glnver died 

iccivcd at Mission Ridge; John E. Threadgall. John P 
lotod Sergeant ; Royal E. Barney, killed at Stone River 

Alii,. I \| II,., ,,!... " !".V ',"i '' ''■ "" ' u '""' >1 wounds. 

Jo—pi, n I,-, ', ,,.--■ t' \ "' i " i'-"i' , ■ o" "Cciuat ,,f disohjliiv 

William A \\i-, .1,.. I,. ,",'.... | \ "!V , i 7 "■' "" : ".' t .'" 111 " of disatiilily. 

Jacob Tui-ker .li'-eli-i'r..,'.,r'\ , ,'i'V '"' '„', a , ''' "™"" '"' disability. 

Thomas Bunco, killed in ,„, ,„,,,,. a, 7.,„,isvTl te^K v." " "' A ' XM "^ 

Joseph Castelman, died August 20, 1801. 

.1,-s-e li i; .'iti'.v 'iV I ' i" I- r.-r, i v.-.l ,i Siou,- River January :,, I si. :. 

Ilonry l.i'l.l. 't'o-'l „'r l,'.',.r.o"l"l„.,',',''."'''"'|v. ••' ' ""' P ' ■'■"'"'">' -■■ ls '' 1 

lleo,r"\l,''h!,',",.'i|' ,'|,!.| ,\'' "."".''" "■■'"'■ | " s e lliver January I. lsi;:|, 

J.din'v \l ',„,'„„ ',', |",".''"' ' ';"'".:' '" "'""' Kl " 1 ' Jamnry J. I.s,,; 

Frederick M.vre'k,„c, , 1 ,s l ..J"i«i , ,V.r \^^7' Iso" Dm """"" : »- '»'«■ 
I lo.iles Parke, died at , November 1, 1801 

uSSS!,;*-!; 1 !!'';;;-'"'' 1 '' *« - .7. >»■* 

John Trayer, killed at Stone River December 31, 1802. 


Andrew C Harris, veteran, transferred to Seventeenth Regimonl 

Timothy Murphy, transferred lo Seve.ue. lie.duient 

Daniel Nelteltou, promoted Second Licuteuanl and Captoiu. 


Fif-eentl, 'iT'" i in "l" ^"T """? vetcl ''i" S . ," d roc ™ its . "'ausferred from the 

1 11-011 1 {ogiui, ut, principally, and served with the Son ,tl, fr,„,i about tl„ 

middle ,d It,,,,., Slil, „„t, August 8, 18115, when tbey iiviv I y i ,. 

While w, 1, the Seventeenth, they participated in the Atlanta cainpai' , ■ , | , 

Olliv Murphy, Fred Seidenstioker, Milton Williams ' ''' b " M00 " ) '' ""«'»"! Ti "- 


Privates— Franklin .lyres, lleniarnin F. Atkins David T Ih, . i„i o, ,, 
William H. Thompson, promoted Corporal ; Silas ivolver.on ' ' S '""' n " r ' m : 

Privates— William Allison, veteran ; John Baldwin, H„rvev Cl.mnilt Ceo,, m w r 

^!5^Z£tfti£S££Er> A '"° 3E - I '°"'"' ~ ^sselWingo! 


Privates— William Kiilen, veteran, promoted to ('nniairi ■ fia,,r™ n:„i„ 
promoted to Corporal; Wii , Z „,„. .li!,,,,,,,,.,, IN .....V;,;.:.' /| '-• ^Z'^T'™- 

I', ,i! [, I M lv,->. ,, ., , ._ V- 

Old u: 

Recruits-Green tluioek. died a, . December V,', ,802;' Georie LiuXun'" 

inted for; Henry Shepherd, died al January 17, 1S03. 


In this regiment, there were thirty-nine men from Allen County, all of them 
recruits that served only about one year, but it was a fear of bard service E 
made a veteran of eacli one of them. They served thnuch ,h" Uhiit , Cm 
paign under Sherman, and I lie campaign that culminated with the battle of Nash 
ville, under 1 nomas. As those ctimpnigns arc fully described elsewhere it would 
be simply repetition to give them here. It is needless to say that the men in the 
Twenty-second fought as bravely and well as those in any other regiment. 

„™„ B8 S,| Uila-C ? 1 'i°- A ; An ; J , c " 011 ' Promoted to First Sergeant ; Philip A. Billtouej vet 

' iU,: '""• J '"'•""■. M. V. B. ,'hilders, Silas ■',„-„„. lli„i,| S IMinill,,,, H ]| . ," 

Henry. Andrew J. Mills. William .1. Myers, John M. Rie Is V ,|.„„' I' , ' ■ ,'„ 111 , 

Edward W. Shadel, Aiiaistead Wildman. •" 6 ' Mm lifaa - 


U-cruiis— William 0. Bryant, Fran 
Coyl, George w. Collina, Thomas J. ( 

George Hyaes, George Josaee, Zocharinn jbuum, .imuu uum, ™.g. «*.«•*,««-. 
rici), Williitnt II lV-ii^i. Willi uti U'liil. -y: John Amos, killed m I'eii-yvdlc OctoUr 

1882: Levi II. Baldwin, killed m Si-.m- ltivi-i I ».-.-. ■-■,- ;i. i-,-j !.,i,,, n»rk. kill-.! 

Stone River Deoember 81,1862; Dallas ' Hardy, died tl Murfreesboro Cenn., M 

13, 1NU3; Tl ins Miller, died ill March Is, hi!'»; Mien I'd Ivy, divd >il Cli 

mnooga, Tenn., November 12, 1864 j William Talley, died a( Louisville, Ky., October .'." 


Privates— GurrcN T. .Julius, discharged .Inly L".', ]*('.-!, I'm- disability ; Benjamin 
Newby, Samuel A. Weaver. 


thirty-three in -u lioiii this oounty in the Twenty-ninth 11"; 

ment, only three of who 

thai served univalent 01 

>t Chattoi go, Tenfc, b 

duty. It wasanexoellc 
December 2, 1865, 

Recruits— Freehuru J. FleMers, William V, Scnrlett, Tliun 
way, died nl NashviUe, Tenn., April IT, 1866; Juhn W. Eatoi 
Mareb 30. L865. 

The rest 

z which time the regiment was stationed 
id Marietta, Ga., doing post and garrison 
nd was finally mustered out of the service 


Privates — Robert II. Campbell, veteran ; William Ream, veteran 
discharged June 2, lS'i'J, lor disability. 

Recruits — David M. Leard, Daniel Labmar, William I!. Reavis; Noah Bowman, died 
at Chattanooga March 13, 18t>5 ; Andrew J. Duckhai'l, died at Chattanooga February 28, 

Recruits — Robert Ames, John Beidernmn, Joseph I'. Bishop; William II. Dawson, 
promoted Corporal; William II. Jamison, George II. Lee; John M. Loorois, promoted 
Sergeant ; Oliver Loomis, promoted Corpora!; Levi Lewis, Sylvester Lovcll. Frederick 
Milter, George Reprogle, William S. Reprogle, l*e(er Roth man, Francis Smith; Allen 
lludiuc died "at Nashville April 4, lSfi-3 ; Joel Wall, died at Nashville April 15, 1865. 

Frederick Stickley, Theodore Titus. Jacob E. Tolbert. 


The Thirtieth was composed in part of three companies from Allen County, 
to which may he added nearly or quite 150 recruits at different times. It was 
the first regiment that was organized at Fort Wayne, and went into Camp Allen, was situated on the west hank of the St. Mary's River, a short distance 
above where the canal aqueduct crosses that stream, on what was known as the 
•■Old Fair Ground," on the 20th day of August, 1861. The companies from 
this county were A, Capt. G. W. Fitzsimmons ; D, Capt. J. \V. Whitaker, and 
Iv Capt. J, M. Silver. The regiment was mustered into the service byMaj. 
Carpenter, of the Nineteenth United States Infantry, on the 24th of September. 
1861j with Sion S. Bass as Colonel, Joseph B. Dodge as Lieutenant Colonel, and 
Orrin D. Hurd as Major, and was ordered to Indianapolis October 2, where the 
men were provided with uniforms, arms and equipments. 

On the Gth of October, it left for Kentucky, with orders to report to Gen. 
Sherman, and, on the Sth, it went into camp fifty-live miles south uf Louisville. 
near the Louisville .v. Nn-hville Railroad, on Noliu Creel;. The camp at that 
place was known as Camp Nevin. While there, the regimentwas presented with 
a splendid stand of national colors by the ladies of Fort Wayne. They were 
afterward returned to them, riddled with more than a hundred bullets, but not 

The regiment remained at that point until the 11th of December, during 
which time it suffered terribly from sh-kiic-^. A>i !<■ In. in the siekne>s naturally 
attending all troops iu the process of becoming acclimatized to a soldier's life, 
typhoid fever and measles raged to an alarming extent. The Medical Depart- 
ment of the army bad not yet been organized on a w;i.r footing, and. if not inef- 
ficient, was unable to provide the nece-sary supplies for the men, and the officers 
of the regiment raised S-")illl in cash, and purchased medicines for them. 

The n _'iiii'iit remained there until the 11th uf December, when a forward 
movement was made fourteen miles south, to Bacon Creek. Here the rebels had 
destroyed a bridge on the railroad, and the troops halted to rebuild it. 

On the L7th, they moved forward to Munfordsville, on Green River. As 

the troop- Wei'.- goiu-j into camp, rapid firin_r was heard from across the river. 
In a few minute?, intelligence was received that the Thirty -second Indiana. Will- 
ich'fi regiment, that had been sent across the river on picket duty, had been 
attacked by a large force of rebel cavalry — Texas Rangers. The Thirtieth, with 

the brigade to which it was attached, was at ."■ iijuved mi the double-quick-to 

the ferry, on the Louisville it Nashville turnpike, and wr.- >■,■,, -in-, when word 

received thai the enemy had been repulsed, and that the gallant Thirty sec- 
■ nd had whipped more than twice their number of the enemy in a fair fight, and 
the battle of '• Rowlett's Station :i had been Wo,,. 

Nearly iwo months were passed al .Munfordsville. in the usual routine of 
camp life, guard and picket duty, working detail- and reconnaissance. The health 
of the regiment was good, and it attained a high reputation for soldierly 

On the loth of February, orders wen- received for the division the Thirtieth 
Was attach .;' the Army of the Ohio., to proceed to the 

mouth of Salt Rj Hie, on the Ohio, and embark on Bteamboatfi for 

the vicinity of Fort Donelson, to re-enforce Gen. Grant, who was about to attack 
the enemy at that place. The command immediately marched fourteen miles, 
over almost impassable roads, and bivouacked in a cluster of woods. The night 
was intensely cold. The state of the roads prevented the wagons from keeping 
pace with the troops, and the men were without tents or blankets. 

Gen. Grant was then besieging Fort Donelson, and great anxiety was mani- 
fested by the entire command to arrive in time to take part in the fight. 

The next morning, news was received that the enemy had surrendered that 
important position. Although disappointed because a portion of the glory was 
not theirs, they made the valleys and bills resound with their cheers for that great 
Union triumph. 

The command was at once ordered to retrace its steps, and marched to Bell's 
Tavern, on the Louisville & Nashville Railroad, near the Mammoth Cave. 

Several miles of railroad track had been destroyed by the retreating rebel 
forces, uuder Gen. Hardee, which had also filled up, near that point, both ends of 
a tunnel six hundred feet in length. The division halted to repair damages. 

After five days unremitting toil, the railroad was repaired, atid the march 
resumed in the direction of Nashville, and, on the 4th of March, the division 
crossed the Cumberland, and, marching through Nashville, encamped five miles 
south of the city, on the Franklin turnpike. 

The fall of Fort Donelson, and a rapid advance made by Gens. Nelson and 
Mitchell, bad compelled the evacuation of Nashville. On the 16th, the entire 
army moved on south halting only to rebuild the railroad bridges that had been 
destroyed by the enemy. 

On the the 1st of April, it crossed Duck River at Columbia, about forty 
miles south of Nashville, and at once marched for Savannah, a small town on the 
Tennessee River, seventy-five miles southwest of Columbia. The progress was 
slow, and the march difficult. The road passes through a rough, hilly country, 
often following for miles the bed of a mountain stream. Heavy rains had ren- 
dered the streams difficult to ford, but perseverance and energy triumphed over 
all obstacles; and, on the 5th, the command encamped within twenty-one miles of 

The next morning, moving forward rapidly, the regiment reached the sum-* 
mit of a high hill, when distant reverberations broke upon the ear sounding like 
muttering thunder ; a halt — a brief silence — and the sound, swelling with increased 
volume, and echoing through the mountains and valleys, denoted that a battle 
had commenced; none could mistake the booming sound of artillery, and the 
reverberating crash of musketry ; they were the first, echoes from the bloody field 
of Shiloh. 

Feverish anxiety at once dispelled all listlessness. All were anxious to move 
forward. Soon the order was received to leave the trains. With eager faces, and 
renewed energy, the troops pushed onward, over muddy roads and through almost 
impassable streams, reaching Savannah that night. Here were found the sad 
results of deadly strife on every hand : every house was a hospital, the wounded 
of that terrible day's conflict (around the church of Shiloh) filled the air with 
their cries of agony. Tents were "filled, steamboats were loaded, and still the 
stream of wounded' men kept pouring in. To add to the gloomy surroundings a 
terrific storm, accompanied with heavy thunder ami vivid lightning, made horror 
vi-ilde. The measured reports of heavy artillery from the gunboats sounded dis- 
mally upon the river, adding to that night of horror. 

At 10 o'clock at night, the Thirtieth embarked on a transport, and, before 
daylight, reached PittBburg Lauding, but did not land until after daylight. 

The steep bluff was literally covered with a disorganized mob of oien, whose 
only desire appeared to bo some means to get out of the reach of danger. A 
strong guard was at once placed around the boat, and then it was difficult to keep 
them off. Many leaped into the water, and, as they were swept away by the 
remorseless current, oried piteously to be taken on board. 

As the regiment climbed up the steep, slippery, muddy bank, it was assailed 
with dismal cries from these disorganized soldiers, each of whom represented his 
regiment as " cut all to pieces." *" The stern reply of the Thirtieth was, " Come 
out. and see men fight." 

About? o'clock, the Thirtieth moved with the rest of its division toward 
the front, and the battle that had lulled during the night at once commenced. 
The enemy confident and daring, the Union troops equally so, and determined to 
secure the victory. The Thirtieth was the extreme right regiment of Buell's 
army— the Array of the Ohio— and joined on the left of the Army of the Ten- 
nessee. For nearly an hour, the brigade to which the Thirtieth belonged was 
held in reserve. The advance line having . \h an-t.-l its ammunition, the reserve 
brigade was ordered to relieve it. This, always a difficult movement under fire, 
was at once performed, as promptly as if the troops had been on the drill ground. 
The rebel line had hem re-enforced at the same time, and hail advanced somewhat 
in irer our line, than it had been before. Just then a rebel battery secured a 
position so that it could enfilade our line ; an advance of twenty-five paces was 
the only way to get relieved of that. The men moved forward as steady as 
thou-h there bad u.t been an enemy within a hundred miles of them. 

Bullet fell like hail, officers and men like leaves before the autumn frosts. 
■ Still the line advanced. Amidst this glare of sheeted flame and .sulphurous 
smoke. Col. Bass, as brave a a tidier as ev< r lived, fell mortally wounded. Maj. 
Hurd had bis horse kilhd under him, and he and Adjt. lvN.iil displayed distin- 
guished gallantry. The battery before spoken of having been captured, the brigade 
was ordered to fall back a short distance, .so as to connect with the rest of the 

The enemy, supposing it was a retreat, instantly charged. The brigade at 
once faced about, swept forward and repulsed the foe. At this moment, his line 
was re-enforced. In the excitement, he forgot to take shelter behind a protecting 
ridge he had left, when lie charged, and for twenty minutes, with lines not fifty 
yardi apart, the combatants hurled death into each other's ranks. The contest 


of the enemy ceased ; a gust of wind raised the 
5 seen flying in wild disorder. The battle was 

was terrific. Suddenly the fa' 

curtain of smoke, and the foe 


Tjw regiment lost 38 killed and 107 wounded, officers and men. 

; compliment was paid by the General commanding, and a 
ntioned contained men from Allen County, it is given entire : 

The follow 
every regiment 


Iim. 0. P. Morton, Oo; 

r of Indian 
Sir — It may he a useless task for 
while the battle-fields of llich Mounlaii 
her praise. But justice to the Silth, T 
ninth Regiments of Indiana Volunteers 
lantry while fighting under my t 
meat had already won the presti^ 
by a proper emulation, uiilliuchingly stood thci 
the field of Shiloh will embellish one of the b 

Field of Shu 

nil anot he 

April 15, 1S62. 

the glory of Indiana, 

>.. nelson speak so eloquently iu 

ieth, Thirty-second and Thirty- 

rcpin-os me to spook of their conspicuous gal. 

d in the battle of Shiloh. The Thirty-second Regi- 

Rowlett's. The other regiments, actuated 

Inst h.iptism of tire, anil their action upon 

ghte-i pages in the annals of our nation. 

nding Second Division. 

From this time until the occupation of Corinth by our troops on the 30th of 

May, the regiment was busily engaged in the movements incidental t„ the si 

of that place, winch had been fortified under the supervision of the most experi- 
enced engineers of the rebel army. The Thirtieth, with the division to which it 
belonged, was left to hold Corinth after the Union forces got possession of it, 
while the remainder of the army went in pursuit of the retreatin" foe. 

On the 10th of June, the line of march was next taken up, inovin<* east 
across Northern Alabama to the mouth of Battle Creek, about twenty miles below 
Chattanooga, on the Tennessee River. The march was a very severe one, owit.o- 
to the intense heat, and scarcity of water on the route. The regiment remained 
there until the 20th of August, when it was ascertained that Bra"-..- with his 
rebel army, had crossed the Tennessee River at Chattanooga, and "was rapidly 
moving north, with the intention of invading Kentucky. 

Pursuit was at once commenced, and" moving on roads parallel with those 
Bragg traveled on, the army reached the vicinity of Mmifordsville, Ky., on the 
17th of September. On the morning of that day, sharp firing was heard in the 
direction of Mmifordsville, and it was soon ascertained that Bragg bad reached 
that point in advance of us. A few troops were stationed there, consisting of a 
detachment of the Seventeenth and Seventy-fourth Indiana Volunteers under 
command of Col. Wilder, of the Seventeenth. He was soon overpowered and 
compelled to surrender, and Bragg crossed Green River and pressed on north 
Our army, under Gen. Buell, followed closely in his rear, skirmishing continually 
with his rear guard and picking up stragglers. When we reached Elizabeth- 
town, about fifty miles south of Louisville, Bragg turned to the right on the road 
to Bardstown, and our army to the left, on the road to West Point, on the Ohio 
River, a few miles below Louisville. The army reached Louisville on the 28th 
ol September, nearly naked, quite dispirited and completely exhausted. Here 
they found a large number of new troops awaiting their arrival, and were wel- 
' the citizens, who had feared that Bragg would attack the place before 

Buell , 




for two days, with a force of 

ars to capture it, a thing that 

c thousand men, and had it 

probably done so. There 

as speedily furnished with clothing, and the army 
re-organized. On the 1st of October, the division to which the Thirtieth was 
attached, under command of Gen. Sill, marched in the direction of Frankfort 
At Floyd's Fork, the brigade to which the Thirtieth was attached, had a slight 
skirmish with the enemy. On the 3d, it had a sharp encounter near Claysville, 
on the Frankfort road, killing and capturing sixteen of the enemy. On the 4th, 
it reached Frankfort, and on the evening of the 6th, was ordered to make a 
reconnaissance of six miles on the Georgetown pike. This developed the fact 
that the rebel Gen. Kirby Smith had moved with his forces up the Kentucky 
River, doubtless with the intention of joining Bragg, who was known to be in 
the direction of Danville. It immediately returned and followed the rest of the 
division, that bad inarched, in the mean while, and overtook it at Lawrenceburg, 
fifteen, miles up the Kentucky River from Frankfort, and from there moved 
across Salt River and bivouacked at a place called Dog Walk, having made a 
march that day of thirty-four miles. 

Gen. Kirby Smith had been after the divisioi 
over fifteen thousand men, making desperate endear 
looked easy enough, as Gen. Sill had only about si 
not been for a trivial circumstance he would ha 

were nine Regimental Quartermasters, with a team each, and about fifty guardi, 
that had got separated from their commands before the division reached 
Frankfort, that were now trying to rejoin them. On the evening of the 
7th, finding that they were close to the rear of the division, they halted, just 
after dark, and went into camp in an open field, the wagons scattered some 
distance apart from each other, and built their fires to cook supper. A person at 
a distance, could, no doubt, be easily deceived and led to believe that there was a 
large force encamped there, and in that way Smith was led to believe that the 
whole division was there. At daylight, the Quartermasters found themselves 
surrounded by Smith's entire army. 

Skirmishing at once commenced, and, after some pretty sharp firin", durin" 
which a private soldier of the Thirtieth, who was a Quartermaster's clerk, was 
severely wounded, a flag of truce was sent in, accompanied with a demand for 
unconditional and immediate surrender. Peter P. Bailey, formerly of Fort Wayne, 
Quartermaster of the Thirtieth, received the flag and conducted the negotiations, 
and, after the most amusing parley, without a doubt, that ever occurred under a 
flag of truce, surrendered himself and the other Quartermasters and men and 
tram to Maj. Gens. Kirby Smith, Cheatham and Withers, of the Confederate 
army. The affair was so extremely ludicrous that the surrender was accomplished 
amid roars of laughter, in which all, save Smith ' ' 


Rragg he was placed under arrest for not having captured or destroyed the 
entire divismn, and was not released until after the battle of Stone River had 
commenced — nearly four months after. 

Smith, having secured the Quartermasters, tried to attack the division ■ but 
to him ™ t °° mU ° h ' ime ' aDd h ' S a " aCk WaS repU ' 8ed wUh ™*" w « 'OS 

The division moved on rapidly from there, and rejoined the rest of the army 
near Perryvdle, on the 11th, two days after the battle of Chaplain's Hills near 

OrJhfwf' df al '"'. y the " raarched °" thr0UsU H^odsburg, Danville and 

Club Old a rd Iron, where a reconnaissance wa i.le that developed the fact that 

Bragg had fallen bacK, through Cumberland Gap, into East Tennessee This 
made it necessary, m order to save the stores and garrison at Nashville, to occupy 
Middle Tennessee before Bragg could reach there, and the army started for 
Nashville at once, moving rapidly through Danville and Lebanon, thence to 
Bowling Green and Nashville, reaching the last-named place on the 7th of 

On the 30th of October, Gen. Rosccrans relieved Gen. Buell and assumed 
command changing the name of the army to the Array of the Cumberland and 
Lraisvill 1 ' e - or S'' ln,m,on of tlle »™»y A»t had been hurriedly attempted at 

After the arrival of the army at Nashville, the Thirtieth went into camp 
about six miles south of there, where it remained, engaged in the duties inciden- 

left shoulder. 

On the in 
different roads 

is !a y 

tal to oamp-life, until the 26th of Decembei 

On the 27th of November, while making a reconnaissance i«„. 
on the road between Nashville and Murfrecsboro, the regiment had a number of 
"~iong them Lieut. Col. Hurd, who was severely wounded 

ing of the 2Gth of Di 

ining from Nashville 

force of over 62,000 i 
47,000 of all arms. It was a cold, wet, dreary day, but all locked forward oheel 
fully to the- conflict that they knew was impending. That day, the column, of 
which the Thirtieth formed a part, on the Nolonsville pike, met with but little 
resistance, and the regiment bivouacked after dark in a meadow covered with 
water two or three inches deep. Next morning, the regiment was in advance of 
the infantry, a small force of cavalry being the extreme advance. When near 
the enemy made a determined stand. The cavalry were repulsed, and the 
"thin a few yards of 


iber, the army moved out on all the 
the direction of Murfreesboro, where 
Rosecrans' army consisted of about 

til a gust of wind parted 
ig destroyed the bridge 

regiment moved ahead in a dense fog, at one time gett: 

a rebel battery without either party being aware of it, u 

the fog a moment. The battery made good its escape. 

At Triune, the enemy appeared in force, and ha\ 

across a stream just north of the town, appeared to be i 

our further advance. The stream was nut Ibrdable at ill ,1 p.. In. .,, '., d.-tou'r wa' 
made half a mile below, and the creek forded, the water being un.iv than waist- 
deep to the men, under a galling musketry and artillery lire IV., m ih, inomy. He 
was driven from his position, and retreated across the Little Havpetl) River. It 
was now dark, and pursuit impossible. 

On the 29th, the brigade to which the Thirtieth was attached marched 
across the country and bivouacked in a stubble field in which every one sank ankle- 
deep in the mud at ever; step, and in this mud, without tents or til,- ,„,| in , 
steady, drizzling rain, the night was spent. At daylight on the morning of the 
30th, the division moved out in support of Gens.' Sheridan and Jeff. C. Davis' 
divisions, that had the advance. Skirmishing was continuous, an. I at times rose 
to the dignity of a battle, but the enemy was steadily driven back, until about 
4 o'clock, P. M., when the division 'Johnson's) was ordered to form on the right 
of Davis'. Shortly after, fighting ceased for the day. 

At dark, the skirmish line of the Thirtieth was only fifty yards from that of 
the enemy. The regiment bivouacked that night in a dense cedar ticket, about 
seventy-five yards in front of our main line. The night was intensely dark, so 
that it was impossible to distinguish any object a few feet distant. 

An hour before daylight oo the 31st of December, the brigade was under 
arms, the picket line was strengthened, and every precaution taken to guard 
against surprise. A dense tog, that arose as it otherwise would have been getting 
light, rendered objects indistinct. 

At daybreak, as soon as anything could be distinguished, the enemy was 
seen approaching. He advanced across a narrow valley in our front and on our 
right, in immense force, formed in column by battalion, ten battalions deep, while 
we had a line of but one battalion. Their march was resistless. We had the 
advantage of position, but, as great gaps were torn through their ranks, they were 
filled up as though on the drill ground ; whole lines were swept away, and they 
were instantly replaced. Meanwhile, another force had swept around and gained 
our rear. In order to save any, we were compelled to fall back. 

The Thirtieth had lost frightfully, hut fell back in good order, after all the 
it and rear of it had gone, to a fence that ran at right angles 
had oocupied at the commencement of the battle. Here a stand 
was maue. Xne same programme was again gone through with. Simonson's 
Fifth Indiana Battery, partly recruited in Allen County, was with the Thirtieth 
here, and together they swept the advancing lines ol the enemy with the besom 
of destruction. He was obliged to halt ; his lines wavered, 
more would have been forced to fly, when a mighty shout 
right, followed by a terrific volley on our right and rear. C 
were upon us, and our bleeding battalions we're again forced t. 
tion. The Thirtieth fell back in good ..r.l.r to near the 
repulsing a cavalry charge upon the way. 

nth the line I 

. lieiu-.l 

lint i 


Filially reaching a good position, our line faced about, determined to go on 
farther. Soon the enemy appeared, advancing nqufidently, and poured in a 



withering volley, which was promptly returned. He halted, and volley after 
volley was exchanged. Our ammunition, of which each man had eighty rounds 
in the morning, was nearly exhausted. All at once, the command to charge bay- 
onets was given. Instantly every man that was left sprang forward upon the 
enemy. He wavered for an instant, and his lines gave way and fell back, and 
that was the first serious repulse the enemy met with that day. The Thirtieth 
was relieved in a short lime, and was ordered to the left of the line of our army 
to repel a threatened attack from that quarter, which, however, did not amount 
to anything serious. On the night of the 1st of January, ihe Thirtieth made a 
reconnaissance to ascertain the position of the enemy in front of the right of our 
army. The duty, a very delicate and dangerous one, was performed to the satis 
faction of Geo. R secrans, and developed Hie fact that Bragg was massing his 
forces on our right fbr another attack. Measures were at once taken to foil him 
in his attempt, and it was abandoned. 

From that time until the evacuation of Murfreesboro by the enemy on the 
4th of January, the Thirtieth was not actively engaged. On the 5th, the entire 
army moved into and south of Murfreesboro, the Thirtieth going into camp 
about three miles south of that place, on the Shelby ville pike. The entire loss 
of the regiment during the battle of .Stone River was twenty-eight killed, 
including Acting Adjutant Edwin R. Stribley, of Fort Wayne— as brave an 
officer as ever drew a sword; one hundred and eight wounded, and eighty-two 
missing, nearly all of whom were captured. The regiment remained in that 
camp until the 7th of February, engaged in picket duty, varied by being sent 
out on foraging expeditions and reconnaissance occasionally, in all of which it 
met with success. On that date, it was detailed for duty on the fortifications 
being erected at Murfreesboro, hrhere it remained until the 24th of June, when 
it, with the army, moved south to attack Bragg, who had fortified Tnllahoma, at 
the junction of two railroads nbout thirty miles south of Murfreesboro. 

The next day, the regiment was engaged in a very spirited action at Liberty 
Gap, and drove the enemy from his position. 

It reached TulTahoma on the 1st of July, and remained there with the rest 
of the division as a garrison, Bragg having been compelled by the maneuvers of 
Rosecrans to evacuate bis position and retire to the south side of the Tennessee 

On the 16th of August, another advance was made, the Thirtieth, with its 
division, going to Bellfonte, a small town on the Tennessee River, eighteen miles 
below Stevenson, Ala., where it remained until the 31st, when, crossing the 
Tennessee River, the advance was continued in the direction of Rome, Ga. A 
part of ihc army in the meanwhile had crossed the Tennessee River at Chatta- 
nooga, and it was evident that a decisive battle would soon be fought, as the 
rebels would not give up that position, which was really the key to the South, 
without a struggle. From the 10th to the 19th of September was occupied by 
both armies in concentrating their somewhat scattered forces, and in endeavors to 
get the advantage of each other in position. 

The morning of the 19th found the Union army posted on a line running 
nearly easl and west, extending between four and five miles, and running nearly 


At da 


Thirtieth was attached was ordered to report to Maj. Gen. Thoi 
extreme left of our army. As our column moved forward the battle commenced, 
and. as the Thirtieth was marching in the rear of thj line, it had a good oppor- 
tunity to realize the fierceness of the conflict. But very seldom, it is safe to 
say, during the entire war, was witnessed such bitter determination in the attack 
of the enemy, or more desperate resistance in repelling his charges. Our divis- 
ion commander, Gen. R. W. Johnson, reported to Gen. Thomas about 12 o'clock, 
and lie was ordered to form a line at once aud move forward to the support of the 
troops already engaged. 

This was done, the brigade to which the Thirtieth was attached being held 
in reserve, and the line moved forward to the attack. Our right flank being 
exposed, the brigade was soon ordered up into the front line, and the order was 
at once given to charge. The line swept rapidly forward, driving everything 
before it. It soon reached a ridge running in an oblique direction to that from 
which we were advancing, crowned with a line of rebel artillery, dealing death 
at every discharge and threatening destruction to our already thinned ranks. 
With a cheer and a resistless rush, we charged and drove the enemy from his 
position, compelling him to abandon five guns. A short halt was ordered, our 
Hue was rapidly re formed, and a'.-aio moved on until within 200 yards of 
Chickamanga Creek, the enemy falling back in confusion. 

Finding ourselves now without support on either flank, the brigade retired 
about two hundred and fifty yards, on a line with the rest of the division. Dur- 
ing this charge, tin- Thirtieth lost very heavily in men and officers, losing, among 
others, Lieut. Douglas L. Phelps, of Company D ( from Allen County, an excel- 
lent officer and as brave a man as ever lived. 

The regiment remained in that position until nearly dark. By some over- 
sight, no troops were sent to support us in our exposed position, and no orders 
were sent to withdraw from it. Our division was, in fact, detached from, and 
fully half a mile in advance of, the rest of our army. Heavy skirmish lines 
were advanced to our front and on our flanks, and the enemy were found to be 
crossing the Chickamauga in great force. Preparations were at once made to 
receive him. Just at dark the attack was made. Commencing on the left of 
our division and sweeping rapidly to our right, the fighting at once became ter- 

It was very dark. Our line and that of the enemy were 60 close together 
that they resembled two walla of living flame xs volley succeeded volley, pouring 
deith into the opposing rank.. Suddenly the enemy ceased firing and' fell back 
a short distance to re-form his shattered ranks. In a short time, a rebel column 

swept along our left, making a short and bitter attack, which was repulsed. 
The lines were again formed for another attack, when orders were received to 
fall back to the main line, near the Ringgold road. The enemy had been too 
severely punished to molest us further, and we withdrew in good order. The 
Thirtieth had but four officers left ; two were killed, six wounded and three 
captured, and the loss had been in the same proportion among the enlisted 

The next morning, our brigade was placed in position on the extreme left 
of the army, and at once threw up a slight line of breastworks. About 9 o'clock, 
a scattering fire was heard along our picket line, that was thrown out in advance, 
and in an instant the storm of battle, raging in its wildest fury, was upon us. 
The enemy was making a desperate effort to turn our left and gain possession of 
the road to Chattanooga. Column after column of Longstreet's corps, the flower 
of the Southern army, who boasted that they would "show Bragg's ineu how to 
whip the Yanks," were hurled against our lines only to meet destruction, or be 
forced buck, shattered and bleeding from every pore. Death held high carnival. 
Grape and canister tore through the rebel ranks ; musketry hurled sheets of lead 
into their columns. On the left, in the front and almost in our rear, successive 
charges of the rebel lines rolled and swayed, only to be driven back with merci- 
less slaughter. The left held its position against the enemy ; the right met with 
disaster, and it was necessary to withdraw to save the army and Chattanooga. At 
5 o'clock, after nine hours' continuous hard fighting, the entire army fell back 
to the vicinity of Rossville, five miles from Chattanooga, and threw up a line of 
breastworks. On the 22d, the entire army was withdrawn to Chattanooga, and 
went at work immediately to fortifying that place. 

During the battle of Chattanooga, it seemed that every man and officer of 
the Thirtieth vied with each other in deeds of bravery. One example must 
suffice : 

A drummer-boy of Company D, from New Haven, in this county, by the 
name of John Shultz, a very modest, neat lad, about sixteen years old, and a uni- 
versal favorite in the regiment, insisted on laying aside his drum and taking a 
gun and fighting with his company. He distinguished himself by acts of bravery. 
At one time, it became necessary to ascertain the intentions of a movement the 
enemy were making in our front. The right wing of the Thirtieth, under Capt. 
Whitaker, of Company D, was sent out to make a reconnaissance. It soon met 
a rebel column advancing to charge upon our lines. To return to our lines in 
advance of the rebels was Capt. Whitaker's task. It was gallantly accomplished. 
While falling back, he so annoyed the enemy's advance as to greatly break the 
force of his charge. But alas ! the brave boy SLultz did not return. While 
fighting bravely, he was killed. 

In a few days, after the army fell back to Chattanooga, Bragg laid siege to 
the place. A steady routine of picket and fatigue duty, the greater part of the 
lime on half-rations, occupied the Thirtieth until the iilst of October, at which . 
time it, with it3 brigade, moved to Whiteside Station, on 'the railroad between 
Bridgeport ami Chattanooga, where it remained until January 28, 18u'4, when it 
was ordered to Charleston, thirty miles east of Chattanooga. Nearly two hun- 
dred of the men re-enlisted as veterans, while here, and went home on a furlough 
for thirty days. 

Ou the 5th day of May, the Atlanta campaign was commenced, and the 
recruits aud non-veterans of the Thirtieth moved with the brigade in the direc- 
tion of Dalton, Ga. 

The next day, near Tunnel Hill, the regiment was joined by the "veterans" 
and two hundred and fifty recruits, making the aggregate number of the regiment 
five hundred and fifty. The next morning, the advance was continued, the brigade 
to which the Thirtieth was attached being in advance. The enemy offered a 
stubborn resistance, and the advance was more like a continuous battle than any- 
thing else. This continued until the 9th, the enemy being constantly driven 
until he reached the base of a high and almost iuipas.sal.ile ridge, bristling with 
batteries protected by earthworks. A number of severe attacks were made and 
repulsed. Fortifications were thrown up, and constant, fighting ensued until the 
12th, and the command entered his works on the morning of the 13th. The 
almost impregnable position of Rocky Face Ridge was carried by a flank move- 
ment. The Thirtieth lost eighteen killed and wounded. 

An advance was at once ordered, and skirmishing was in progress along the 
whole line. On the 14th, the enemy was encountered in strong force at Resaca. 

An attack was ordered at once ; more than half our army was formed in 
line, and moved to the assault. After a terrible conflict, in which our army lost 
heavily, the enemy was routed losing over three thousand prisoners and a number 
of pieces of artillery. The victory was closely followed up, and the enemy was 
encountered again at Adairsville, ou the 17th, well protected by works. 

An attack was made at once. After two hours hard fighting, with infantry 
and artillery, a charge was ordered. 

It was promptly executed, and the enemy was driven from his intrench- 
ments. For boldness in attack, and spirited recklessness in carrying out orders, 
the action at Adairsville was bardly ever equaled. The Thirtieth was in the sec- 
ond line when the charge was ordered. The first line charged and went as far as 
they could, when they were compelled to halt and throw themselves on the ground 
almost under the enemy's guns. The second line was then ordered up, and away 
it went. By one of those coincidences that happen at times, the Thirtieth hap- 
pened to pass over the Thirty-fourth Illinois, which was in the first line, a regi- 
ment that had served almost three years in the same brigade with the Thirtieth, 
but had been separated from it at about the commencement of the campaign, and 
the two regiments were warmly attached to each other. When the Thirtieth 
came to the Thirty-fourth on the charge, some soldier in the Thirty-fourth, in a 
voice that could be heard above all the roar of battle, called out, " Boys, if the 
Thirtieih dies, let us die with it. ! " Instantly every man was on his feet, and, 
with a cheer that almost shook the ground, joined their old comrades, and they 



to shoulder, regardless of everything 

rushed over the enemy's works 
in the shape of a foe. 

The pursuit was rapidly continued, following the enemy so closely that he 
hardly had time to halt. On the 19th, the regiment passed through Kingston, 
taking possession of important railroad connections. The same day, it reached 
Cassville and found the enemy strongly intrenched. After severe fighting, he 
was driven into his works, and breastworks were at once thrown up. 

Heavy fighting was kept up until the night of the 25th, when the enemy 
withdrew. The next morning the pursuit was continued. Making a detour to 
the right, the enemy was encountered in force at Dallas, strongly intrenched. The 
same routine followed; constant skirmishing, severe fighting and unremitting 
toil. Between the 26th of May and the 6th of June, the Thirtieth participated 
in the severe engagements at Dallas, Curat Hickory and Pumpkin Vine Creek, 
in all of which our ibices were victorious. 

The left wing of our army, to which the Thirtieth belonged, was almost 
exhausted by the exertions it had been compelled to make, and it was granted a 
few days of rest. On the 10th, it was again ordered to pursue the enemy, and 
soon found him in position at Pine Knob, a naturally strong position, well forti- 
fied. The usual skirmishing and fighting ensued, and, on the night of the 14th, 
he evacuated- that position. A rapid advance was made at once, and the enemy 
was found in a strong position at the base and on the side of Kenesaw Mountain. 
This mountain curves upward, its summit appearing like a black cloud against the 
blue sky. 

Its position was impregnable to a front attack, and every means in the power 
of skillful engineers had been used to repel an assault. Batteries bristled at 
every available point, and long lines of earthworks and rifle-pits swept around 
its face and up its sides. 

During the entire time the army was in front of Kenesaw, the Thirtieth 
was under fire. Not a day passed without skirmishing, which almost invariably 
culminated in severe fighting. 

Frequent charges were mad'-, sometimes by the enemy, oftener by us, and 
the roar of artillery was almost incessant. 

On the 23d of June, the Thirtieth, Thirty-sixth and Ninth Indiana were 
ordered to charge the enemy's works in front. The column swept forward, scat- 
tering the enemy, taking the works and capturing many prisoners. So sudden 
and fierce was the attack that the enemy thought it a prelude to a general 

He made desperate efforts to re-capture the portion we had gained, but we 
had turned the works and were well prepared. Column after column of the foe 
dashed against our lines, only to meet destruction, and at last their fruitless 
efforts ceased. Soon after, the regiment was relieved and held in reserve. 

On the 27th of June, a general assault upon the enemy's lines was ordered 
by Gen. Sherman, which was disastrous in its results, our forces being repulsed 
with great slaughter. The Thirtieth was, fortunately, in the supporting column, 
and met with small loss. 

On the 2d of July, the regiment was placed in the front line. At daylight 
on the morning of the 3d, another advance was made, and the position found to 
be evacuated and the enemy in full retreat, having been forced out by a move- 
ment on hu flank that endangered his communications. 

The column pushed into Marietta, and, a short distance beyond, reached the 
enemy's works. It halted, engaged in some lively skirmishing and threw up a 
line of works. It was the 4th of July. The fighting became heavier. Artil- 
lery was brought up, placed in position and opened upon the foe. Capt. Kirk, of 
the Thirtieth, from ibis county, was in command of the skirmish line. He was 
re-enforced and ordered to charge the enemy's works in his front. The gallant. 
band charged, with a yell, and plunged into his works so suddenly as to terrify 
the foe and send him, panic-stricken, to his main line, in the rear. 

Of the eighteen that led the charge, Capt. Kirk was severely wounded, and 
two men killed and eight wounded. 

The works were atonce turned, and the command rested for that day. At 
.3 o'clock the next morning, the enemy again fell back and pursuit was continued. 
After a march of five miles, the Chattahoochee was reached, at a place where it 
was unfordable. Here the regiment halted until the 12th. Ponton- bridges 
were laid and the command crossed, and, after marching about three miles, halted 
and threw up a line of works. 

On the 18th of July, the command moved to Peach Tree Creek, a small, 
crooked, but deep stream, very difficult to ford. The Thirtieth was ordered to 
cross and take a tenable position and hold it while bridges were built for the 
artillery to cross. This was accomplished after some very severe skirmishing that 
culminated in a severe battle. 

Next morning, it resumed its march until it arrived* before Atlanta, and our 
army at once threw up strong works, and the siege of Atlanta commenced. The 
enemy, after a number of severe actions on diffident parts of the line, was driven 
into his works. The labors of a siege are, as a general thing, monotonous, but 
the siege of Atlanta was an exception. Not a day passed without an attack 
being made by one side or the other, on a number of ocea-siou-^ resulting in des- 
perate battles. On the 5th of August, a gallant charge was made on the rebel 
rifle-pits by a detail of eighty men, under command of Capt. H. W. Lawton, 
from Fort Wayne, which resulted in the capture of two officers and forty-eight 
private soldiers. During this charge, an Irishman by the name of McMahon, 
from Fort Wayne, a recruit, signally distinguished himself. It was his first 
engagement of the kind. The assault was peculiarly dangerous, and the old 
soldiers screened themselves as much as possible by taking advantage of such 
protection as the ground afforded. 

McMahon rushed on, paying no attention to cover or dangers, and was the 
first man in the rebel works, using his gun as a shillalah, and making a terrible 
noise. After the fight was over, his clothes were found to be pierced with bullet 

holes and his aecouterments worthless from the same cause, but his person 
unseratched. The old soldiers cautioned him against exposing himself .so reck- 
lessly, and told him how to accomplish his objept without so much exposure. 
Mac's answer, after hearing their counsel, was, " And now will some of yees be 
afther telling a poor divil how to kill ribbles and watch stumps at the same 
time? " 

At twilight, on the 25th of August, (he Thirtieth, with the rest of the 
command to which it was attached, took up the line of march toward the extreme 
right of our army, south of Atlanta. The celebrated flank movement was then 
commenced which resulted in driving Hood from his stronghold. From that 
time until the 31st, the regiment was either on the march, engaged in skirmish- 
ing with the enemy, or tearing up and destroying the railroads that run south 
from Atlanta. On the 1st of September, sharp and protracted firing was heard 
in the front, and the command was pushed rapidly forward until it reached the 
vicinity of Joncsboro. Here the rest of the army were found engaged in a 
stubborn conflict with the enemy. Moving rapidly into position on the left of 
our troops that were engaged, the Thirtieth soon found itself hotly engaged, and 
continued so until night, when firing ceased, and all slept on their arms. In the 
morning, we found that the foe had silently withdrawn during the night, leaving 
his dead and a large number of wounded in our hands. The battle at Jonesboro 
resulted in placing Atlanta firmly in possession of Gen. Sherman as long as he 
might see fit to hold it, and resulted, in addition, in a loss to the rebels of six- 
teen pieces of artillery and over three thousand prisoners. 

Early next morning, the pursuit of the enemy was continued, and he was 
overtaken near Lovejoy's Station, a few miles south of Jonesboro, strongly posted 
on the south bank of the Coosa River. The regiment remained in the enemy's 
front, constantly under fire until the night of the 6th of September, when the 
army was withdrawn to Atlanta, without annoyance from the enemy. On the 
14th of September, the term of its original enlistment having expired, the Thir- 
tieth was relieved from duty, and ordered to Indianapolis for muster-out. The 
time, until the 19th, was occupied in making out the necessary papers, transfers, 
etc., when it left for home, leaving in the field 230 veterans and recruits, whose 
term of service had not expired. The regiment was finally mustered out of the 
service at Indianapolis, September 29, 1864. Those that were left in the field 
were, with a large number of new recruits and men transferred from other reg- 
iments, formed into a battalion of seven companies, under command of Capt. H. 
W. Lawton, who was promoted to Colonel. It marched northward with the 
Fourth Army Corps, to which it was attached, to intercept Hood on his 
march toward Nashville, and, arriving at that city, took part in the battle fought 
there on the 15th of December, 1864, acquitting itself with great credit, and 
well maintaining its old reputation. When Hood was forced back, after his dis- 
astrous defeat, the regiment followed in pursuit as far as Huntsville, Ala., from 
where it marched with its corps to Fast Tennessee. Returning from there to 
Nashville, it remained at that place until June, 1865, when it was ordered to 

On the 12th of July, the company of the residuary battalion of the Thirty- 
sixth Indiana Volunteers, commanded by Capt. John P. Swisher, was transferred 
to the Thirtieth, and made Company H thereof, in pursuance of the orders of 
Gen. Sheridan. The battalion, after it arrived in Texas, made mauy long 
marches, ant saw a good deal of hard service prior to being mustered out. 

On the 25th of November, 1865, the battalion— the last of the Thirtieth 
— was mustered out of the service at Victoria, Tex., and ou the 6th of Decem- 
ber, arrived at Indianapolis, with 22 officers and 180 men, under command of 
Col. Lawton, where it was finally paid off and discharged. During its term of 
service, the Thirtieth saw as much hard service and lost as many men as probably 
any regiment that went from the State. 

A few instances of the daring displayed by men that belonged to the regi- 
ment that enlisted from Allen County, will show the spirit that pervaded the 
whole regiment. 

Private Peringtoii Small, of Company D, was captured on the 23d of June, 
1864, and sent to the rebel prison at Andersunville. fie escaped from his 
guards, and the prison five different times, and was recaptured — once with blood- 
hounds. The sixth time he was successful, and reached our lines at Atlanta on 
the 15th of August. 

Maj. Fitzsimmons, Lieut. Sterling, of Company A, and Lieut. Foster, of 
Company I, were captured at Chickamauga, and sent to Libby Prison. From 
there they escaped, through the famous tunnel, on the 9th of February, 1864, 
and reached our lines in safety. 

At the battle of Stone River, the rebels captured the colors of an Ohio regi- 
ment, and a rebel Sergeant had them in Ins possession and was carrying them to 
their rear. Federals and rebels were very badly mixed up, just then, and Sergt. 
Joseph Cope, of Company K, now a Deputy Clerk of Allen County, concluded 
that he wanted those colors. Cope and the rebel had a personal fight over them. 
Cope came out victorious, secured the colors and on the next day returned them 
to the regiment they belonged to. 

Cope was almost immediately promoted to Quartermaster of the One Hun- 
dred and Twenty-ninth Indiana. 

Private Twomey, of Company A, an Irishman, as his name indicates, was 
brave to rashness. He never looked at the consequences of anything he might 
do, but was always ready for anything. 

During the battle of Stone River, there was a point in our lines opposite 
which the enemy's works were formed, at almost right angles. One day a rebel 
ofheer was seen riding along their line, and advancing beyond the intersection of 
the lines at the angle; Twomey and a comrade noticed it, and concluded to "go 
for him." One was to fire at the man. the other at the horse. Both fired. 
Horse and rider fell. Twomey started like a deer for the officer. His comrade's 
courage failed. Over the four hundred yards in front, Twomey went like a deer. 


The rebels were puzzled at the strange movement. Reaching the horse, Twomey 
fell Ant alongside, ptrlled a water-proof overcoat from the dead officer, took a watch 
from his pocket, and a flask of whisky from his .saddlebags. Springing suddenly 
up. In- ran Lack to ihr Union lines with his plunder, at (he height of his speed, 
reaching them without scratch, although al least a thousand shots were fired at 

I his 


afterward accidentally shot by ; 

irade, and disabled for 

Colonel— Sion S. Bass, died of wounds received al Shiloh April 7, 1862. 

Mnjor — Orrin l>. Hmd. promoted Lieutenant Colonel. 

Adjutant— Edward I*. Edsall, promoted Captain of Company F, and resigned October 
10. 1863. 

Quartermaster— Peter P. Bailey, resigned Janpary 2*. 1868. 

Assistant Surgeon— Samuel A. Freeman, resignea December 28, 1861, 

Sergeant Major— Ncllis Borden, promoted First Lieutenant Oinipany F, and resigned 
November 6, 1864. 

Quartermaster Sergeant— Marcus D. Kirk, promoted Captain of Company F, and 
resigned November 5, 1864 

Commissary Sergeant — William Ferguson, promoted Quartermaster. 

Captejn— George W. Pita 

8, promoted Major, am 
n-lon, promoted Caplait 
: frih]cv, promoted Fin 
, 1862. 

resigned July 21, 1864. 
Lieutenant, and was killed 

st'i^t'jiiii — Ji.lni l >^ni; Ilciji-y Campbell, discharged February 0. 1803, for disabil- 
ity ; Wall Stiibley, died January 12, 1863, of wounds received n't Stone River: John 
Sterling, i n muted First Lieutenant. 

Corporals — Thomas Lee, discharged September 9, 1862, for disability; Thomas J. 
Kennedy, veteran, promoted Second Lieuiennnt; Thomas Coleman, transferred to Vet- 
Corps August 1 . 18li3 : Nnlhnn Tilbury, discharged April 27, 1862, for dis- 
>s Durbrow, veiernn, killed June 2;;. 1S04. in Atlanta campaign; Charles 
an: David A. Robinson, discharged April 23, 1864, for disability; J. n. 




D Mm 


.I..M.-ph Yaugier. veteran, killed at 

l- *. | i mo'ed Sergeant . Ilenr 

Him-, promoted Corporal ; George 
Millenbaugli. Aaron Matthews, Bli 

/eteron: John Brick, vcieran : 
fr Fickle, veteran : Simon Gilbei I . 
utenaiit Company A, Thinielb re- 
Chas. W. Lud wick, veteran ; Beu. 
ed Quartet muster Thirtielh Hegi- 


uel S 

nbei 28, 1863, for disability. 

: 13, 1802, for disability 

Veteran Reserve Corps August 1, 1863. 

h "_' 1863, for disability. 

unary 26, 1864, for disability. 

Epbraim Wr 
lln mi IVatet 
Jacob M V.. 

81, 1803, for disability. 

i-21. 1863. for disability. 
ran Reserve Corps. 
db River December 31, 1862. 
Xenn . September 28, 1862. 

te Prison September 24, 1864. 

n, Ky., December 0, 1801. 


II W. Rider, died s 
Robert Southern, died i 
Jesse A Sohotis, died a 
Khene/cr T.. -. ... . i v . ,.| v . Tenn.. .N 
Da\i<] Tounev. die. I at I ■. ■ i . 

P. Trumbull, died at S:.*i.m.:.-. j,,.n \i.„,i 
D. Trumbull, •iu-d at AndereonviUe Prison 8 
l bri-lii.n Wiukbr, killed in buiile Stone Itiv 
Luwience White, Killed in l.aiilc Stone Kivei 

ober 18, 1802. 
. January 16, 18 1 3, of wounds, 
ivember 17, 1803. 
jptembei 11, 1862. 

pteinber 11, 1864. 
r December 31, 1802. 
December 81. 1862. 

Captain — Joseph W. Whitaker. 

First Lieutenant— ("lories A Zollinger, resigned February 1, 1803. 
3econd Lieutenant— Douglas L. Pbelps, promoted first Lieutenant, killed in battle at 
Cbickamanga September 19, 1863. 

first Sergeant — George- W. Bfntley, promoted Second Lieutenant. 

-.l.l.n M. IWeker. killed in bailie of Shilob April?, 1802; George W. 
Bell, dittcbarged February 4, lfcr:;, r or disability ; Thomas Mead. 

Corporals — James Harper, discharged Deee-mber 2, , 1802, for disability ; Rohert 
Bell, discharged July?, 1K04, for disability ; Harrison It. Goddaid, promoted to Sergeant; 
Jesse Adams, died April 21, 1862, of wounds received at Shiloh; Peter F. Dickinson, 
discharged AuguM 21, 1*^2 1't.r di^ihiliiy ; Henry Kelley. missing in action at Shiloh, 

Marquis Marquart, Isaac Morquort, Lewis Mar 
W. Meeks; James M. Nesbitt, veteran; Malhi 
George \V. Pembroke, Henry I'.ichard; Charles 
I'erringlon Small, promoted Corporal; Jame 
First Sergeant ; Simon Vandoler, George W. 
John Zoler. 

Lewis L. Bowers, discharged September 3( 

John Brooks, discharged July l'.i, 1S02, for uisability. 

Peter Chamberlain, discharged December 4, 1862. for disability. 

William M. Cutler, discharged March 21, 186:!, for disability. 

William T. Cress, discharged He., aide! 1. is.;] I,., disability 

Robert Carlle, discharged July ;:n, Im.2. tor disability. 

Henry G. Dawkins. discharged January 7. 1662, for disability. 

Daniel Donovan, disclmi-ed An-ju-i ■ !><■-' l-r di-ahilhy. 

s Hichai-d ; 
, promoted 
try Wyunt, 

, for disability. 


i Turner, discbai 
rtih Todd, discbii 
race Wright, disc 

Willi™ Fulton 
Adam Fredhne, 
Tobias Fike, dil 
Jacob Grosli, di 

ro.lry December 25, 1862. 

[liver December HI. 18152. 

Danville, Va., March 23, 1864 

Cuitiji N 


November 5, 1861. 



., April 2, 1864. 

?rison, June 20, 1864. 

ary 14, 1862. 


"'■ "' 

ccmber 81, 1862. 

. ,,„;. \ 

. Kv 

, .November 10, 1861. 



u.iunii September 10, 1862. 

■ iii'Mnm/ed. 



Robert Buckmaster, transferred to Tl 
William Brown, transferred to Thirtif 
David Copp, transferred to Thirtieth 
John A. Johnson, (ransierred to Thin 
Andrew Klendius, transferred to Thii 
Martin Keesler, transferred to Thirti< 
James M. Kerns, transferred to Thirt 
Andrew J. Luke, veteran, transferred 
William Perkins, transferred to Thirl 
John T. Pollock, veteran, transferred 
William ShieldB, transferred to Thirti 
Jervis Tilbury, transferred to Thirliet 
Marquis Tilbury, transferred lo Thirt 

Myron Skinner, died in Chattanooga, Tenn., June 18, 1854. 

William Schlandrolf. killed near Kern-saw Mountain, Ga., June 20, 18 

George Triterpo, died at Corinlb, Miss., June 10, 1862. 

Captain— Joseph M. Silver, resigned March 22, 1863. 

First Lieutenant — Joseph Trice, resigned January 31, 18G3. 

Second Lieutenant — Isaiah (_'. McLlfatrick, promoted captain, and resigned August 

iam W. Wheeler, 

Corpora]*— Juc.b Porting ; Christian Boficker, discharged March 26, 1863, for dis- 
ability ; Thomas Humphrey, died tit Florence, S. C, December 4, 1K04, in a rebel prison; 
Rorert S. Murphy, trunsfened lo Marine Brigade March 14, 1803 ; Hamilton Fulton ; 


Albert Knapp, veteran j Andrew Cunniughani, died at Nashville, Tenn., April 2, 
Peter Edsnll, promoted Quartermaster Sergeant. 

Musician— Benjamin Btjler. 

Wagoner — Kli Cramer, discharged February (i, 1SG2, for disability. 

Privates — Joseph Bryant, veteran ; James M.Boyd, veteran; Nicholas Dh'ii 
eran; Charles H. Broughton, John Collier; Jacob Frazier, veteran; Charles 1 
Milton Fulton, William H. Pass, James Henderson, Frank Haraman, Frank Iter 
Inks, Joel Lipes ; George E. Murphy, promoted First Lieutenant, and dischnr 
account of wounds ; William O'Dnir, veteran ; Homer Robinson, Charles Roberts, 
Ryan ; Dunne D. Scott, veteran ; Amos Staily. 

Jacob Farvirurer, discharged March 1, 1S(.',1. on account of disability. 

George E. Gardner, discharged October 23, 1862, on account of disability. 

Nicholas Huherty, transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps. 

James Huffman. "discharged Aueusl 0, 18G4. for disability. 

William Mnill, discharged January 29, 1862, for disability. 

Morion [sbull, drcoharged' May 21, 1862, for disability. 

J 'i toe- S. Kiml.eily. discharged August, 1S62, lor disability. 
M.iMi K..- . i. discharged October It. 1SHJ, lor disability. 
. Edward Kii'kbam. discharged March 30, ]Si,:;, for disability. 
Samuel Kelb.i.'i:. discharged September U, 1802, for disability. 
Simon Malone, transferred" to Marine Brigade May 18, 1863. 
Charles Murray, transferred tu Veteran Reserve Corps. 
Elmore C. Nelson, discharged November 17, 1862, for disability. 
James Oriu, ni.-i-lim l'cI Member 14. 1HU2, for disability. 
John O'Dnir, discharged March 20, 1802, for disability. 
John II. lihoads, discharged May 26. ISl'JS, for disability. 
Edward Straek. discharged in March, lSf-;:-t, mi account of wounds. 
Josinh Smeadley, transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps. 
John A. Stoby. discharged April 28. 180:1, for .Usability. 

James Swain, discharged , for disability. 

Noah Wilson, discharged September 1, 186:1, for disability. 
John Whittern, killed at battle of Stone River January 1, 1863. 
Robert Wybourn, transferred to Marine Brigade in May, 1863. 
Robert Burk, killed at battle of Shiloh April 7, 1862. 
Henry Bush, died at Fort Wayne, Ind , July 7, 1864. 
William Beri'ord. killed at Shibdi April 7, 1862. 
eld, killed at Shiloh April 7, 1862. 

, Ind., September—, 1861. 
Ind., January 13, 1863. 
t Dallas, Ga., June 2, 1862. 
e River December 31, 1862. 

William Cooper, died at Fort Wayne 
George Custer, died a " " 
Joseph H. Gardner, killed in battle d 
Alfred Harris, killed in battle of Stoi 

Samuel Harshberger, died at . 

George Johnson, killed at Stone River December 31, 1862. 
Joseph Ivelley. died at Annapolis, Ind., December 19, 1864. 
Almond P. Lampkin, died at Upton Station, Ky., December 18, 1861. 

Peter McAllay. died . 

William Papenaugh, killed at Stone River December 31, 1862. 
Charles Ringwalt, killed at Shiloh April 7, 1862. 
Nicholas Sanguinot, killed at Shiloh April 7, 1862. 

Lieutenant Colonel — Henrv W. Lawton, promoted Colonel. 
Quartermaster— Thomas H. Nolestine. 
Commissary Sergeant — William W. Wheeler. 

Captain — Dennis J. Kennedy. 

First Lieutenant — Evan R. Hildebrand. 

Second Lieutenant — Reuben R. Myres. 

Sergeant — Charles W. Ludwick. 

Corporals — Oliver Fickle, promoted Sergeant ; Michael Cronan, promoted Sergeant; 
Philip Scliriiimu, promoted Sergeant : Samuel Shaw, Hansom Allen. Lewis -lours, Charles 
Stiibley, ( harles Perry. 

Privates — John Akej Joseph Badiac, promoted Corporal ; Join Brick, Nathan W. 
Beavers, Thomas H. Burgess, Nathan L. Barber, Charles Crary, Samuel Hooser. Michael 
Hallsberry : Joseph Johns..]), discharged October 11, 1864, on account of wounds ; John 

Kirtz, Charles Lincoln; George W. C. Moore, died at November 1, I860 ; William 

McMahon, promoted Corpora) ; William II. F.,tteison ; William Schioeder, promoted Cor- 
poral ; Patrick Murphy, discharged .lone 10, I860 ; Michael Mason, discharged June 23, 
1865 ; John McKec, transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps March 22, 1865. 

-Robert S. Bailey, Nathan B. Mo. 

Captain— George W. Bently. 

Sergeants — John L. Herrod, James M. Nesbit. 

Corporals— David S. Henderson, Simon P. Pearson, Charles Roy. 

Privates — William Brown; David Capp, promoted Corporal ; Daniel Hilkey, Samuel 
Hill, Charles W. Hancock, Martin Render, James M. Kerns, William Perkins, William 
Siieilds; William Thayer, discharged May 11, 1865, on account of wounds ; Jervis Til- 
bury, discharged June 23, I860: MaiquiB Tilbury, discharged June 23, 1865: James 
Wright, discharged March 11, I860, on account of wounds ; Edmund Wright, discharge. I 
June 23, 1805 ; William W. Webb, discharged July 3, 1865. 

Captain — Thomas Hogarth. 
First. Lieutenant — William W. Wheeler. 
First Sergeant — Albert Knapp. 

Corporals— William Ken, discharged June 23, 1865; Elijah F. Judkins. 
Privates— Joseph Bryant, promoted Corporal; James M. Boyd, William Bailey; 
Nicholas Duiug, promoted Corporal; William MeCulIough, Claudius D. Royce, Ileman 

Charles R. Asher, discharged August ]f>. 1S65, time expired. 
Lindsey Boatman, discharged July 11, 1865, time expired. 
Samuel Bodle, discharged June 23, 1805, time expired. 
David Cooper, discharge. 1 June 23, I860, time expired. 
Henry C. Collins, discharge! October 24, 1865, lime expired. 
Helper Cnmer, promoted Corporal; discharged June 23, 1865, time expired. 
Waller F. Cox, discharged August 15, 1865, time expired. 

James II. Cos. discharged August 15, ISOo, lime expired. 
James Hudson, discharged October 21. 1h;.">, time expired. 
David Gmrich, appointed Principal Musician ; discharged 

Sidney : 
John r. 


Private — William Smitley, discharged October 27, 1865 

The Thirty-second Re| 
September, IStil, thn.utrh 
cer of the German Revolul 

In the latter part of 8 
and when the advance was 
second moved to Ne 1 


s attached, moved for- 
The duty 


as organized at Indianapolis in At 
;h the exertions of August Willi, h. a distingui 
luii. hi of L348, who was commissioned as its Ct 
f September, the regiment was ordered to Louis' 
as made southward from there, soon after, ih 
aven, and from there to Camp Nc 
until December 9, when it, with the division £0 which it w 
ward to Munfordsville, on Greet] River, arriving there Dec 

of picketing; the south side of Green River and protecting the working parties 
engaged in repairing the railroad bridge across Green River w«# assigned to the 
Thirty-second. While engaged in this duty on the 17th of December, four com- 
panies were attacked near Rowlett's Station by the rebel Gen. Hiutlman, with a 
force of 1,100 infantry, four pieces of artillery and a battalion of " Texan Rang- 
ers," under Col. Terry. One company of the Thirty-second advanced and 
drove back the attacking party, until the infantry supports were discovered, when 
it fell slowly back, the enemy advancing upon it. Another company of the Thir- 
ty-second, still further to the left, was attacked at the same time. In the mean 
time, the two other companies hastened up, and the remainder of the regiment 
crossed to the south side of the river on a bridge constructed the day before by the 
pontoniers of the Thirty-second, and advanced rapidly to the scene of conflict, 
under command of Lieut. Col. Van Trebra. 

Forming the regiment in Hue of battle, he advanced it steadily and drove 
the enemy back. The enemy's cavalry charged first the skirmish line, then the 
protecting companies and then the entire right wing. 

Van Trebra quickly formed his regiment into a hollow square, upon which 
the Texans threw themselves, determined (0 vide it down. They were repulsed, 
severely punished, losing their commander. The whole infantry force of the 
enemy was then ordered up, and charged upon the invincible squa 
repulsed with heavy loss, considering the for 


ng them. The enemy then 
lirtv-second in possession of the field. 

,1 and 50 wounded, while that of the Thirty- 
111. 1 8 mi-sing. For its gallantry on this occa- 
nplimentcd in general orders, and " Rowlett's 
he regimental colors. 

d moved with the rest of its division in the 
, Tenn., reaching 
i part in the bat- 

Station " directed to be placed 

In February, the Thirty* 
direction of Bowling Green and Nashville to Pittsburg Lati 
there on the morning of April 7, 1862, and taking a conspit 
tie of Shiloh, in which it lost (J killed, 93 wounded and -4 missing. 

The siege of Corinth, that followed immediately alter the battle of Shiloh, 
occupied the army until marly the 1st of June, during which the Thirty-second 
bad eight men severely wounded. 

After the evacuation of Corinth, the Thirty-second, with the rest of Buell's 
army, moved eastward to near Bridgeport, Ala., and u-iiiained there until the 

succeeding 20th of August, when the rebel army under Gen. Bragg c I the 

Tennessee River at Chattanooga, and started northward. Gen. Buell started at the 
same time, and a race between two great armies; of nearly 400 miles, commenced. 


Buell wnn by a very few miles, reaching Louisville a little in advance, and, 
Win- strongly re-enforced there, immediately marched in pursuit of Brags who 
at once started southward again. The Thirty-second reached Nashville in 
November, where it lay until the commencement of the Stone River campaign. 
The regiment took an active part in the battle of Stone River, and lost 12 killed, 
40 wounded and 1J 5 missing. ... 

After the battle the regiment remained in the vicinity of Murfrcesboro 
until the ensuing June, when the Tullahoma campaign commenced. The Thirty- 
second was engaged in the spirited action at Liberty Gap, Tenn , on the 24th of 
June It participated in all the movements of its corps (the old Iwentieth 
Corps) prior to the battle of Chickamauga, and in that bloody battle sustained 
noblv its well-earned reputation for bravery and soldierly conduct. The regiment 
lost in that battle 21 killed. 7S wounded and 17 missing. After the battle, the 
entire army felt back to Chattanooga, and the Thirty-second remained there until 
after the battle of Mission Ridge, in which it bore an honorable part. 

The regiment then marched to the relief of Hurnside, who was besieged at 
Knosville, and after the siege was raised, remained 1 in East Tennessee until about 
the commencement of the' Atlanta campaign. It was then ordered to Chatta- 
nooga, and, with its division, marched in the direction of Atlanta. On that 
campaign, the Thirty-second could be found at any time by following the sound 
of the heaviest firing. It was particularly conspicuous at Resaca, May 15; at 
Dallas, May 27 ; at Kenesaw Mountain, and at Peach Tree Creek. 

The non-veterans, immediately after the capture of Atlanta, proceeded to 
Indianapolis, and were mustered out on the 7th of September, 1S64. On the suc- 
ceeding lith of October, the remaining veterans, with the recruits, were organized 
into a residuary battalion of four companies, under command ot Lieut. Col. Hans 
Blume. Upon the return of the Fourth Corps to Tennessee, the battalion was 
left at Chattanooga, where it remained on garrison duty until about the 1st of 

June, L865. 

It was then transferred to New Orleans, joining the Fourth Corps at that 
place, and moved with Sheridan's army of observation to Texas, where it was 
placed on guard duty at Salado Creek. It remained there and in that vicinity 
until it was mustered out of service at San Antonio, Tex., on the 4th of Decem- 
ber, 1865, and left for Indianapolis, arriving there on the 10th of January, 1866. 

The Thirty-seeond was an honor to the State and the nationality it repre- 
sented. A little incident that happened about the time of its organization will 
illustrate the spirit of Willich and the material the regiment was composed of. 

The Baron, Henry Van Trebra, who bad been a distinguished officer in the 
Prussian army, was living in Illinois at the commencement of the war. He 
heard that his old companion in arms, Willich, was raising a regiment at Indi- 
anapolis. He immediately repaired to that place and enlisted as a private soldier. 
A few days after, Willich had the regiment out on drill, aud Gov. Morton rode 
up in a carriage with some other gentlemen, and looked on for awhile. The 
Colonel, after a' little, rude out and saluted his distinguished guest, when he was 

introduced to Mr. by the Governor as the future Lieutenant Colonel of bis 

regiment. The gentleman bad a German name, and was a politician of consid- 
erable local importance in the southern part of the State. 

Willich at once dismounted and insisted on the prospective Lieutenant 
Colonel getting on to his horse and drilling the regiment. The offer was decliued, 
for the reason that he could not, and knew nothing about military movements. 

Willich turned to his command and, calling out Van Trebra, who was in the 
ranks, ordered him to mount and see what he could do. As Van Trebra, who 
was everv inch a soldier, swung himself into the saddle, and gave the command, 
in a ringing voice, " Attention, Battalion ! " it was evident that there was a man 
around that knew bis business, and fifteen minutes after, and right there, 

Mr. had absolutely declined the position, and Van Trebra was appointed 

Lieutenant Colonel. No ordinary man could fill a position as an officer in a reg- 
iment where a private soldier, called out of the ranks, could do what Van Trebra 
had dune. 

Surgeon — John M. Josse. 

Principal Musician— Mm Orlf. 

Band— Valentine Schilling, discharged June 17, 1862, for disability ; Lewis Nonn- 
gasser, mustered out August — , 1862, hy order of War Department : August Friese. mus- 
lered out August — , 1862, by order of War Department; Elias Schilling, mustered out 
August — , 1*62, by order of War Department. 

Sergeant— Frederick Woeliler. died at Fort Wayne, Ind., April 26, 1862. 

privates— Frederick Braan ; Peter Coiling, promoted Corporal; Oilman Ebinger, 
George Rewenaur, John Hilt ; Richard Kelii, promoted Quaner master Sergeant ; Jacob 
Labinsky/, Henry Welke. 

Louis Scherniever, captured al Chioltoinauga, and mustered out May 3, 1865. 

William BuUerman, discharged May 19, 1864, on account of wounds. 

.Mm Nill transferred to Veteran Ueserve Corps February 1, 1864. 

i [,;,, lee Christianson, died at Stevenson. Ala., July 15, 1862. 

Loren Haudiagle, .lied at Knoxville. Tenn.. January 21, 1864. 

George Ritzman, died at Nashville, Tenn., September 14, 1862. 

Musician — Theodore Willich. 

Recruits — Stephen G. Brewster, John Blair, Elbert Bronson, Thomas Davidson. 
The Thirty-third. Thirty-fourth. Thirty-fifth, Thirty-eighth, Fortieth and 
Forty-second Regiments and "the Thirtieth were together or in the immediate 
vicinity of each other during their entire terms of service. A history of each 
would only be a repetition of all; so only a list of the men belonging to each 
that enlisted from this county is given. 



Privates— Edward Courtney, died at Helena, Ark., December 14. 1862; Henry 
Hurley, died at Helena. Ark., February U. lsr.rt; Jncnb W. Cohorts, died at Pass Cavallo, 
Tex . June 22, 1864 ; Harvey Wood, died at Carrollton, La.. August 20, 1863. 

Corporal— James II. Larimore, discharged for disability April - r >, 1863. 
1'rivates — John Austin; James E. Cntewood, discharged lor disability September 10, 
1863 : Henry Griffith, discharged for disability September 8, 1863. 

Columbus Ilowdyshel, veteran. 


Privates — Henry Downing, Henry Merring, William Pope, George ltenlz; Adam 
Stoup, discharged June 6, I860, for disability. 

Corporal— Patrick Morrison, promoted to Captain. 

Privates— Abraham Coleman, promoted to First Sergeant; Andrew Kenney, trans- 
ferred to Veteran Reserve Corps May 1, 1864; John W. McCarty, died at Nashville, 
Tenn., March 23, 18113; Michael O'Leary, discharged September 25, 1863, for disability ; 
Patrick Smith, died at Bardstown, Ky., February 28, 1862. 

Recruits— Patrick Boyle, George Doan. Conrad Lower, Benjamin Lester, Joseph 
Beidinrich; Harvey A, Jone», transferred 10 Veteran Reserve Corps October 31,1863; 
Martin Mills, killed at Nashville, Tenn., December 16, 1864. 


Recruits— Scott Ai-ney ; James Burt ley, veteran ; Otbo W. Eaher ; Abram B. Cook, 
veteran; William W. Cutler. Cyrus Davis, Edwin Horn, August Lott, Joseph H. Nesbiti, 
John H. Sneider, George W. Shores. Thomas Stafford, I'ercival Spencer. Horace Wright, 
Benjamin F. Williams; George Williams, died at Nashville, Tenn., January 12, 1865. 

Recruits — George W. Bromer, Richmond Bricker, Leroy M. Burdick, John S. Bur- 
gess. Adam Coolrnan, Frederick Carter, John It. Dishong, George W. Gill, Samuel Keever, 
William Kramer; Charles Maxi'eihl, promoted Corporal; Allen Purler. Charles Sweet, 
Joseph Shafer, George W. Wait, Warren W. Wait; George W. Walker, died at Atlanta, 
Oa., September 16, 1864. 

George H. Butler, William Carter, William Devlin, Henry Ever ; Henry W. Frank. 
promoted Corporal: Oregon Haines, William Henry, Jacob Racine, William Zengefus, 
Charles Zengefus. 

Recruits— Henry C. Anderson, promoted Sergdint ; Mortimer Broughton, Forbes H. 
Broughton, Alonzo Kelley, Volney C. Leonard, William McDonald, James A. McDonald, 
John'' A. Pitty; Charles F. Weinke, promoted Corporal. 

Jacob Haiisman, died al Chattanooga, Tenn., February 14, 1865. 

Asbury Mclnlyre, died at Nashville, Tenn., February 10, 1865. 

Garrett Rawlings, died at Raleigh, N. C., May 20, 1865. 


I nti'l V-si'.i (iMi RKi.lMI'.NI. 

Private— John B. Bo 

Joseph Ballsler, Joseph Brislogh. Patrick Oman. William L. I'av.uiauph, James D. 
Durer. John Gheggbwil, James Harris, Charles Hunter, Mnrshnll Jones, Rawling B. 

Richards. Jaculi Swigeri. William Tasker, Jnhn W. Waters, Samuel A. Wilson. 


The Forty-fourth Regiment was the second regiment organized at Camp 
Allen, in Fort Wayne, and, during the period of its existence, had the names of 
260 men upon its muster-rolls from Allen County, and was mustered into the 
service of the United States on the 22d of November, 1861, with Hugh B. Reed, 
of Fort Wayne, as Colonel. About the 1st of December after, it was ordered to 
Henderson, Ky. It remained in that vicinity until February, 1862, when it, 
with the brigade to which it had been assigned, ascended the Tennessee River, 
and participated in the attack on Fort Henry, which resulted in its capture on 
the 6th of February. From there, our troops crossed over to Fort Donelson, on 
the Cumberland River, and laid siegeto it, during which the Forty-fourth suf- 
fered greatly. The weather was intensely cold; no fires could be allowed, owing 
to the proximity of the rebels, and the regiment had an insufficient supply of 
blankets and clothing. 

From the afternoon of the 13th to the evening of the Kith, the Forty-fourth 
was constantly under fire, and established a reputation for courage and good con- 
duct before the enemy which it retained ever after. On the afternoon of the 
15th, Gen. Buckner, in command of the rebel forces, made a desperate effort to 
escape from the fort by a sortie on the Union lines, hoping to break through 
them. He was met by the Eighth Missouri, and the Eleventh and Forty-fourth 
Indiana, and. after a desperate .struggle, was forced back, the Forty-fourth charging 
up to his works, and, but for contrary orders, would have followed him into them. 

After Fort Donelson was captured, the regiment went up the Tennessee to 
Pittsburg Landing, where it remained in camp until the morning of the 6th of 
April, 1862, at which time the battle of Shiloh opened. All through the first 
day's disasters, with defeat staring all in the face from every quarter, the Forty- 
fourth fought steadily and coolly, and, on the morning of the second day, on the 


7th of April, it took its place in the hue as promptly as it would on parade, 
instead of what all knew would be a tenable battle. It is unnecessary to say thai 
it performed its part bravely and well. It lost, in the two days. ?,:i : c i|l,. M „„| 
177 wounded. 

. n£-° m , hat t!me tmtil 0ctol)e1 ' lfi . 1863, the histories of the Forty-fourth and 

the ih.rtictl, arc al st identical. They were companions on the march in camp 

and on the battle-field. During that time, the battles of Perryville. Stone River 
and Ohiekamauga occurred, and the Forty-fourth could have been found, at any 
of them, where the battle was raging hardest, On the loth of October, 1863 

the regiment, was detail, al for provost duty at Chaltan oi, and it remained there 

until the 14th of September, 1865, when it was mustered out of the service. 

1 he regiment re-enlisted as veterans in January, 1864, and was given a fur- 
lough ol thirty days, reaching Indianapolis on the 26th of January. At the 

ex P" :l I "> tbe thirty returned to duty. The raeimenfc , 

term of service, lost 3511 killed and wounded t " ' 
July, 1865, 360 remaining recruits of the Sixty eighth and S 
Regiments were transferred to the Forty-fourth, and wore 
Colonel— Hugh E. Reed, resigned November 26, 1863. 

noted Major of Third Cavalry 

ng Its 

nd 58 by death from disease.' In 
ehty-second Indiana 
stored out with it. 

Adjutant— Chnrle: . ._ 
Quartermaster — Williat 
Chaplain— Q. C. Beeks, 

ted Captain ami dismissed May 17, 1862. 
Allan, Clark, discharged February 15, 1863, for disability Elias Orans- 
'■"■■■' ' '-- II. Kesterson, Gorge Koslerson, Jacob Maloll 

David J. Wilhorn. William Wilhorn. 


shorn, Anderson Hender , 

Francis P. McCutcheon, Daniel Sin 

Privates— Thomas Hanoher, discharged Oclober 28, 1862, for disability ; Josen 
— discharged September 19, 1862, for disability (old agel ; Henry Barnes, .lied I 

battle at Shiloh, 'April t 

hospital al , December 18, 1863; John Easl 

Henry Slack, died at February 12, 1862, 

Bills, William Tiffany, Thornto 
", 1862. 

Van Uuskirk, Willie: 

Second Lieutenant-Philip Grund, promoted First lieutenant, Captain and Lieuten- 
ant Colonel. 

First Sergeant — Caleb Carman, discharged , for disability. 

Sergeants— Sedgwick Livingston, promoted Firsi Lieutenant, died Jan. 26 1864- 
John II .strong promote I Second Lieutenant, resigned llciuhci |s, |s,„; n -;,.,,„ It, ley' 
discharged f,„- disability. •" 

Corporals— Joseph Kit.nian, transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps : E. B. Slocum 
died at Bridgeport, Tenn.; Jacob Kress, veteran, promoted Serjeant ■ Tb sddeus Helm' 
transferred to Veteran Ito-ervo Corps. 

Musician — Royal llean. discluu-geri for disability. 

Wagoner— William Henderson, discharged for disability. 

Privates— Joseph Bay. veteran : George S. Decay votar..n 
promoted to First Lieutenant : John Ekey, veteran, ] 
Henry Fry. 

Adam Hall, veteran, promoted In Captain: Patrick [loban veteran 
Alexander Humbert, veteran ; William M. Logan, veteran; Lean'd 
promoted Corporal ; Marion McGinnis: J .seph Mcricn. veteran ; 
eran, promoted Sergeant; William Nodding veteran, promoted 
Runel, veteran, promoted Corporal: Emri Sites, veteran; \Itlt..t 

moted Corporal; Owen L. Shaw, veteran, promoted First Li at 

I860; Samuel Sweet, veteran, promoted lir-t Sergeant- Joseph! 
Taylor, veteran: Alonzo Woodworlh, veteran, promoted Corporal; 
crau, promoted Corporal. 

James Shaw, veteran, transferred to First U. S. Engineers Aui 

James Berry, unaccounted for. 

John Crawford, discharged September 10, 1861. for disability, 
" ' irged November 1. 1861. for disability. 

James Eldridge, veteran, 
ted Corporal ; Christian Ear- 

terau, promoted to Sergeant; 

Charles Devine, dischn 

John Engle. discharged Septemher I, 1862. for \ 
James M. Flutter, disci. arged Augu-t 't. 1H62 l„r . 
Michael Harrison, discharged July 30. 1862, for w. 

A. William Crawford, discharged , for disabi 

L. B. Carr, died . 

Hugh Dennis, unaccounted for. 

John C. Dee. killed at Fori Donelson July 15, 18 

Jar., I, Kogwell, died - 

John lli< 

P. He 


1862, at - 
•, for disability. 
;cd , for disability. 

William Higgs. u 

Charles Johnston 

Willi,,,,, McDcrm 

James McDonald, unaccounted for. 

Joseph Nicodemus, died from wounds (,. ....led for. 

, discharged , for disability. 

Ed at Shiloh) at Evansville, Ind., April 


U„„ If, 

lountod for. 

c .led for. 

pril 7. 1862. at bailie of Shiloh. 

i battle ..I Slono ltivcr December 31, 1862 

iccounlcd for. 

Henry Wilkinson, disc 

William Wnterhousc. d 

Recruits— Peter T. Bu 

Hansom II. Bell, Oeorge W 

uugh. Willi.un Coder. Sylv. 

" .rgc Earl, Wil 

Bounger, Joseph Hole 

Humbert, Geoi 


Noah S. Long, George A. Lewis, Willit 

■ph Manor, Corbin Murray, J* 


Perot, Joseph I 

John Slocum, promoted t 

Frederick Ulits, George W 

George W, Belcher, u 

Lyon, Napoleon B. Lyon, Herman L. Moycr, 
L. Miller, Alexander Ormiston, August 

ut Juno 13, 1865. 
it May 16, 1806. 

Wilson W. Vnung. muslercd out .Inly 25, Is.',;, 

John W. Kress, transferred lo Pioneer Corps August 15, 1861. 

■].|. D.un.l. .lied at Cbaltaooogll, Tcntl., April 10, 1865. 
Nicholi Ooberl, died at Nashville, Term,. June 211. 1864. 

Captnin— Franklin K. Cosgrovc, resigned September 5, 1862, on account of wounds 
st Lieutenant— Charles H. Wayne, resigned January 13, 186.3. 

-David K. Stofer. promoted Second Lieutenant, died June.- 1864; George 

I., I al, lam in.,, D.I />.., 1^... ..,.,., OQ la,..-. i :— .1 ... .? 

Shell, promoted to Captt 

January 28, 1865, torni expired ; Lafayette 


George Fndingcr, 
romolcd Sergeant ; 
tin II. Kesler, Hen- 

A. Anderson, discharged June _' :. 1862, for disnl.i 

Joseph Conway. .lis. barged -liiue ■_-.. |s., > i |,. 

t Alfred ll.liigherty. discharged September I'll. I-..J. 

William II 


: Conw 


Saomel Huge 

James Harmon, die 

Jerome A. Kunyuu, veteran, killed 

diaries .Murse, died in Allen County, Ind., February 

Lewis E. Shook, died at January 10, 1863. 

Plait J. Sfjuiers, killed at Sliiloh April ii, 1862. 

Ira Worden, died in Anderson villi; IVi-un June 23, II 


iber 21. 1862 


ember 24, 1862 

5, 1862. 

;. is62. 

larch 23 


;. To.... . 

T J8, 1862. 

25, 1862 

moga, Tenn., 

lpril 1, 1864. 


1865, promoted Corporal. 


1 I, 1865 

red out September 11 
Oliver fiustin. mustered out July :!. 1S65. 

Charles T. Hickman, i tere.l Jul Sci.teml 

William II. llaii,,,,,,, mustered Septemt 

Norman Luce, mustered ,„n September 1 I. 
Henry Luce, niu-lere.l ..... Septetalier 14 1 

James McBralney iitered ml Scpte - bei 

Lncius C. Palmer, mustered out September 

John II. Wentworlh, mustered 

John W. G.islin, died April 26, 1865. 

Samuel Hartcl. killed al Chattanooga, Tenn., July 13, 186-1 

iptetnber 14, 1865. 

ptember 11, 1863, promoted Corporal. 

September 14, 1865. 

Sergeant — George W. Gordon. 

Privates — William F Hinkle; Robert Douglas, unaccounted for, supposed t 
Charles M. Thomas, . I, -charged Angus! 9, 1862, 00 account of wounds. 



Major — Ck&rlps Case, resigned Jul; 19, L862. 


The Forty-seventh Regiment was organized at Anderson. Iud,, on the 10th 
day of Ootober, 1861, with James B. Slack as Colonel. 

Ou the 13th of December] the regiment left for Kentucky, and was placed 
under command of Gen. Buell, whcrs it rem lined until February 24, 1Si>2, when 
it was assigned bo the army under Gen. Pope, in Missouri, and, while in that army, 
was eng iged at New Madrid, Fort Pillow and " Brown's Plantation," after which 
it went into camp at Helena, Ark., where it remained until March, 1863, when 
it took part in Gen. Quimby's expedition to Yazoo Pass. During the Vieksburg 
campaign, the Forty -seventh bore a prominent part, being engaged at tin' battle 
of Champion Hills, and tl.e several assaults on the rebel lines, and lost heavily in 
killed and wounded, both men and officers. 

At the el'.»se of the Vicksburg campaign, the Forty-seventh was ordered to 
Xew Orleans, where it remained until December, 1863, when the regiment re-en- 
listed as veterans, and left for In linn on furlough, 

Upon its return to the li lid it m ive 1 with GBn. Banks' army on the ill-fated 
Red River campaign, during which it lost heavily of its best and bravest men. Iu 
the spriog of 1865, the Porty-s iventh took a leading part in the operations which 
resulted in the fall of M ibile and the forts surrounding. 

After the Rill of M ibile, the regiment was ordered to Shreveport, La., and 
from there it took an active part in the campaign tli it end«'d in the surrender of 
the rebel armv under G^n. Price. 

On the 23d of October, 18b*5, the Forty -seventh was mustered out of the 
service at Shreveport, and left for Indianapolis, reaching there with 32 officers 
and 530 enlisted men. 

Privates — James Cronan,. veteran : Joshua Dury, Aaron Biker. 

Sergeants —Sherman L. Billard, promoted to First Lieutenant, Henry W. Zents, 
promoted to First Lieulenanl, Colored Infantry. 

Privates — rraeph Evans, veteran ; Hiram Richards, veteran, promoted Sergeant; 
John Rino, veteran; Samuel \Y. Stirk, veteran, promoted Second Lieutenant. 

Jamest M Davis, discharged iugusl 21, 1868, for disability. 

('i-!-|<'HmI — David Lirimore. killed at l.'li;: 

Hills May lb', 18 



The Fifty-fifth Regiment was organized at Indianapolis, under special orders, 
and mustered into service, lor three months, on the 16th of June, 1802, with 
John R. Mahan as Lieutenant Colonel, who continued to command it until its 
hnal discharge. It was assigned to the duty of guarding the Fort Donelsou 
prisoners at Camp Morton, where if remained until August, and was then sent 
to Kentucky, with other troops, to resist the invasion of Gen. Kirby Smith. The 
retriment remained on duty in Central Kentucky until the expiration of its term 
of service, when it returned to Indianapolis and was mustered out. The com- 
pany from this county was fortunate enough to meet no casualties. 

Brown, Francis A. Staple- 

Giplain — Charles Emery. 
First Lieutenant— Brutus A. Bourie. 
Second Lieutenant — William L. Thompson. 
First Sergeant— David W. Thomas. 
Sergeants— Cyr a- T Mu-ier. t'iiarles E. Thorn 

ekell, Edward Beans, Willie 
.John Barnes. George Behrei 

Corporals — Jerome Evans, 
Thomas, Wii'.Um To I I. l.-\\ l'« 

Musician — lames I . ■;■ 

Pri vaii.- ).■■ n-."' u \ _■ . 
Beacli, Beni unin Bi ■ n ' ■ ■■ ■ 
.bishua C, ' '■. ■■ i . Fl ,--.'. I ii' 

Washington Dole, Algernon L Ferra lohn .. Filch, Daniel Frai Feller Sam- 

uel Gill. Andrew Grendsttff, Charles H G , G I Nelson J. Gillam 

Benjamin Hiir'lui in. I .>•:•• ". II ir-\ John H&nen line, Vinos It irtm&n John Havnes Oreeou 

Haynes, Perry Raynes, Bnocfa r>--l"--i-- r--. .- i Jewel, Samuel Kile Ambrose Kintz 

Frederick King. Ivory Kimball, John T Line-. Ir mci- F \Ic''Ml m-l Bvi m \\ Vic Lain 

Henry M< Mn'-.i-l,. > I'. Ni hols, Owen On . ■ Daniel Opliger. |.-ir i,.- r \j. ulmhant 

William (J Osborn, Joseph T, Pool, Lemuel J. Platter, Christophei P ittei t Petti 

John, Andrew Pea, Austin M. Pnctt. .I-.lui It.wl ml William I; . !■ ,ii. i, ,•-,"..,. |* .-,,-■, 
tfarion D Roberta, John SL.eun,. Thootas Sliuo, William Soiitley IJ.'iijuiiiiii Simp' 

Andrew J. Steward, John P. Tl.a,..-. I.n-n.,,, \> t'l :,-. T u .,s L.Traul, Lloyd 

Upton, John W. Vance, J pit T. V -his, Adam Wolf, George W. Wait, Klbridce G 

Wlieeloclt, Willim, B. Ward. Michael Wann. 

The Fifty-ninth Regiment contained thirty-six men from Allen County. 
They were all recruits that joined the regiment Dear the olose of the war, and as 
the regiment *uw fat little if any active service after they joined, a history of 

the regimes! U omitted. 

Company A— Lorenzo D. Casteel, Ceorge Die.k. William Kegs, William S. Watkins. 

Company E — John Hortz, John G. Kinney. Henry Knurl, Robert Lock, Henry Sum- 
ner, David Smilli, Andrew Theime, George Weieliselt'ehler. 

Companv F— Joseph Barrett, Thomas Flanigan. Thomas E. Kendall, William Nycum, 
Georee P. Sun for, William M. Stewart ; John Sunn died at Louisville, Kv., July li, 18(15. 

Company K— David B. Anderson, John Bielsar. Martin Flutter, George Gullard, 
Michael Hotfman. Thomas Hart., Monroe Johnston, Henry Lahnord, Allen H. Moore, 
William Meyer, Neil McNair, William McXair, -John W. t'io, William J. Stephensoa. 
Frederick Sherer, George M. Vaiuleventer, William Warntz.. 

Company A — private Philip Green. 


Company F — Sergeant Horace Gamble, promoted t 



The Seventy -fourth Regiment had upon its rolls the names of 112 men 
from Allen County, as officers and enlisted men. It was organized at Camp 
Allen, in Fort Wayne, and was mustered into the service on the 21st of August, 

1862, with Charles W. Chapman as Colonel, and was ordered to Louisville, Ky., 
at once. On the lstof October it marched, with the rest of the army, in pursuit of 
the rebel army under Gen. Bragg, and participated in all its movements, finally 
reaching Castiliao Springs, Tenn.,on the 4th of December, where it went into camp. 
The regiment had a sharp skirmish with the command of the rebel Gen. John 
Morgan, near Hartsville, Ky., on the 7th of December, and again on the 30th 
of December on the Rolling Fork of Salt River. A short time after, it was 
assigned to the Second Brigade, Third Division, Fourteenth Army Corps' 

It was engaged in the action at Hoover's Gap, Tenn., on the 26th of June, 

1863, and in all the movements connected with the Tullahoma and Chiekaniauga 
campaigns, and performed every duty assigned it, to the entire satisfaction of its 
division and corps commanders. 

At the battles of Chickamauga and Mission Ridge, it lost heavily in killed 
and wounded, and acquitted itself well. 

A short time afterward it was transferred to the Third Brigade, in its old 

During the Atlanta campaign, which was one continuous scries of skir- 
mishes, rapid and hard marches, and hardly contested battles, the Seventy-fourth 
did its part bravely and well. On the 1st of September it, with the brigade to 
which it was attached, carried the enemy's works at the battle of, Ga., 
capturing four pieces of artillery and over 700 prisoners. 

After the battle of Jonesboro, the regiment fell back to Atlanta, and 
remained there until the 3d of October, when it marched, with its corps, in pur- 
suit of Hood's army, that was trying to get northward. 

After Hood had been deceived into thinking that he bad effectually dis- 
tracted Sherman's attention from any proposed movement to the south of Atlanta, 
Sherman, leaving Thomas to take care of Hood, suddenly wheeled around and 
commenced the "inarch to the sea." The Seventy-fourth participated in all the 
movements of the corps, on that campaign, and finally re-ached Washington, via 
Savannah, Columbia, Fayetteville, Raleigh and Rictimond, on the 19th' of May, 
1865, and soon after was mustered out of the service. 

It reached Indianapolis on the 16th of June, and its members separated to 
their respective homes, proud of the achievements of their regiment, whose honor 
was never tarnished by a single stain. 

Quartermaster (pro tem.) — Lot S. Bayless, resigned October 0, 1862. 
Assistant Surgeon — John M. Jossee, promoted Surgeon Thirl v-.secoiid Regiment Octo- 
ber 22, 18133. 

Captain— Carl C. Kingsbury, resigned December 30, 1862. 

First. Lieutenant — Joel F. Kinney, promoted Capiain and resigned August i), 1864. 

Second Lieutenant — Annauias Davis, promoted First Licutenani and died October 11, 
1863, of wounds received at Chickamauga. 

First Sergeant — William II, Anderson, promoted Second Lieutenant and resigned 
May 2, 1864. 

Sergeants— John D. Olds, discharged August 27, 1862, for disability; Frisbee T. 
Deck, promoted Captain August 10, 1864 ; Eli G. Anderson ; William Darker, discharged 
January 16, 18153, disabled. 

Corporals — Adam Lewis, discharged September IT, 1863, for disability; George A. 
Craw, promoted to First Lieutenant Augusl 10, 1864 ; John Pettijolm, promoted Ser- 
geant ; Jeremiah A. Shorhe, discharged IViruirv HI, 18''>">, tor disability-: Richard W. 
Dickinson, James K. Bradley; William H. Dry, killed at, Jonesboro September 1, 1864; 
Eli Layman, discharged February 28, 1863, for disability. 

Musicians — Cyrus H. Barnes, died at Lavergne, Tenn., March 8, 1863; James 

Wagoner— Tames T. Brown, transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps October 29, 1863. 

Privates — lohn W. Bowers, John H. Brown, Jonah Carson, William Fogwell, John 
Fitzgerald. William GillcDd, John W. Hilton, George H. Kail. John Kridler, Isaiah Mag- 
ner .Joseph Mokina ; Joseph Mylon, promoted to Corporal; Lorenzo Nickerson, Joshua 
Niekcr-on, Benjamin W. 1'gwell, Joseph Rnlo ; Joseph It. Reed, promoted to Sergeant; 
Daniel Van Tassel. Henry Van Tassel, Fmanuel Wyers ; Martin Wagner, promoted to 
Corporal; Jacoh H'yers. Stephen Walton. 

Samuel A. Llauiernrrii, li-r-bu-.-ed l-VI., nary 'i 1 ""'>"' b>r disability, 

Michael Barrone, transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps October 20, 1863. 

Alexander F. Brown, discharged April 20. IHH3, for disability. 

John W. Ha 
Adum II. I — . 
Benjamin Li 

•i red in (I. S. Army November 28, 1863. 
I', S. Army November 28, 186-3. 
rged January 2. r >, 1863, for disability. 



Robert L. McCune, discharged January 25, 1803, for disability 
John B. Mngiicr, lis,-!, t, K .-.l May I. IS,!::, for disability. 
Jacob U. Miller, ,lisdiar.r,.,| .\,,nl 2. ISM, for disability 
Jncoh Maize, discharged November 21. 1SII2, for disability 
John M ■i L .|,..r, discharged May 1, IS.',::, f,„. disability. 
Willinni H Moses. discharged Feb. nary i;. ISli.'l, lor disability. 
John W. McMillan, discharged November 21, 1S02, for disability 
numis .Juicksill. transferred I„ Fngi,,,.,.,. i'„ q ,s Au „„ s , o s mfc. 
Altred l.oneli, transferred to Veteran deserve Corps 
Adam Row, transferred to Company (', Tivenl Regiment 
John IS. Richards, transferred to Company ('.''IVentv-scco,,,! |; e „i mcl ,t 
John Swank, discharged February 2:1, I si;:!, for disability 

homos Tanscy, transferred ,„ Veteran Reserve Corps February 11 1804 
Andrew Van Horn, transferred to Veteran Reserve Corp, September 7, 1803. 
George Van lltisktrk, transferred to U. S. Army November 28, 1802 
.lames liaison, discharged April 21, 180:1, for disability. 
Jacob W. Barnhard. .lied at Monrocville. Ind October 18 1802 
Samuel Outlet., died a. Stevenson, Ala, November 1(1 1803 
Samuel Flutter, died at Chattanooga, Tenn., Juno 30, 1804, of wounds. 

Oliver J. Gronour, killed 
Robert J. Goble, died at 
George Linnscott, died a 
William C. Lewis, killed 
Edward Leasure, died al 
Eli Magner, died at ,V"r 
Jacob IV. Miller, died 

Chickamanga September 19, 1803. 
Jivergne, Tenn., May 17, 1803. 

Chattanooga February 23, 1804, 

. In.L. Dei 

. mber 1, 1802. 

■•-• ' Aii.lers.mville Prison .May 27, 1S04. 

Nels.o. 11. Urn, died at Gnllaiin, Ten..., llece.ober 18, 1802 
William Park, missing and supposed to be dead. 
John H. Simpson, killed at Jonesboro, Ga., September 1, 1804. 
Samuel Simoi.ette. died at Gallatin, Tenn.. February '.I, 1863. 
Daniel Williams, diodal Lavergnc, 'fenn., May 0, 1803. 
John Walton, died at Lavergnc, Tenn., March 1, 1863. 

Calvin A. Anderson, promoled lo Second Lieutenant and transferred to Twenty see 
ou.l Regiment. *.,.™iyr-j>ou 

Jonathan C. Cltasteen, discharged June 0, 1805, term expired 

Clark P. Crecelius. discharged June 9, 1K05, term expired 

George J. James, discharged June 9, 1805, term expired 

Andrew J. Mills, discharged June 9. 1805, term expired. 

John Peacock, discharged June 9, 1805, term expired. 

James Runnion, discharged June 9, 1805, term expired. 

Charles P. Redman, discharged June 9, 1805, term expired. 

David Shinn, discharged March 22, 1805, for disability. 

Silas Carson, transferred to Twenty-second Regiment Juno 9, 1866. 

Thomas J. Curtis, transferred to Twcnt.ysecoml Kegiinent June 9, 1865 

Joseph II. Dearborn, transferred to Twenty-second Regiment June 9, 1865 

Benjamin Fe.i.iiinore, transferred to Twenty-see I liegiiooul .lime 9 1865 

David s ll.iii.ill.iii. transferred to Twenty second Kegimcnl June 9 1865 
Nicholas Heckhon, transferred to Twenty-second Uegimenl June 9 1865 

Andrew J. Mills, transferred to Twenty-sec 1 Regimen! .lime 9, 1865. 

Richard Mills, transferred to Twenl v-secuinl Regiment .lime 9, 1865. 

Edward W. Shaded, tranferred to Twenty-second He.diuenl June 9 1865 

w ! ?i"" 1 ' i "' -?""'''■ liansferred to Twenty-second Regiment June 11, 1865.' 

William .1 Silica, ti'.uisfei red to Twenty-second Regiment June 9 1865 

Francis M. Bytiel I. died at Tcxaha, S. C, March 2, 1865. 

Thomas Corsen, killed at Jonesboro, (la., September 1, 1864 

Geor S e Jossee, recruit Company D, transferred to Ttventysccond Regiment June 9, 

9 186" ha ° S °"" lerS ' reCr " it 0om P l "W D, transferred to Twenty-second Regiment June 


The Seventy-fifth Regiment contained forty-five men and officers that 
entered the service from Allen County. Its history and that of the Seventy- 
fourth are identical, as they were together in the same brigade a great portion of 
the time they were in the service, and were always in the same division and 
fought shoulder to shoulder. 

First Lieutenant— William McGinnis, promoted Captain, and died a prisoner of war 
at Savannah, Ga., August 31, 1864. 

Sergeants— William Riley, promoted to First Lieutenant; Abner A. Kelsey 

Corporals— Sylvester Slrock, promoted Firsl Sergeant ; Peter Mulriiic killed at 
I ..cka,.,a.,ga September 2(1. 1803; George W. Her, killed al Chickamanga September 19 

ISO.; Jonathan L. Wilkers promoted Sergeant. 

Musicians— Amos Earlywine, discharged February 16, 1863. for disability ; James 
Wagoner— Kyle Gaskill. 

Privates— James Biggs, promoted Corporal ; William Barret, Isaac Barnes, John 
row; Nalh.ii, tlioney, promoted Corporal; James Douglas, Andrew Garret,. David 
"'■""' i. "lOiam Kooiitz, 1 Iricli .1. Loop; Samuel Liggel, promoled Corporal' Benja- 
min 1 Pnilt. .lames llobincl, Isaac A. Ilineharl: Jacks,,,, Scott, promoled Corporal- 
John G. Ihompson, Francis J. Wilson, Leroy Welch. 

Henry Biggs, transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps January 15, 1864 

John W. Chancy, discharged March 8. 1863, for disability. 

Clark Dewitt, discharged January 0/1804, for disability. 

Thomas L. Dcwilt, discharged October :!(!, 1803, for disability. 

Michael Dennis, discharged March 3, 1805, for wounds. 

Isaac N. Rinnan, discharged April 6, 1804, for wounds. 

Daniel K. Shoup, transferred to Engineer Corps July 29 1864 

Hiram Slain, discharged June 29, 1804, for wounds. 

John Sites, discharged February 10, Is 13, for disability. 

John Arick, died ,u Clinltiiiioogn, Tenn., November 27.' 1803, of wounds 

Wesley Andrews, died at Frankfort, Ky , Ocloher 16, 1802 

Henry C. Bowman, die.l at Nashville, Tenn.. December 15. 1863. 

Robert B Gatewoo.l, died .it Murfrecs ■„, Tenn., August. 12, 1863 

John H. Low-man. died at Gallatin, T„nn,, January 13, 1863 
Joseph Robinson, died al G.ill.ilin, Tenn., January 1, 1863. 
Isaiah Wilkerson. died nl Scottsville, Ky., December 12, 1862. 
John W. Sturgeon, died near Fairfax Seminary, Va., May 2, 1865. 

Farrier and Blacksmith-William P. Brown, promoted lo Corporal • William II Per 
guson. discharged January 29, 1804. for disability corporal, William II. Fer- 

tJSESfclSZ&S'gS. Pr ° m ° te " '° ^'^ ; J " mM B ™ (Company I), 

Companv K— .Samuel M. Ilench. 


from T A 11 Ei s' ,t 'S'- e ;8 hth T| Re gim™t was in part composed of 344 men and officers' 
from Allen County It was organized at Fort Wayne, and mustered into the 

service of the United States on the 29th of August, Is,;.', | WM orderad £ 

once to Louisville, Ky , arm, tig' I tl oxtday, ami was iiutn.slj ,i,.|, ,s,i„„o,l 

to Gen Rousseau's Division of the Army of the Ohio, and, on the 2d of October 
marched with its division in pursuit of the rebel Gen. Bragg, who had been foiled 

LI?R mP ' '" ':?n'"\ r ";' , !?, ville - ° n * e m 0f 0ctobcr > : > P art ° f "» army 
overtook Bragg at Chaplin Hills, near Perryville. Ky., and a severe battle was the 
result. The brigade t„ which the rCiglHylcighth beliuigcl occupied the rmlituf 
Itousseau s line, and was exposed to a terrific fire and a number of impetuous 
cnarges. But the regiment behaved as though every man was a veteran and 
maintained its. position. Its loss was very severe in killed and wounded, and the 
regiment was complimented, in general orders, for its steadiness and good conduct 
during the battle, by the commanding General. The enemy retreated the ni-ht 

alter the battle, and the regiment, with its cotnui I, marched to (Y Irrlnml 

and then retraced its steps to Perryville, and marched thence to Nashville, Tenn.' 
via Howling Green. The regiment remained at Nashville until the 2(lth of 
December, engaged in guard duty and drilling, varied by an occasional skirmish 
with the enemy, when the entire army moved in the direction of Murfreesboro 
trom that time until the 1st day of January, the regiment participated in the 
movements of the d.visiou to which it was attached, preliminary to the battle of 
Stone River and on the 1st, 2d and 3d of January, with its brigade and division, 
distinguished itself by its gallant conduct in that hard-fought battle 

On the evening of the 3d, the brigade to which the Eighty-eighth was 
attached was ordered to make a charge in its front, near the Murfreesboro pike. 
The order was brilliantly executed. The enemy was driven from his cover and 
his entrenchments carried, and it was the final charge made during the battle 
Before daylight the next morning, the rebels evacuated Murt'rocsboro The reg- 
iment suftered severely in killed, wounded and missing. Col. Humphrey was 
among the wounded, he having received a severe bayonet thrust in the final 

The regiment remained iu camp near Murfreesboro until the 24th of June 
when the army moved southward, in the direction of Tullahouia where Bra"" 
was strongly fortified. The Eighty-eighth was engaged in a spirited cnga"einent 
at Hoovers Gap on the 25th. Bragg evacuated Tullahouia without a battle, on 
account of a flank movement made by Gen. Rosecrans, and the Ei"hty-ei"hth 
moved on to Winchester, Tenn., where it remained until August 16, when it 
marched on, at the commencement of the Chickainauga campaign. Crossio" the 
Tennessee River, it participated in a severe engagement at Dug Gap, Ga., with 
the rebel Gen. Polk, on the 11th of September. The division to which it 
belonged was the first one to get into action at the battle of Chickainauga, on Sep- 
tember 19, and for two days fought gallantly, resisting the assaults of the enemy, 
and, after Rosecrans' right was broken aud the army was forced back to Chatta- 
nooga, the Eighty-eighth formed a part of the rear guard. Many brave men and 
officers of the regiment were killed or wounded in the battle. ' On the 17th of 
October, Col. Humphrey resigned, on account of ill-health, and Lieut. Col. Briant 
was promoted to fill the vacancy. On the night of the 24th of November, the 
Kiglily-eigbth moved, with the command of Gen. Hooker, to the attack upon 
Lookout Mountain, and fought " the battle among the clouds." 

On the following day, it took part in the battle of Mission Ridge and was 
one of the first regiments to plant its flag upon the works of the enemy. The 
regiment followed on in pursuit of the flying foe, and on the 27th was engaged 
at Graysville and Ringgold, capturing a battery at the last-named place. 

On the 6th of May, the regiment, with its division, started on the Atlanta 
campaign and participated in the many battles, severe skirmishes and fatiguing 
marches that crowned that campaign with success, and resulted in the capture of 

The Eighty-eighth, among other actions, was engaged at Tunnel Hill, 
Buzzard's Roost, lir-aca, New Hope Church, Dallas, Kencsaw Mountain. Cliatta- 
hoocbie River, Peach Tree Creek, Atlanta (July 20 and 22 i and Cloy Creek and 

On the 3d of October, Hood, having passed around Sherman's flank and 
started north with the intention of cutting Sherman off from his base of supplies, 
the army started in pursuit of him. The regiment joined in the pursuit and after 
marching over two hundred miles, hailed at Kingston, Ga., leaving Hood to fall 
into the hands of Thomas' Veterans at Franklin and Nashville. From there the 
regiment returned to Atlanta, and on the 16th of November, with the rest of the 
army, commenced the famous " march to the sea," arriving at Savannah, Ga., 
on the 21st of December, with the loss of but one man, captured by the enemy 
near Sandersville, Ga. 

On the 20th of January, 1805, the Eighty-eighth loll Savannah, moving up 
the Georgia side of the Savannah River, by way of Springfield, and crossed the 
river with great difficulty, owing to the "bottom" being three miles in width. 
The command then moved on in a northerly direction, destroying railroads and 
everything that could be of advantage to the enemy, and reached Lverysboro 
N. C, on the 16th of March, and was engaged in the battle near that' place.' 
From there it moved on, and on the 19th, while marching in advance of its corps, 



encountered the enemy in a strong position near Bentonville. Capt. Fred F. 
Boltz, with a part of the regiment, was ordered to reoonnoiter the position of the 
enemy and rep >rt ; it not b sing supposed possible that there was any force of the 
enemy in that vicinity fro amount to anything. The duty was promptly and faith- 
fully performed, and while troops were being placed in position, an overwhelming 
attack was made upon the Captain's command. The rest of the regiment, and a 
few other troops that happened to be at hand, were sent to his support and they 
held the enemy in check until the rest of its corps (the Fourteenth) could reach 
suppiu-tinu distance. That was the last engagement in which the regiment took 
part, and it was one of the most severe. Its loss was very severe in propor- 
tion to the number engaged. From there it moved to Goldsboro, and, on the 10th 
of April, left there and marched to Cape Fear River, where it lay at the time of 
the surrender of Johnston's army. 

From there it marched to Washington 

was mustered out of 
Indianapolis, wher 
The Eighty-e 


f Richmond, Va., where it 
1865, and at once lea for 
rs dispersed to their homes, 
t went into the field from 
a single stain. 

entered the service na 

ith its honor untarnished by i 

Colonel — lif-.r-re Humphrey, resigned October- IT, \M'-\ 
Colonel of (lie One Hundred uti-1 Thirty-ninth Regiment. 

Lieutenant Colonel — Cyrus B. Briant, promoted to Colonel November — , 1863. 

Adjutants— Hartman B. DuBorry, resigned August 1, 1863; Allen II. Dougull, fro: 
First Lieutenant Company l>. promoted to Captain of Company D. 

Quartermaster — Ira Rupert, mustered oul with regiment. 

gued October 23, 

-Cliarles S. True, mustered out with regiment. 

Second Lieutenant — Lo 

ligned December 22,i8C2. 

ns— Andrew Besack; John II. Cook, promoted to Corporal. 

19, 181 
u igoner- David II Pluok 

l'reaser. Nicholf 

Simon' Williun 

Blbrtdee B 

M , , i, ! ■. 

1 Ap 1 1868 on ai ant >,f wounds. 

John D blenders ... 1 

larged I 1 ■ ■■,■'--: L' ' l*'.J. f„r diMl.ility. 

l-a.u- Mull, discharged 

William II Hull, disel 

James -ln-l^e. discharc 

1 l-i.'-l-' • i - I ' ■ 1,- il.ilitv 

.1 ■:u- Mi Cormack, 'Ii- 

i M irton, dischai 

111: M. ,..-,. li 1, -.- ■ 

red lo Veteran Reserve Corps January 15, 1804. 

Prank McKinzie, trans 

Vrri-1 to Wician ll.-iiTvt- r,,r[,. S.-ptember 20, 1803 

Ma.lm Mill.-r. .li., •!,:„■ 

.1 February 12. is.-,::. f,n- disability. 

M - Iv. ft transfers 

I- Veteran Reserve Corp* December 31, 1862. 

rre 1 to Veteran Reserve Corps January 15, 1864. 

iii- i i- -.-...■ , 

larged M irch 81, 1863, for disability. 

. I inuary 25. 1864. 
. Tcnn., January 18, 1868, of wounds. 
i'-r.i, . .1 u, tarj 28 1863, abounds. 
, November 11. 1863. 

Elijah Wells, died at Nashville, Te 

Allen Archer, transferred to Thirty-eighth Regiment June 7. 1865. 
Oeorge H. Butler, transferred to Thirtv-cighth Re-iment June 7. 1 8f."i. 
William Devlin, transferred to Thirty-eighth Regiment June 7. 1865. 

Henry Kv.t. tr.iri-IVrrcl t- Tliiriy-i-liili \'.<-/u r June 7. IKH... 

Henry W. Franks, promoted Corporal and trainterred lo Thirty -eighth Regiment. Ju 

7, 186 

Brra Funk, transferred to Thirty-eighth Reg; 

nt Ju 

? 7, lHli-j 


Hiiliitm Z-n-nfn,, tran-ferred to Thirty-eighth Regiment June 7, 1865. 
Charles Zegenftuj; transferred to Thirty-eighth Regiment June 7, 1865. 

Captain — Cyrus E. Briant, promoted Colonel. 

First Lieutenant — Is'iue Hateman. resigned August, 14, 1863. 

Second Lieutenant — Joseph D. Stophcr, promoted to First Lieutenant and resigned 
January 2, 1864. 

First Sergeant — Scott Swan, promoted Captain, and honorably discharged May 
15, 1866. 

Sergeants — Isaac A. Slater, promoted to First Lieutenant, and died April 2-1, 186;j, of 
wounds received in battle; Aaron Notestfne ; .Milton Thompson, promoted to Second 

Corporals — -Daniel Slim-dun, promoted to Sergeant; Henrv Shobe, killed at Peach 
Tree Creek July 20. 18*14: Allen Dougall, promoted to Captain ;' Charles W. McKee, pro- 
moted to Sergeant Major; Thomas M. Stevens, discharged February 27, 1<%;S ; Herbert 
Bell, promoted to Sergeant; Benjamin F. Miller, discharged ; Henry Wyatt, discharged 
December 26, 1862. 

Musicians — Zaeharius Miller, Erastus J. Godfrey, transferred to Veteran Reserve 
Corps January 16, 1864. 

Wagoner — Levi H. Miller, transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps April 10, 180 1. 

Privates — Charles Beugnot, promoted to Corporal ; George W. Bowers, Michael 
Browand ; William Browand, promoted to Sergeant; Adam Bowers, promoted to First 
" iseph Cuiumings, Lafayette Coomer, 
, promoted to Corporal; James Hall, 
taao Kendrick, James Kees, George 

Scott Arney, transferred to Thiny-eighth Regiment June 7, 1865. 
David Browand. discharged lleceinlier 28, 1863. 

Hiram Button, transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps July 21, 1863. 
Benjamin F. Bossernmn, discharged February 6, 18Ho, for disability. 
George Brown, discharged April 14, 18H3, for disability. 
John Dingman, discharged October 21, 1**12, for disability. 
George W. Hilkey. discharged April '.l, \$\Vi. for disability. 
Andrew Hettinger, discharged October 3, 186:!. for disability. 
Henry Hettinger, discharged January 1, I Si".:;, tor disability. 
Uriah Johnson, discharged December .. 1*12. for disability. 
Fmanuel Kile, trau-tenvd ... Wit-ran Re-.-rveCrp. September 30, It 
James Loveall. di-i-'.m gc I < letol ei 27 1 "-'. '■',, for disability. 
Monroe Loveall. discharged October 21, lS'l:t. for disability. 
James II. Mitchell transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps in I860. 
Isaiah No tea tine, transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps in 186"). 
David W. Snider, transferred to Veteran lt?«er»e Corps February 17, : 
Jo-iah Sui.ier. -Ii-cli u .■■ I \lu _'J I *"'. '. t'..| di- il.ilit v 
Milo Thompson, discharged March 1, 1888, for Usability 
George F. Tho 

Lieutenant ; Wilso 

1 S. Bell, Matlh 

as Conrad, 

James Donaldson, 

Joseph Ginther; 

.Milton II 

David Halter, Amo 

s Hilkey. Il'illin 

1 Johnson 

Keith, Isaac Nesbitl 

Theodore A. Pal 

ei', Kieli.-u' 

Henry C. Parker, I 

nae Rhodes, Mor 

is Hose, pi 

Elishn Wilson, di 
John Webh, tran 
Henry Butler, ki 
Abraham Carine. 
1 Frutenberg 

transferred t 
scharged Deci 
ifcrred to Vet 

David t 
Isaiah Haiti.. 

William F. Alder 
William M. Cutte 
Cyrus Davis, trat 
Edwin Horn, trat 
Joseph H. Nesbit 
John K. Snider, 
George W. Shore! 

. is.;', 

Sv.lne\ ii.. 
Joseph Hen 
Jacob P. B. 
John 1(. Pa 

June 7, 18115. 
menl June 7, 1805. 
cm June 7, 1865. 
imcnt June 7, 18S5. 
eul June 7, 1865. 
i 7, 1805 

t of v 


. killed ut Beulc 

Captain — Chauncey B. Oakley, resigned December 15, 1802; re-, 
lulant line Hundred and Thirty-ninth P.egiment. 
First Lieutenant— Richard William-., resigned January '27, 1863. 
Second Lieutenant— John G. (johecu, died January 17, 1803, of i 

1863, for disnbiht 

ert L. Freeman ; Anion Farmer 
berg; Harvey Geiger, promote. 

it, discharged March 12, 1863, for 
dor Grist: Absalom G. C. Bennet ; 
. Carviu, promoted Second Licutcu- 

, Milton W. Freeman, Rob- 
ge IV. Ficrstine. Eli Fnlken- 
.dfinger, promoted Corporal ; 



Joseph Hood, John Hathaway, Joseph Hyndman. Simon P. Jonc 
Karri ger, Samuel Karriger. Isaac M. Krise, John K. Lyon, Chi 
iam It. McClelland, promoted lo Corporal; Alex. C. MoCurdy, £ 
George W. Robinson, Harvey W. Ross, Samuel H Smith, Willis 
Martin Sohram, Timothy Tyler 

Henry ISrown. discharged I'Yhruary 1. ISfi"), for disability. 

John Kly, discharged May -, ISi;:!, for disability. 


ed No 

John U 
.lames > 

, IWi:{,! 


>: disability. 


Uncharged May G, 1863, for disability. 
Smiley M \1« i hi (\ . .h-idi;u--fi.'d February I'.i. 1Kb:;, for disability. 
Thomas Ncal, transferred to Engineer Corp* July -J'.l, 1864. 
Samuel II. Shuaff, tranyfVrred to Veteran Reserve Corps January 10, ISO 
Daniel Shuit, di-charped January to, 1HI>:>, for disability. 
Peter J. Waterson. discharged Fetn-miiT -i, ISiW, for disability. 
Robert K. Brown, died at Nashville, Tenn., January 11, 1863, of 
Charles E. Duglay, died at Savannuli, (.la., Jauuary 2, 1865. 
Martin D. Green, died at Danville, Ky. 

Solomon Johnson, died at , November 29, 1862. 

Robert Jones, died in Louisville, Ky., December 25, 1862. 

John Kagle, killed at Atlanta, C.a., August 7, 1864. 

John Maxwell, died at Fort Wayne, Ind., August 30, 1863. 

Francis M. Mooney, died at Bowling Green, Ky., November 25, 1862. 

Nathan McGuire, died at Indianapolis, Ind., August 12, 1863. 

Herman McClinlock, died at Bowling Green, Ky., November 19, 1862. 

Elisha A. Richardson, died at Bowling Green, Ky., . 

David River, died at Howling Green, Ky.. December 17, 1SG2. 
Jacob River, died at Nashville, Tenn., Decemher 15, 1863. 
Mahlon Sipe, wounded and missing at Stone River Decemher 31, 1862. 
Gotleib Summer, died at Murfreesboro, Tenn., December 24, 1863. 
David Stoner, killed at Bentonville, N. C, March 19, 1865. 

Oregon Hanes 
William Henr; 
George Frets. 

hth Regi 
iferred to Thirty-eighth Regimen 
sferred to Thirty-eighth Regime. 

, 1SU3. 

Captain— Isaac H. Le Fevre, died September 21, 18G3, of 
of Chiekamauga. 

First Lieutenant — John O'Connell, resigned January 

Second Lieutenant — Ferdinand F. Bolt/,, promoted Captain. 

First Sergeant — Amos Sine, discharged February 1, 1863, for disability. 

Sergeants — lohn D. I'uri wright, p unnoted Second Lieutenant and resigned October 
18, 1863; David Caston, promoted First Lieutenant, killed in action at ltesaca, Ga., 
May 14, 1864; Paul F. King, promoted to First Sergeant, killed at Atlanta, Ga., August 
7, 18G4; George W. Stiles. 

Corporals— James S. Tyler, discharged October 31, 1863, for disability; Jos-iali 
King, ]Ji'nmoled First Liculenant, resigned January 11, 1865; Anthony McCrone, killed 
at Kenesaw Mountain June 20, 18G4; Robert W. Hops, promoted to Sergeant : John 
Close, died October 13, 1S62, of wounds received in battle; David R. Palmer discharged 
November 21, 1862, on account of wounds; Samuel H. Sturgeon, discharged February 
15, 1863, on account, of wounds; Peter Riser, promoted to Sergeant. 

Musician— Charles T. Morris; Frank M. Johnson, discharged February 1, 1863, for 

Wagoner — John McBride, transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps December 3, 1863. 

Privates— Martin Boggs, William II. Ball, Frank M. Braddock, William Boone, 
Charles Dolan, John A. Dolan ; John H. Ferguson,, promoted to Sergeant; John V. Fer- 
guson, promoted to Corporal ; Michael Mass ; Thomas Hood, promoted to Serjeant ; 
Mnrcellus Justus, Peter King; George Kreigh, promoted to Sergeant ; Patrick Molloy, 
promoted to Corporal ; Granvilk- Powell, Amos Kubart, Alfred Summers, Jehu Shannon, 
John Scliiickinan ; Daniel Walters, promoted to Sergeant. 

James M. Ball, discharged May 15, 18b:!, for disability. 

William E. Bailey, discharged March 24, 1863, for disability. 

Jacob A. Butler, transferred to Engineer Corns July 18, 1864. 

Hugh B. Cotrill, transferred to Company II October 1, 1862. 

Joshua Crawford, discharged April ti, 1863, for disability. 

Nathaniel Duckworth, discharged February 15, 1862, for disability. 

Thomas R. Davis, transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps April 16, 1864. 

Josiah Cell, transferred to Marine Brigade January 6, 1863. 

Thomas (\ri-y. discharged March 21, 18G3, on account of wounds. 

James W. Hood, transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps. 

Wesley Higgi, discharged March 5, 1803, tor disability. 

Daniel Holveros j . discharged Mov 15, ]8(>!, for disability. 

Thomas Kintz, discharged " February 27, 1803, by civil authority. 

Robert Limning, transferred to Veteran Reserve Corns February 11, 1864. 

Volney C. Leonard, transferred to Thirly-cighlh Regimenl to make up time lost 

Isaac Miller, diselmiged December 20, 1802, on account of wounds. 

Adjutant — Thomas Adelsperger. 

Sergeant — Sylvester L. Gorsline. 

Corporal — Rims W. Cuverdale, discharged June 11, 1803, for disability. 
Privates — Charles Kin-man, Jackson K. Ileavland, 1'errv McDaniel, George W. Riley, 
Daniel P. Reynolds, Benjamin H. Wood. 

George Rilcv, supposed to have been lost on steamer Sultana, explosion. 
David Warliog, died at Memphis, Tenn., March 24, 1863. 


This regiment contained one company from this, Allen County, and was organ- 
ized at Indianapolis in the full of 18u'2, with Felix \V. Graham as Colcoel. It 

was sent at once to Kentucky, and the different companies stationed at different 
points in that State until the 11th of the ensuing March, when the rflWment was 
consolidated at Glasgow. 

During the spring and summer of 1863, it was busily employed in scoutin" 
the country, breaking up guerrilla bands and in pursuing Jnhn Morgan, who had 
undertaken his famous raid. At Buffington Island, Ohio, the Fifth Cavalry headed 
off the rebel force and attacked and muted it, capturing a battery and numerous 
prisoners ; after which it returned to Louisville, Ky. Subsequently the regiment 
moved to East Tennessee, and remained there until the opening of the Atlanta 
campaign, in which it took part, and was engaged in the "Stoneman raid," lu the 
rear of Atlanta, where the regiment) being surrounded and cut off from all assist- 
ance, was surrendered by Gen. Stoneman in the face of a protest from Col. Butler, 
commanding the regiment, against his doing so, Butler believing the regiment 
could cut its way through. 

After that, the regiment remained in the rear, doing guard duty, until Jan- 
nary, lSb'5, when it was remounted and equipped at Louisville, when it left imme- 
diately for Tennessee, where it was engaged in scouting and doing courier duty 
until the close of the war, when, on the 16th of June, 1865, it was mustered out 
of the service at Pulaski, Term., and left for Indianapolis and home. 

During its term of service, the Fifth Cavalry was engaged in twenty-two 
battles and numerous skirmishes, and captured from the enemy 640 prisoners and 
pieces of artillery and battle-flags, 

Captain — Harry A. Whitman. 
First Lieutenant — William W. Angel. 

First Sorgcant— Andrew W. Stevens, promoted to Second Lieutenant, and honorably 
disciplined March 11, 1803. 

James Pippinger. discharged March 20, 18G3, for 

vin L. Thomas ; 

charged November 17. 1862 I n d 

Corporals — Henry G. Prank, 
promoted to Sergeant ; John Fr 
Robert Keown, died at Annapolis 

Buglers— William Sudbring, Ori 

Farrier— Daniel Hill. 


—William II. . 
.rty, William 
Hebring, promoted to Corp 
Corporal; Ann 1) Nuttlfl : 
Sunderland. Frederick Wea 
Frederick Block, trans 
Jacob Fink, (ransferret 
Hiram Graves. transfer 
Hamsun .ludali. di-clu 
Calvin II. Jones, tranafi 
Charles Lake, discliarg 
Thomas G. Heed, disci. 
John Stills, discharged 
John B.Seinfort, trans) 
George M. ('rouse, die. 
Frederick Gzentbal, di< 
Wilson H. Johnson, di< 
Phiup Lnsh, died at Nt 
Henry Reilcy, died fll 
Christopher Search, dii 
William II. Strickler, <1 

• 1,1802. 
. 1862 
6. 1862. 

> December 0, 1862. 

George Brooks, Hurler; .lames D. Bmuks, Daniel Donovan, Henry Emrick, Jackson 
Holmes, Uriah W. Minion, John Kimbal, Peter A. Lininger, liustavus Met'lanahan, John 
Nebb, Cyrus A. Kiles, Isaac Overly, Jr., Isaac Overly, Sr., Dunied Overly, William Overly, 
Overly, David C. Owens, Charles A. Paige, Perry O. Bice. Jacob Bine, Nathaniel 

S. Bisdeii. Clirisluplit 
Ransom Workman. 
John Elev, trausl 

Swank; Calvin Tfiunias, promoted to nuarterniaster Sergeant; 

Veteran Reserve Corps. 

ged February 27, 18f.3, for disability. 
Louis Gillion. discharged February 1'J, 18H3, for disability. 
William H. Mulchings, discharged April 10, 1805, for disability. 
John Smaltz, died at Hillsboro, Ga., in 1804. 


The Ninety-first Regiment was orgai 
when enough men had been recruited for 
the field— in August, 1862. In the i 
who enlisted for sis months were assigned t 
time had expired, their places were tilled, in 
nies of men enlisted for a term of one year. 
Allen County. These companies were with the Ninety-first but a short time, 
when they were transferred to other regiments — principally the One Hundred 
and Twenty-fourth and the One Hundred and Fiity-second. 

Captain — Charles Emery, transferred to Company C, One Hundred and Twenty-fourth 

ed as a three-years 

r of 1863, three co 
it, thus filling il ii 

regiment, but 
were sent into 

After their 

December, 1864, wi 
Two of these comp 

li three compa- 
nies were f'riiln 

Lieutenant — Marion G. Griswold, transferred to Company II, One Hundred and 
Twenty-fourth Regiment. 

Second Lieutenant— Nathan Ivrause, Jr., transferred to Company C, One Hundred 
and Twenty-fourth Regiment. 

First Sergeant — William J. Reed, dis-tdmi-jred Janiniry -0, IS*'.',, for disability. 

Sergeants — William H. Alshouso, William P. Huffy; Jerome Potter, promoted to 
first Sergeant; Andrew Middleton. 

Corporals — John Bnier, promoted to Sergeant; William II. Worden, Robert M. 
Lyward, Upton Noll, Daniel Frisby, Samuel Bacon; John L. Barcus, died at Newborn, 
N. C. April li, IMi-J; George W. (Ipliger, umUTouuied for. 

Musicians — Theodore F. HcDougal, Thomas MoCormiok. 


umilfl i.. Corporal; Christian Kichards. 
Frai.k Sherwood, Samuel Sibert. Frnnk 
h B. Williams, Henry Webka, Oliver P. 

Privates— Samn el Allen. Jesse W, Brown, Lewis H. Bowers, James Brown, Francis 
Bi-icliuft Thomas Bradbury. Lewis Hadiac, /yra A. Conley, Cornelius Cook, Thomas 
Cadwala.ler, John Donahoc, William II. Dougherty. William H. Eagy. James Essex, 

Aiignot Hint-row. William France, Ian,.- Fry. S= ..-1 I'-ilk- nl.-rg. . I. -< ph fii-Tgi;. t.enrpe 

(Jrolairs. Tavlor Grover. Jr., John Gmti-y . rrmklin i.:.ihn i>rr.t....ic.l io (oipmai. 
Charles Gribler, George Hood, Anthony Heit, i bnatiM Hm Inclw, Hnah Lamar, .lames 
MoGamgha, Conrad Mosser. David W. MarQuel I- 
Ayers P. Nash. Henry Or 
Parker, Frank Rudolph ; 
William Russell, Joseph S 
Savoit, Peter M Smith, « 
Walters. George 11. Wilsoi 

Loran Betlicl, unaccoumcu mi. 

Andrew Grover, unaccounted for. 

John Griffith, unaccounted fur. 

William Henderson, unaccounted for. 

William A. Johnson, unaccounted for. 

Lawrence Power, unaccounted for. 

Joseph Slark, unaccounted for. 

Charles Stuart, unaccounted for. 

Peter Eckley, died in New York City May 24, 18G5. , 

Captain— Joseph H. Keever, transferred to Company E, One Hundred and Twenty 
fourth Regiment. 

First Sergeant— William Myers. promoted to Firs) Lieutenant find transferred U 
Company B, One Hundred and Twenty-fourth Regiment. 

Sergeants— Newcomb Rank, promoted to First Sergeant; William H. Hunting, 
unaccounted for; James S.Baker, unaccounted for; Ephraim Spanglcr, unaccounted 

Corporals— William Prey, unaccounted for; Samuel D. Cole, unaccounted for; E. C. 
Godfrey, unaccounted for; John Alhriglit, unaccounted for; Mark Herrington ; Lewellen 
H. Price; Amos Hartman, Jacob Smith. 

Musicians— Caleb Zook ; Henry Powers, died at Raleigh, N. C May 16, 1865. 

Privates— Frederick Beeknmn, Lafayclle M. Bratten, Christian Bishop, Henry E. 
Brandenburg. Arthur M. Braokenridge, Oliver Blystone. Adam J. Bennett, George Carlo, 
William 1. Cress, Henry Champion, R. J. Dingman, Joseph Uennex, Jackson Gibson, 
Elias Hoover, Caspar Havvkey. Klijuli Hook, Thomas Hnbhs. William II. Johnson, Jacob 
Johnson, Peter Long. Peter I.ovine, David W. Miller ; Henry M- Mason, promoted Corpo- 
ral;. William C. Payne, Patrick Ryan, Lewis Riting, Ephraim Redman, Henry Simon, 
William Simon. 

Philander Allen, unaccounted for. 

David Cliorpenning, unaccounted for. 

Perry Davis, unaccounted for. 

Albert M. Ca.ssadu, transferred to One Hundred and Fifty-second Regiment February 
20. 1865. 

Samuel Ernsperger, transferred lo One Hundred and Fifty-second Regiment Febru- 
ary 20, 1865. 

Jeremiah Garl. transferred lo One Hundred and Fifty-second Regiment February 20, 

George He 

D "" 

George Majors, transferred to One Hundred and Fifty-second Regiment February 
20, 1865. ' 

Calvin C. Bobbins, transferred to One Hundred and Fifty-second Regiment February 
20. 1865 

David Stewart, transferred to One Hundred and Fifty-second Regiment February 
20, 1865. 

Jacob R. Thomas, transferred to One Hundred and Fifty-second Regiment February 
20. 1865. 

Daniel Leary. unaccounted for. 

Peler Lynch, unaccounted for. 

William McAuench, unaccounted for. 

Frederick Mullenbour, unaccounted for. 

John M. Swisher, unuccounted for. 

James E. Thomas, unaccounted for. 

William Thomas, unaccounted for. 
», Joseph /.org, unaccounted for. 

Hiram Ehminger, .lied at Greensboro, N. C, July 20, 1865. 

Lewi, Regeti, died at Philadelphia, Penn., July 7, 1865. 


The One Hundredth Regiment was organized at Fort Wayne, in the month 
of August, 1862, and was mustered inio the service on the 10th of September. 
1862. Charles Case, of Fort Wajne, was commissioned as Colonel, but he 
declined to be mustered, and Sanford J. Stoughtcn was then appointed. 

On the 11th of November, the regiment left for Memphis, Tenn., arriving 
there on the 16th. A short time after its arrival, it was assigned to duty at Col- 
liersville, guarding the Memphis & Charleston Railroad. It remained there until 
the 9th of the following June, when it was ordered to join in the movement on 
ViekBburg. From that time forward, its history is identical with ihe Twelfth 
Regiment ( three years' service), as they were in the same division. It took an 
active part in the siege of Vieksburg, the movement against the rebel Gen. John- 
son at Jackson, Miss., the battle of Mission Ridge, the Atlanta campaign, the 
"march to the sea," and the battle of Bentonville, in all of which it acquitted 
itself well. It was mustered out of the service at Washington June 9, 1865, and 
its members returned to their homes. The recruits, whose term of service had not- 
expired, were transferred to the Forty-eighth Indiana, and they were finally 
mustered out with that regiment. 

Colonel — Charles Case, declined to be mustered. 

Adjutant — Edward P. Williams, promoted to Captain and Assistant Commissary 
of Subsistence. 

Privates Jacob AlUvine, Thomas Bickle, Matthias Cramer, William A. Logan, Da' 

N. Pugh. Moses N. Pugh. John T. Stoiider, Bartholomew Smith, Solomon Swisher. 
( olumbus Duke, killed at Mission Uidge November 25, 1863. 
John Kepler, died at Memphis, Tenn.. October 15, 1863. 
John K. Nerhood, killed at Mission Ridge November 25, 1863. 

Lemuel W. Moe. transferred to Forty eighth Regiment May 30, 1865. 
George S. Phelps, transferred to Forty-eighth Regiment May 30, 1865. 


i account, of wounds. 

The One Hundred and Twenty-fourth Regiment consisted in part of two 
companies from Allen County that were transferred to it from the Ninety-first 
Regiment, on the muster out of the remainder of that regiment. 

The history of the One Hundred and Twenty-fourth is identical with that 
of the One Hundred and Twenty-ninth, which is given in full, they having been 
together their entire period of service. 

Privates — John Albright, Philander Allen, Joseph Dentu 
moted to Corporal ; Ephraim Spangler, promoted to Sergeant. 

; Llewellyn H. Price, pro- 

i Myers 

Privates— William Frey, promoted Corporal; Erastus C. C.odfry, promoted Corporal; 
George W. Opliger, promoted Corporal. 

First Lieutenant— Wiinam luyers. 

Privates—James S. Baker, promoted Sergeant ; Frederick Bicknian, Benjamin R. 
Glines, Henry C. Keever, William E. Martin, Ezra C. Tingle. 

Captain — Charles Emery. 

Second Lieutenant — Nathan Krause, Jr. 

Privates — Joseph Bartmas, Christian Conklin, Edward Geiger. Ambrose Kutz, Sam- 
uel R. Mcl.ain. Alvin V. Mitchell, David C. Slagle, Joseph W. Smith, Jncob Smith, Silas 
Tillison, Charles Fisher (died). 

Second Lieutenant — Joseph H. Keever. 
Privates— Peter Lynch, Peter Long, Willis 

McAuench. John R. Miller, Pn 

First Lieutenant — k-remiah M. Wise, resigned February 29, 1864. 

First Sergeant — Henrv Williams, transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps June — , 1863. 

Musician— Melvin M. Beals. 

hour, William Thomas ; Janvier B. Thomas, promoted to Corporal. 

Privates — Samuel D. Cole, promoted to Corporal ; John W. Swishe 

First Lieutenant— Marion E. Griswold. 

Privates — Albert Coals, promoted to Corporal; John Harris, William H. Johnson, 
James McConaughv, Milton Meranda, Francis Parker, Lawrence Powers, Levi Rhodes, 
Christian Richards. 

Privates — William H. Hunting, promoted to Sergeant; Daniel Leary, promoted lo 
Corporal Joseph Stark, Frank Saviot, Charles Stewart, William C. Vandewater, Julius C. 


Allen County was represented by forty-one men in the One Hundred and 
Twenty-sixth Kegiinent. which was organized at Indianapolis in March, 1864, 
with Robert K. Stewart as Colonel. About May 1, it was ordered to Nashville, 
Tenn., where it remained until the 1st of June, when it was assigned to duty 
along the line of the Memphis & Charleston Railroad, with regimental head- 
quarters at Larkinsville, Ala. It remained there until October 16, when it was 
ordered back to Nashville, where it was mounted, it having previously served as 
infantry, and sent lo the front. In the campaign in Tennessee in November and 
December, 1864, the Eleventh Cavalry was actively engaged, and did good 
service, especially in the pursuit of Hood's forces after his defeat at Nashville. 
It remained on duty in Northern Alabama alter the retreat of Hood across the 
Tennessee River, until the 12th of May, 1865. It was then ordered to St. 
Louis, Mo.; was there remounted and ordered to Rolia, Mo., and thence to 
Fort Riley, Kan., and from there to Council Grove, Kan., and was stationed 
along the Santa Fe route across the Plains, with headquarters at Cottonwood 
Crossing, where it remained until the 19th of September, when it was ordered to 
Indianapolis, where it was mustered out of the service on the 28th of September, 

Privates — Perry Andrews, James W. Barnhart, Sylvanus Bolenhaugh, Mark M. 
Brown, John Bumgardner, John Burdge, Thomas Cloud, John Counlryman ; David Dtll- 
inger, promoted Second Lieutenant; William Golden, William Hilton, Jacob Horn: 
Mosi-s McKinzie, promoted to Corporal; Henry Magner, Samuel Major, Thomas Major, 
Herjry McCune, James McGratli, Riley J. Miller, James Mooney ; Andrew Slacher, 
appointed Farrier; Theodoie Summers, Wilson Taguo, I'.iley Thompson, Arthur Watson, 
Samuel Wert, Gilbert Wilson. 


■ch 11, 1865. 

rawy 2. 186S. 

Samuel M. Allen transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps June 2, 1805. 

Ethan Baucock, died al Lnrkinsville. Ma.. S^lo,,,!,,.,- 24 1864 

Mordecai c].ilc..,it. died al New Albany, Ind., February 27,1865 

Joshua Cliilcimt. died at K,.k.,i„„. I„,|. \|„„l, -k, isifj 

John W. Ely, died al Indianapolis 

Dudley Gilford, died al Eaatport, I 

George Johnson, died at St. Louis, 

Jonathan D. Kline, died at In.lianapolis March 20 J8(iT 

T Vi ll H "w '.f' 1 " 1 '-,.' 11 , 1 " 1 ^.^shvill... Ten,,.. December 20, 1804. 

w-n" \S ay - d ' e ' 1 "' New All '"".v. Ind., May 20, 1864. 

William Slusser, died at Eiistj.orl. Miss.. May 1 1865 

Herrod Wenz, missing in action at Franklin,' Ten., December 1, 1864. 

Private-Thomas J. Shoe, transferred to Veteran Reserve Co"rps. 

_ ., „ . COMPANY K. 

David Eggiman. 
Priyates— Edward Burford ; Andrew Klotz, promoted to Corporal. 

PeteX'^rVanlSr' U ^^^- «-*» Power, Joseph Richart, 
Recruits— Irwin Kern, Edwin Turnock. 

Private — Benjamin Purdue. 

William S Apple discharged July 11, 1805,'time expired. 

Patrick llroderi.-k. discluirg, tuber 2«. lMi:, ,;„„. e s „i r ed 

Jesse A. Cramer, discliarged April 28, 1866 time expired 
Isaac Golhday, discharged April 10, I860, time expired. ' 


The One Hundred and Twenty-ninth Rciinent was enmnnsod „.,,.i;.,m r 

r SaX^: A,lcn c t;\.? ; t : "^ »3^ 

at Vendallytlle, when it was removed to Michigan City and the .u-aniiaii, „ c .,,„, 
ple.ed there on the 1st day of March, 18S4, with Charles Case's Colonel and 
Charles A. Zollinger as Lieutenant Colonel. On the 'loth ,.f Mm I, 
ment left Michigan City for the front, and arrived at S^e, T LI Apr ft wn ? n 
ftwa assigned to the Second I!, ,,k1c. First Division „f the Twenty-thi d A lmy 
Corps, and a few days after, marched to Charleston, East Tenne-ee rcchi, .. ,1 ? 

Z ; % 2 n h „° f A ^'"- °b the 3d ° f M ^' " — d With its comS,K „ h fd' 

on of Dalton, Ga., at the eommeneement of the Atlanta eampai .„ , ,. 

12th, the regtment marched through Snake Creek Gap, and, brelrS through 
dense forest, took po.sttion near Resaca. On the 15th, a hard i;'„,..|„ ln„|', 

Ri,"er a'nd I"' P " •" V^T? 7" Matti a " d d ' i '«- hXJS 
River, and the regiment joined in the pursuit, until the enemy was f„„,„! .„,,„,, 
entrenched at Cassy e. On the 20th the enemy w s . ; . ■"""".m 

r,l orta -„,l J. ■ rin , ~. ' * * ;, - :lln drliatr, at that 

place, and driven across the Etowah River. On the 25th of May the reiment 

llcw Hope Church. Before reaching there, however, the enemy ;,!,.,. , „,,.,,.,, 
engagement with another portion „f our army, had been compelled to M back Z 
Lost Mountain. From that time until the Hill, of July. „,,' ,,.„;,„„,„ .,'•''' ' 
pied in almost constant skirmishing with the enemy, and in ranid ,,,. I "-,',., | , , ' ' 
marching ,n„ rough, broken country covered with /dense ,r„w, of „!" Wh 
and intersected with small streams. During this time, to add to the dteomfo i 
of the men, ram fell almost continually and the roads wore nearly innJs.lT A 
short extract rem the d ary of Capt. James Harper, of Company Iwi 1 Avet 
slight idea of the condition of the country and the ,,,-ivtti ,„ „, ,1, \ 
Under date of June 19, the Captain says, "Left cam P aCufnoon 1 d tnTe 

mud knee-deep and drew rations; crossed a muddy st'rc „„!„,,,.,, , 

through the mud two miles further and laid down in mud and water f„ I, , I " 
Lug^ef JUM ' LieUtC ° L ***«" « V~£*C&ftF&, 

east rfAi„M h a n f d J ^'tl the eDemy WM f ° m u ! ° f ° rCe at Decatur . » f ™ ■"»» ol Atlanta, and, in the severe action that ensued, the One Hi„„lr,,l ,,„| 
Twenty-ninth lost heavily in killed and wounded ; and, on the lit, 
Med tfnd"ed° S " ^ ^° d at Str ™»^ »". losing twenty fife in 
On the 29th of August, the regiment, with its corps, marched around East 
Point south of Atlanta, and struck the railroad running'south from lie which 

t at once proceeded to tear up and destroy. On the 1st „f S,,,i, ,■ -,i lie 

battle of Jonesboro, the One Hundred and Twenty-ninth wi, i ,' ' 

moved upon the left of the entire army, but was only -lightly ,,..,'' t, 
next day, the entire army pressed on after the defeated' foe" uSu^ «,,',' 
where he was found strongly entrenched. Ho, skinni-hine a, once ■ ,m „ J 
and was continued until dark on the 5th, in which the One Hundi.d ■„,,l I w „ 
ninth did its lull share, when orders were received to fall hack to Atlanta Can 
Harpers description of that night's march gives a faint picture of i He s ' 

no™ M 01 d C '' S ,'° m ° Ve '° "f rea , r Qt S °' cl0ck - R »™ d *** "'I «■« »< f- 
awfui ,„ iT '", v" 1 Cml '°r ly - The nig '" Was r' hch ' hrk a " d ""= «ad was 

, " ll °" ll,:ltl "i 'he mud and water during the night. Marched side by 

ad was the °' d Jd"^ 1 '' II "J* , Mrd '° k ^ ""= ™«P-icf tether a til 
d „.,s ,„ crowded with men of different regiments. Halted at ■ ,,'c ,,ck in 
tne morning and waited tor daylight." 


The next day, the march was continued, and on the 8th, the One Hundred 
and Twenty-ninth, w,,h its corps, went into camp at Dcca t'ur. On the 4th of 
October, the command moved in pursuit of the rebel Gen. Hood who had eu 
Gen. Sherman's communications at Big Shanty norlh of Atlanta , A | 

strr.t:n S rn the gt-lsona that were guiirdi,,:, !l, -,M--vd thr li'el^rac-^-f 
?:Xfc S "?\ M 'r^'''^y in a liorthw Hy dir o , ' ™ ^ 7 

hen all ' J d' S , V ',' A '" '' ^ "'" '""'""' c,! " sc ' 1 - '"'« Twenty- . bird Comswas 
then assigned to the army under command of Gen. Thomas and the reriuiZ 
marched with its corps to Chattanoomi, and was transported , 1 " ? 

Nashville, and thence to JohnsonyillcVenn., wtre TZTnti « 'nTh.'^, f 
of Dn m ck e Riy ? e iS'thrld "" tT" " '° C ° 1Um d bia ' ^ "P-P" *• ^ri* 

On the 29th, the regiment fell back across Duck River, burning the railroad 
bridge in its rear. The enemy's column bavin,- passed our tl o,l ,L r Z , 
with its corps marched rapidly to Franklin, passin, alone immediately in fronTof 
and close to the picket hne of the entire rebel army, but was not dfsturbed the 
enemy in the darkness, supposing it to be a part of his own troops. ' 

The next day, the enemy assaulted our position in great force. It was well 
chosen, and was defended with great determination. Assault after assaiilt was 
made, and at one time, the enemy actually gained a foothold in our works but 
he was finally repulsed, with great loss. The One Hundred and TwJntyn'intl 
acquitted itself with great credit at that battle, and lost heavily of its list men 
and othcers in killed and wounded. 

The Union army was then withdrawn to Nashville, and the regiment was 
paced in position near there, and at once erected a line of defensive works On 
the 15,1, of Deceoiher, the command moved, with the rest of the army to tin 
attack o„ the lorhhed po-mon „f Gen. Hood, and participated in ,|„. bloody two- 
da,, bat loot Nashville, which resulted in the utter and entire defeat of Hood 
and the disastrous retreat ot his army to the south side of the Tennessee River 
the regiment joined in the pursuit until it was discontinued 

On the 5th of January 1865, the regiment, with its division, embarked on 
steamboats at Clifton, on the Tennessee River, with orders ,,, re-clbrce lie 
M.onnan who was at the time, in South Carolina. It went from Clifton to Ci^ 
oinnatl hence to Washington by rail, and thence to Cape Fear Inlet, on the coast 
of North Carolina, by steamer, and thence to Morehead City, to re „ bree t e 
column about to move from Newbem. " s "'oree the 

On the 6th of March, the regiment moved with the column from Newbem 
and matched along the railroad in the direction of Kingston, repairing the rail- 
road as it advanced. On the 8th, the enemy encountered our advance and cant 
ured two .regiments of Connecticut volunteers. Flushed will, this success he 
rapidly advanced his columns, and endeavored to check our farther orot-res, 
striking Rueer'.s division of the Twenty-third Corps, to which the One Hundred 
and Iwenty-ninth was attached. Very heavy skirmishing at once ensued the 
enemy making determined attempts to drive our line from its posith n On the 
10th, the enemy being heavily re-enforced, the skirmishing rapidly developed into 

The enemy made several desperate assaults, all of which were met and 
repulsed with great loss to him, and, during the followiii" ni-ht be fled in [treat 
disorder, leaving his dead and wounded on the field. The eo-a.-einent is known 
as the battle of Wise's Forks. The One Hundred and TwmSS tonkin 
active part m it, and lost heavily in killed and wounded. 

The way was now open to Kingston, and the regiment pushed on with the 
mam column to that plate, and thence to Goldshoro, reaching there on the 9 lst 
and moved from there to Mosley Hall, where it remained unTil the- 5th of April' 
It then rejoined its corps at Goldsboro, and marched to Raleigh and from there 
the regiment moved to Charlotte, reaching there May 9, where it remained 
engaged in provost duty, until the 29th of August, 1865, when it was ordered 
to Indianapolis. It reached there September 5, and was discharged and its 
members returned to their homes, proud of the record they Bad made— as thev 
might well afford to be. 3 

Colonel — Charles Case, resigned June 1, 1864. 

Lieutenant Colonel— Charles A. Zollinger, promoted Colonel. 

Adjutant — Herman C. Habn, discharged December 24, 18*14. 

Quartermaster— Joseph W. Cope, resigned March 28, 1865. 

Captain— Charles A. Zollinger, promoted Lieutenant Colonel. 

First Lieutenant — .lames Harper, promoted Captain. 

Second Lieutenant — Naliam 'lillieiy, promoted u< Lieutenant 

Sergeants— Benjamin H. Brown, promoted to First :-Vr^:inf ; Owen Davis 

Corporals— Samuel F. Leard, Andrew Cramer ; James F. McClure, promoted to Ser- 

Musicians— John F. Tisron, Andrew Treepe. 

Privates-Jacob Baker, promoted to Corporal; Wesley Bilderbaclt Sebastian Bar 

nard ; Levi Brollyev. promoted to Corporal ; Casper Conrad, Francis M Coleman Albert 

Carter; John W. Deetriek. promoted to C.rporal; William II. Heetrick Michael 'l)ai^h 

erty; David F. Deeiriek. Henry Dreear ; Cvrus Fikc. Vl ;.u,..„:l ,„ Sccm„l I "i tf ,,fe......i ■ E 

W. Frankenberger, William T. Carver, Josbt.a Hartzell; Kims H,irt/Hl promoted I to ('or 
poral; Ambrose Janes, C.eorge H. Kime, Isaac Kinger, DaniH .Metier Frank McKinnev * 
Dennis Monahan, promoted to Corporal; William B. McMahin, promoted to Cotnoral' 
Henry Myers, Joseph Peters, Christopher Platter, Adrian Borers, John llnsenlter-er' 
John Bich ; Isaac Suit/, pronmieil In (Wpnml ; Ohio Smith I rwlv Sl-iinlrntl' Miln 'I'll n . ' 
son, Jasper Tilbery, Oliver H. Wilson, Joseph Warner. ^aornp- 

John S. White, Sergeant, transferred to Veteran Beserve Corps. 

Peter D. Bovie, discharged May U'l, ]SU;"t. for disability. 

James C. Judge, discharged June 19, 1866, for disability. 

Aniasa S. Knapp, discharged April 3. 18(15, for disability. 

Oscar T. Vaminda, dischargeil May I'J, 18(35, for disability. 

lilisha Wilson, promoted to Hospital Steward and discharged June 7 18115 for dis- 

John Scannell, Corporal, died al Franklin, Tenu., December 7, 1864. 


William Mc Dorm fin. Corporal, died of wounds May 15, 1864. 

I'vtu- Her died in Aiider^uviilo I'risuii Aupju^i 22, 18G4. 

George C0e« died >w l.oiiLsv i lie. Kv., July 4, 18)15. 

w wi I'V t« ? kin,,,! ,i [.'ruikliii Tenn , November 3, 1864. 

entering upon one of the most active and important, campaigns of the wa 
Their places were filled by the one-hundred days men as fast as the latt 
could be organized into regiments and sent forward to the camps of rend' 
The One Hur 

tered into tin* servi 

Robinson as Colt 
The One H 
into the service 
June, 1864, with G< 
immediately to Tennessee. 

d sent for 
died ami Thirty-seventh Regiment was. organized and must 
ice at Indianapolis on the 27th of May, 1864, with Ed' 
el, and was ordered at once to Tennessei 
ndred and Thirty-ninth Regiment was ( 
of the United States at Indianapolis 
umphrey, of Fort Wayne, as 
Each of these regiments. 

red and mustered 
the 8th day of 
el, and proceedtd 
ng at Nashville, 
lie & Chat- 

Frank Vavier, died nt Marietta. U.i . Splcuiher 1, 1864. 
John W. Webster, died at Michigan City, [nd., April 2, 1864. 

Recruits-Thomas Cisscll. Gabriel Dinkins, Patrick Doyle, John Drcwey, Albert 
Mosker, Samuel C. Scott, Raymond J. Spaulding. 

Corporal— Benjamin F. Bethel. 

Eriyfltes— StratLon Bennett, promoted Corporal; Evans Bennett, promoted Corporal; 
Dick Bxeite. 

Privates— William Finney, promoted to Corporal; Isaac Grimes; George W.Xrider, 
promoted to Corporal ; Isaiah W. Sipe, James Sinclair, Thomas F. Spacy, Samuel W. Scott, 
Henry F. Smith. 

Charles Havkell, died nt Nn-hville. Tenn., June 14, 1864. 

John W. Kline, died nt Nashville, Tenn.. July 30, 1864. 

John Snyder, died a( Knoxville,Tenn., August 4, 1864. 

Recruits— William D. Clark, William Cochran, Ebenezer Rodenburger, George T. 
Scales, John A. White. 

ie, C.a., October 24, 1864 ; Uriah J. 

Privates— Whitmore Gardner, Henry Myres ; Chnrles Wells, promoted Corporal: 
James A. Humphrey, discharged January 30, 1865, for disability. 


Corporal— Louis C. Gould. 

Privates— Augustus Hair: David Montgomery, discharged i860, for disabil- 
ity : William Todd, died nt Fort Wayne, hid., November 3, 1864. 

Private — David Brown. 

Corporal— Adam Wolf, promoted Second Lieutenant, 
private — John Bear, promoted Corporal. 

Corporals— Francis F. McClellnnd, died al Bo 

Privates— Andrew I. Kimes, George Kniss. 

lu, 1864. 


The Thirteenth Cavalry bore upon its rolls the names of thiity-four men 
from Allen County, and was mustered into the service on the 29th of April, 
1864. at Indianapolis, and left the next day, armed as an infantry regiment, for 
Nashville, Tenn., where it remained until Way 31, at which time it was ordered 
to Huntsville, Ala., where it was placed on garrison duty. It remained there 
until the 30th of November, when the regiment, being mounted and equipped 
as cavalry, participated in the movements preparatory to and in the battle of 

In February, 1865, the regiment was ordered to New Orleans, and finally 
halted at Mobile, Ala., where it reported to Gen. Canhy, and assisted in the 
operations that resulted in the capture of that place and the forts in its vicinity. 
From that time until its muster-out, on the 25th of November, 1865, the regi- 
ment was occupied in guarding railroads and scouting in Mississippi. 

Company Commissary Sergeant— Jeremiah Biggs. 

Sergeant — Zachuriah AUerton. 

Corporals— Hamilton Harper, promoted Sergeant; Michael Denne ; Ephraim Bey- 
11, ,1,1-. di^cdiarged .Tune 1". ixr,:,, for disability. 

Farrier — James Bowles, discharged June 6, 1865, for disability. 

Wagoner — William Reynolds. 

Privates — Oscar Curtis, Ahrnham Crabill, Alexander Dawkins, George W. Ferguson; 
Thomas A. Gilpu. promoted to Corporal; Charles A. Graeber, promoted 10 Corporal; 
Charles Hammond, Samuel Jones, John Lee; William H. Lopshire. promoted to Corporal; 
Samuel Morningstar, Nicholas Nemmert, Samuel Naeketl, Albert Shell. John V eager. 

Thompson Bronsou, discharged July II, 1865, for disability. 

its IJ. 


■ged August 22. 1865, for disability. 

1 steamer Sultana, burnt April 27, 1865. 

id at Vicksburg. Miss., March 27, 1865. 

Jut , June 16, 1864. 

ilus. John A. Cash, Benjamin F. Cavins, William Horton, 
■nnia Winkler, 


The Ooe Hundred and Thirty-seventh Regiment was composed, in part, of 
forty-five officers and men, and the One Hundred and Thirty-ninth of eighty- 
seven officers and men from Allen County. They, with a number of other regi- 
ments raised at the same time, wtre designed to aid in making the campaign of 
1 sfM succt ,-sful and decisive, by relieving a large number of veterans from garri- 
son and guard duty, and allow them to join their companions in arms, then about 

■ned to duty at different places ahum- the Hues of the Nasln 
tanooga/Tennessee & Alabama aud Memphis & Charleston Railroads, and, until 
the latter part of August, 1864, were kept constantly engaged in guarding the 
lines of transportation for supplies to the army of Gen. Sherman, then engaged 
in the Atlanta campaign. They both served more than trie one hundred days for 
which they enlisted, when they returned to Indianapolis and were mustered out 
of the service. 


Captain— James Sewell. 
First Lieutenant— John Kiley. 
Second Lieutenant— William A. Crawford. 
Privates— Alexander W. Austin, Matthew 
Bruudige, Wilson It. Brundige, Columbus Beaber, Benjn 

Matthias W. Bohman, John 
Claik, John Crawford, Henry 
(\.ve\dale, Isaac B. Dawes, Cyrus Dustman, James G". Foreman, James Foster, John W. 
Fouglity, David Heathman, Judson Ilyser. Elias B. Kore, William B. Kyle, Albert A. 
Knowlton, George H. Knowlton, Abraham Lennington, Abram J. Lopshire, John Ligget, 
John W. Laccy, Emanuel Matthias, Joseph Myers, Din ins McGinnis, George W. Mills, 
George H. McLean, George Miller, Jesse Osmau, John T. Patterson, Frank A. Robinson. 
Samuel Roberts, Edward Koberts, Daniel Stump. James K. P. Shepler, Adam Smith, 
Albert Shultz, Lawrence Sewell, Jacob J. Todd, George W. Weaver. 



First Lieutenant— George W. Bell. 

Privates — Joseph P. Anderson, promoted Sergeant ; Isndore A. Bryant, John L 
Black; John Benguot. promoted Corporal; Justice Burns Henry Bauer, Benjamin F. 
Botts, Henry Brubaker. George Brubaker, William H. Boyce, John Baher, Samuel Collet, 
Manin Crabill, Willis W. Case, Philip S. Cartill, Winfield S. (lark, Henry C. Clark, 
W'infield T. Durbi 
M. Durbin. promoted Corpu 
gler. appointed Musician; S 

i E. Melott, died at Johnsonville, Tenn., November Ln 0S lii 


peanl ; {,u.r»v Mulr/. I .hv,i.J I 
fl.-nr...,.- Monk WillinmSmilh; 1 
Spurgeon.; Oliver Talloeb, Dani 
S. Thorn,,,, promoted Corporal 
Horatio Wood. ( brislian Wells, 
Wineland. James Williams; 1 
Charles E. Hush, died at Fort J 

mel W. Feagler. Thecdore F. Gordon, Levi Garrison, Daniel 
V. Gregg; Michael Huston, promoted Corporal Jacob Heftelfinger.'John 
-. il Uoyne ; Darius K. Houghton, promoted Sergeant ; George James, 
appointed Musician; M:n>hail Keermm, William W. Labor, Franklin 
lorlin, John W. Maley, James B. Marrs, Warren W. Martin, George W. 
swby, Charles Overman, Brewery H. Oliver; Nelson Parker, promoted 
t C. Pnttee, James Provines, James B. Ramsey ; Eupene B. Smith, pro- 
David C Stillwell, Samuel P. Saurs, John.W. Sellers. John T. Smith, 
.Joseph SDodgro^s, George Senkpiel : John C. Salmon, promoted Ser- 
ial^. Edward II IS Beriven, Benjamin F. Stalker, Benjamin F. Spurgeon, 
.11 im Smith; Henry Smith, promoted Sergeant; Leonard Shull, Williiim 
■rTnllock, Daniel J. Thurston. Frederick Trout, Albert Tucker; William 
n.olcd Corporal; James K. Voss. Henry Walker, William H. Warden, 
, II. Withers, Hiram Weirich, George 
oted Sergeant ; Levi Xumbrum ; 

1 M. loutz, pro 
, Ky., July 14, IS 



The One Hundred and Forty-Second Regiment was in part composed of 
about three hundred and fifty officers and men from Allen County, and was 
recruited under the call of July, 1864, at Camp Allen, in Fort Wayne, and was 
mustered into the service on the 3d of November, 1864, with John M. Comparet 
as Colonel, and left almost immediately for Indianapolis, and left there November 
18 for Nashville, Tenn. On its arrival it was assigned to garrison duty at that 

During the battle of Nashville, December 15 and 16, the brigade to which 
the regiment was attached was in the reserve and occupied the inner line of 
defense, extending from the Cumberland River to Fort Negley. 
After the battle, the regiment remained on duty at Nai 
mustered out. It reached Indianapolis on the 16th of July, 1 
finally discharged. 

Colonel — John M. Comparet. 

Lieutenant Colonel— Chauncey B. Oakley. 

Adjutant — Percival G. Kelaey. 

Quartermaster — Theodore S. Comparet. 

Frederick Jimey, George MeClaiinahan, Robert. McEwen, Jerome Perry, Frank 

Bingler, Willirim 15 Warren, promoted Second Lieutenant of Company (' ; .lames Purmeter, 
ili-cli;irged July 14, 18*1'), for disability; Frederick Gobat, died at Nashville, Tenn., 
December 28, 18G4. 

ihville until it was 
nd on the 23d was 

Captain— Christopher Ilettler. 

First Lieutenant— William B. Warren, resigned April 11, 18G5. 
Second Lieutenant — Closson Warren, promoted First Lieutenant. 
First Sergeant — Frauds M. liylaml, promoted Second Lieutenant. 
Sergeants — Alfred t'oolrniu-, promoted First Sergeant and discharged July 0, 18 
disability; Charles W. Powell, David Miles, John Butt. 


Corporals — Francis M. Sums, John L. Hanes, Rudolph Grihe, Tobias Rabus ; John 
Stien, promoted First Sergeant; John A. Burkas, promoted to Sergeant; William C. 
Jones, Austin Lyon. 

Privates— Franklin Arnold, John Audi, Theodore Bley, John Boshet, Daniel Beer, 
Albert W. Beatty, James L. Black, Frank Carry, George Craven, John G. Clark, Alfred 
Comstock, Joseph Clode, .Samuel Dearstiue, Antoine Dennis, William Dickev, Aneaisius 
Dourdiek, Frederick Dirkas, Morris B. Dishong, Daniel Emerick, Charles Ehinjrcr, 
Warner Khui'ier. George Foster, John W. Farmer. Joseph France, Peter M. Grislev, Lewis 
Guilliam, Frederick Graiinnman, I'hilip Geissenger, William Garden. I'eler Gabe, George 
Ilosseunuer, Henry Hull'eisler, David Kleindcust, John Kern, Frederick Kennenian ; 
William Ling, promoted Corporal ; Frederick Lower, Andrew Leeta, Frederick Meyer, 
George W. Moore, Dennis Madden, Anderson Martin; Gotlleih Muhlenbach. promoted lo 
Corporal; William Miller, Peter Mettert, Samuel Nickles, Jolin Nill, David H. Overly, 
Napoleon Poinpey, Charles Piipiinot. August Kissing, Timothy llalliham ; Henry Schrocdcr, 
promoted to Corporal; John Sehukier, Alexander Slater, John W, Shirts, Arthur S. 
Sisley, Eddem Saddlet ; William Sehoppman, promoted to Corporal; Lewis Tinkhani, 
Xophira] Voiral, Henry Weidhrok, Ellis Wirt ; Herman Walda, promoted to Corporal ; 
Benedict Wellon. 

John Brown, died at Nashville, Tenn., April 3, 1865. 

Michael Herring, died at Nashville, Tenn., December 2b, 1804. 

Caspar Neep, died at Fort Wayne, Ind., June 25, 1865. 

Henry Oerting, died at Fort Wayne, Ind., October 25, 1864. 

Joseph Smith, died at Nashville, Tenn., February 25, 1865. 

Julius Saviot, died at. Nashville, Tenn., February 18, 1865. 

John A. Slammer, died at Nashville, Tenn., February 19, 1865. 

i Gable, William L. Gerard, Caspar Krock, Lewis Mehn 

i Chritchet, Chr 

Musician — James Shewey. 

Privates — Adam Amspacker, John W. Bowman, James Balentinc, Jonathan H. Bryan, 
John C. Cunningham, John DevilbiBS, James Dunivan, M. V. B. Funk. Lewis T. Jones, 
Celostine Marette, Thomas I>. Overly, Jacob Shewey, Joseph Smith, James II. Smith. 
Peter W. Sipe, Peter Walburn. 

John Bailey, died at , January 17, 1865, of wounds. 

Captain — David Howell. 

First Lieutenant— George P. Shriller, resigned January 24, 1865. 

Second Lieutenant — Robert H. Parker, resigned January 14, 1865. 

First Sergeant — Henry G, Taylor, promoted Second Lieutenant. 

Sergeants — James Brown, died at Nashville, Tenn., December 23, 1.S64 ; Jeremiah 
Wallace; Richard Champion, promoted First Sergeant; William B. Drake. 

Corporals — Bascoia C. Anderson, Thomas .1. Spurling. Joseph Kilhey. John Thomas ; 
Augustus G. Boltz, nromoted Sergeant; Henry Plover, died at Nashville, Tenn., June 
24, 1865; John Warner, died at Nashville, Tenn., January 19, 18G5; Lemuel Baling. 

Musicians — Henry A. Coburn ; Jefferson Unllinger, promoted to Principal Musician. 

Privates— William C. Bloomhutf, Frank M. Blnomhuff. William S. Besser, Henry C. 
Baker, Samuel Baker. Daniel Bareus ; Richard Bareus, promoted Corporal; Lewis Blyler, 
promoted Corporal; James I.Chilcotc; John Connors, promoted Sergeant ; Joseph Clemens; 
Jonathan Coleman, promoied Sergeant; Henry Dear man, Clarence E. Doane, William li. 
Drake, Henry Doutrick, Solomon Derome, William Dressier, Rufus F. Eby, Ira Friend, 
Frederick G. [lit/field, Warren Hoke, Benjamin Haines. William flight; John A. Henry, 
promoted Corporal; Henry Hill, Adam Huff, James R. Howey ; Ira Hardendorf, promoted 
Corporal ; Thomas King; Joseph Klingaman, promoted Corporal ; Gottleib Kramer, John 
ICern, Henry Lopshire, John Lopshire, Edward Lewis, Asbury Moore. George Mitchel, 
John Meyers, Barney McKenna, Samuel Mahon, Alexander McDowell ; John Nierdemar, 
promoted Sergeant ; James Overly, Cornelius O'Connor, John M. Parker, Sant'ord It. 
Philley, Ezra Rank, Samuel Somers, William H. Somers, Peter Swager ; Reuben Strout, 
promoted Sergeant; Henry Stendar, Edward H. Stein, Herman Stein, John Snider, George 
A. Simmons; Henry Story, promoted Corporal; George Thorp, James Threadgall, 
Lawrence Till'ord, John W. Truitt, Eri Williams, Christian Winkleman, Cornelius Weaver ; 
Israel Young, promoted Corporal; John H. Young. 

Samuel S. Brown, died at Nashville, Tenn., April !), 1865. 

Patrick Fitzsimmons, died at Cincinnati, Ohio, February 4, 18fi5. 

Henry Ilildebrand. died at Nashville, Tenn.. March 15, 1865. 

Elias Kline, died at Nashville, Tenn., December 25, 1864. 

Leander P. Miner, promoted Corporal ; died at Nashville, Tenn., July 8, 1865. 

Captain — Alouzo Bigelow, resigned February 0, 1865. 

First Lieutenant— Robert W. Swann, promoted Captain. 

Second Lieutenant— William L. Westerman, promoted First Lieutenant and resigned 
May 1, 18D5. 

First Sergeant — Nelson Parker, promoted to First Lieutenant. 

Sergeants — lames Donaldson, Abram Lowrey ; John C Whiteleather, died at , 

January 13, 18C-5; Eiihu Reichelderfer. 

Corporals— James C. Dutcher, promoted Sergeant; Alexander Kentner, William B. 
Daniels, Joseph Brudi ; Joseph A. Berry, promoted First Sergeant; Thomas S. Truitt, 
William W. Labar, William Ort. 

Musician- Chester C. Hollinger. 

Privates— Samuel Alberlson, Elwood J. Breece, Francis 0. Banscrman, Eleazer 

Briggs, Jonathan Bales, .1 ilhan G. Bennett; Christian F. Brudi, promoted Corporal; 

Benjamin F. Brelsford, John Bunfill, Isaac G. Copp, Matthias Conrad, Wheeler Cutler, 

Samuel II. Cro/ier, Robert Castle, John Dugaut, Charh ~ 

moted Corporal ; David D. Drive 

Amariah Daniels. Samuel D, II- 1 

Foote, Amos C. Friece, Dennis F 

L. Gerard, Martin L. Henderson 

Hoover, Alfred Hollinger, Willi 

John Kellev, Peter La Claire, Jol 

George R. Di 

el C. Doctor ; John Day, promoted Corporal ; 

Deutzel, John W. Driesbaek. Harvey B. 

Lon, Martin Falk, Jacob Gable, William 

d Franklin Herrick. Porter Hill, John 

John Jayn 

. ttillia 

Jacob Martin, Jr., Joel W. 
vera, Uriah Mitten; Lycurgus S. Mill, pro- 
?r. Henry L Price Lewis Perkins, Henry 
Jonathan' B. Roberts. Scott Rugg, William 
Shaffer; Comfort Starr, promoted Corpo- 
i-aim B. Wartcnbe, Samuel Walker, William 
i Wirubaiigh, Isaac D. Warrington, William 

Seth Adams, died at January G. 1865. 

John Compton, died at lanuary 2, 1865. 

Jerome Davis, died at March 20, 1865. 

Leopold Evard, died at February 4, 1865 

James Millcdge, died at April 23, 1865. 

Alonzo O. Ober, died at February 22, 1S65. 

Augustus A Skinner, died at March 5, 1865. 

David Yoder, died at January 24, 1865. 

Corporal — John M. Malev, promoted Sergeant, 

Musician— Arthur M. Walker. 

Privates— Richard Book, William L. Beck • Lewis ] 
iam Coleman, John W. Crawford, Nathaniel Cook, I 
Fair, William G.skill. Hugh ILirler, Daniel H.mrig 
llotidyshcll, John llillinger, Nathaniel llilliard, Ada 
par Krock, Anderson I'unce, George II. Points, J a: 

Butner, promoied Corporal , Will- 
-rvey Dye, Henry Friend, John T. 
i. Caleb M. Houdyshell, Skilman 
i Hughes, Francis U. Johnson, Cas- 
ivell, Henry Sweet, Daniel 

j Stofiel, Sidney B. Weeks, Jefferson Wurtcmhe, Levi Zura 

Corporal- -Tlieodore Helm. 
Musician— Ed mond Helm. 
Privates — Royal Bigbee, Lewis Davis, John Ferguson, William Todd. 

Captain — Andrew W. Stevens. 

Privates — Hiram B. Derr, William Charles; William Turner, died at Nashville, 
Tenn., December 15, 1864. 

Recruits — William Derr, John F. Moonoy, John Jones, Francis McMahau. 


Corporal — Lolt Logan. 
Musician — Joseph Kelchum. 

Privates — Mathias Ghogle, John Heldendright, John Hohing, Charles McNair, Henry 




This regiment bore upon its rolls 200 officers and men from Allen County, 
and was organized at Indianapolis March 16, 1865, with Whedon W. Griswold 
as Colonel. It left Indianapolis on the 18th of March, for Harper's Ferry, Va., 
and, on arriving; there, was assigned to duty with one of the provisional divisions 
of the Army of the Shenandoah. It was stationed, for a short time, at 
Charleston, then at Stevenson Station, then at Summit Point, an! was finally 
ordered to Clarksburg, \V. Va., where it remained until the 80th of August, when 
it was ordered to Indianapolis, and mustered out of the service September 1, 

The One Hundred and Fifty-second performed post and garrison duty during 
its entire terra of service, and thereby relieved older regiments, and those that 
had more experience, and enabled them to take an active part in the field. It 
would, without a doubt, have vied with the other regiments from this State if it 
had had the opportunity. 

Lieutenant Colonel— Joseph W. WhUakcr. 

Surgeon — William II. Tliaeker, declined. 

Assistant Surgeon — Heman H. Sherwin. 

Privates— Alexander F. Brown, Daniel Murphy, Joseph L. Skinc 

First Sergeant— George H. Milliard. 

Sergeants— Timothy M. Albee, John Raypole. 

Corporal— John F. Wells. 

Privates— Calvin Conklin, Leonard Cooper, Joel Delong, Allien A. Demonsey, Isaac 
M. Evans, George Gardner. John Julien, Wiufield S. Kestler, George Kizer, David McGrady, 
William G. McBridc, Andrew J. Miner; Amos Miller, promoted Corporal; Henry V. 
Miller; Ronald T. McDonald, promoted Sergeant Major; Reuben Rerick, George 
Sanders, Jacob Slyter, Charles D. Shyre, John W. Wattevson, Samuel Watterson, James 
A. Waiterson, Gardner Works, George Wilson. 

Privates — Jacob Marquardt, Isaiah Magner. 

Captain William A. Kelsey. 

First Lieutenant— Orrin D. Rogers. 

Second Lieutenant — Frank A. Robinson. 

First Sergeant — Robert S. Armstrong. . 

Sergeants— John Nail, Daniel J. Rhoads, Matthew Schwaiv. Mil.. II. Brooks. 

Corporals— Enoch Chirk ; Henry Blackburn, discharged May 30, , for disability ; 

George Rush, Robert W. Brundige, Benjamin Clark, Daniel C. Grover, William Clark, 
Matthias Ilollopeter. 

Musicians— John Fairfield, Jr., discharged June 20, 18Go, for disability; John 

Wagoner— Jamea B, Henderson. 

Privates— Karl Adams, Thomus Ambler, Jonathan Byers. Luther Birely, Thomas 
Carroll Peter Conrad Jesse ('rouse; John Craig, promoted Corporal; Levi Coleman, 
Henry Decker William Liawkinx. Ab-mhuzi Durhiii, Joseph Davis, John Khringer, Henry 
Llophe lacob Fonser, Smniiel Kngwell, Williaui Grichle. Patrick Golden, John C. Grover, 
lulios Crojolm Vrnik Gi-«joImi Z ichariah T. Garrett, Isaac N. Harper, John Heiusehe, 
David Heinsche James L' Hunter, David Harhaugh. Sidney Hatfield. James A. Hollo- 
peter, John A. Ivy, Calvin Jones, Bradcn Johnson, Jacob Kaufman. Frank Laronway, 
Charles Mason, Israel Miller, Lewi. Matthews, George Miller, Staeom M.-lMi , .1. i h .,_(.- 
E Morse Alexander Mot'lure, Charles Noyer, John B. i'ansot, Irani- I -n-iy. < lin-nm 
D Parker, Isaiah Reddin, Gustavus Ross. Samuel Roberts, David Rlou I-. KeoUm Rous- 
seau Ilenrv Serits, David P. Smith, William Shaughiie«y, Henry Smit, I ru-i , Mnder 
Louis Schlandorff, Nathan W. Sedgley, John Smalts; Heman H Sherwin ; promoted 
Assistant Surgeon; John F. Sherwin, promoted Hospital Steward; Henry Vannardan, 
Joseph York. 


JohnBalMU'liiru'-'l M iv 1'-'. ISi;:,, for .Usability. 
William 0. Stow. !. Ij-.-lm :■ i Muy «(), ]Si;.j, for disability. 
Asa Smith, discharged Juno -, 1865, for disability. 
Hamilton Scott, disulmrjio.l June l'$. lR»i">, for disability. 
Asa Turner. disclmrired May 2-">. lSti:'i, for disability. 
Hersohel Herring, died al Summit Point, Va., June 24, 1865. 
Thomas Oceleston, .lift i.i Clmi-lestim, W. Va., Angus) 12, 1865. 
Elmoro Scribner, died al Cumberland, Md., April I, 1865. 
Martin Stills, died nt Indianapolis, Ind.. April 21, 1865. 

Captain— Marshall W. Wines. 

Firsl Sergeant— Joseph E. G. Holman 

Sergeants— William II. IVs, .Snniuel Gault, Lewis Clark. 

Corporals— John S. Scheik, Arnold Smilli, liiley Rickets. William H. Neal, Peter 
Sonnel ; Nioholas Kinger, died at Grafton, W. Va., April 20, 1865; Edwin C. Smead. 

Musician— Perry L. Baker. 

Privates— Amond Baas, Francis Bailey, Timothy Baldwin, Miohael Brucker, Alexan- 
der Bailey, Newton Bayles, Lyon BurFord, Adam Cognet, Patrick Cunningham, Jacob 
Clark, Thomas Cut-hall/ Frank ttngleharl, Samuel C.oliring, William llazlet, Nathaniel 
IL.^.'riv, I'liiiel ilallaru-r, .Insoph llercheareider. Marcus Herchenreidcr, Peter Hendler, 
Jas.m, Calvin P. Hauser, George P. Hilkey, Alexander Joust, Amand Jobst, 
Thomas F. Kelly. Conrad KeiiMman, James Knight, Lauer, John Lauer, Ernst 
Long, Peter Michards, Bonjtmiin Mapes, Thomas Melntosh; Benjamin Mcintosh, promoted 
Corporal ; William Magner", Philip Nussdorfer, Charles Richard, Owen W. Rummell, Flor- 
eatine Kiv. John Houdebush, Peler Unssell. Philip Schucknian. Nelson Smith, Christ 
Schninger. Jason S.diatler: Clmrlcs Sinalley, promoted Crporal ; Uandall li. Sprngue, John 
Schneider, Joint 1 Smithey, Peter Scherschel, Charles Starling, Samuel Tanner, Christian 

■ n. Bi' 


uvi, iii'\i>lti:i. and i it TV-ill- ill ki:i;imi;ni 


Tlie One Hundred and Fifty-fifth Regiment was organized at Indianapolisi 
and mustered into the service for one year on the 18th of April, 1S65, with 
John M. Wilson as Colonel. There were eighty officers and men in the regi- 
ment from Allen County. On the 26th of April, it was ordered to Washington, 
and. finally, on the 3d of May, reached Dover, Del., where the regiment was 
assigned to garrison duty, detachments nt' it being sent to different points in the 
vicinity, and one company to Salisbury, Md. It was finally mustered out of the 
service August 4, 1865, at Dover, and reached Indianapolis August 10, from 
where the members separated and returned to their respective homes. 

Captain — Joseph M. Silver. 

First Lieutenant— George R. Whitmore. 

Second Lieutenant— Richard H. Garland. 

First Sergeant — John II. Jacobs. 

Sergeants— El bridge G, Paige, timer Stater, Philip Sternier, John Whinnery. 

Corporals— Lewis H. Bowers, Oliver Herbert, Amos Prindle, Charles Smith, John 
West. David Walter. 

Privates— Peter Amstutz, John Barden, Frank Besancon, William Bryant, Oliver 
Benward, Joseph Besancon. George D. Beckman, Joseph Burchfoild. John N. Broom, 
Isaac D. Barcus, John W. divert. Mahlon I. Connett, Jacob Cronujiller, Peter Dailey, 
Joseph Dame, Hiram Dingman, Charles Friese, George Ford. William S G.irhari, Thomas 
Gorley, William R, Herrick, Arunda Herrick, Thomas Holt, David Henderson, August 
Harlmnn, John G. Hartshorn, Justice Humbert: Homer C. Hart man. prom -.- i -,. ■, on 
Major of regiment ; Henrv Heir, Freeman James, Anton Kayse 





mi H. Richey, 
, Henry Smith, 
no W, Tourgee, 

Eli Arnold, Lewis H. Barr, Sirouse Benward, William D. Bloomhuff, Jonathan Bow- 
man, Jacob Fair, John MeXall, Charles B. Nichols, James Slater, Adam Schwegel, 
William Weleimer. 


The Fifth Battery had upon its muster-roll the names of twenty-six men 
from Allen County, aud was mustered into the service November 22, 1861, with 
Peter Simonson as Captain. It left Indianapolis November 27 and went to Louis- 
ville, Ky.. win-re it remained until the 20th of December, when it was ordered to join 
Uen. 0. M. Mitchell's division of Buell's army, stationed at that time at Bacon Creek, 
Ky. It, remained there until the 9th of February, when the battery, with its 
division, moved to Bowling Green, and thence to Nashville, Tenn. During the 
mouth ..i' March, the division moved south from Nashville, aud finally occupied 
Huntsville, Ala., on the 11th of April, capturing at that place a large quantity 
of stores, and, what was a greater loss to the enemy, three railroad trains. Two 
guns of the battery were at once placed, by order of Gen. Mitchell, on platform 
ears and run ahead of locomotives each way for seventy miles on the Mem- 
phis & Charleston Railroad. On the return, the bridges on the railroad were 

That happened to be about the only instance of a reconnaissance by railroad, 
with artillery, into the enemy's lines, being successful on record. The command 
remained at Huntsville until the 10th of June, when Capt. Simonson was ordered 
to take one-half of his battery and proceed, under command of Col. Turchin, 
who commanded a brigade in Mitchell's division, to Bridgeport, Ala., where he 
remained until the 1st of August, when the other half of the battery joined 

On the 24th of August, the battery was ordered to Stevenson, to cover the 
removal of Government stores of all kinds from that place, the Union troops 
being about to evacuate that position. 

On the morning of the 31st, the enemy, in strong force, attacked the post, 
and an artillery fight at once commenced, which was maintained, with a great 
deal of obstinacy on both sides, until afternoon, when the enemy was forced to 
retire. Everything being in readiness, the troops were withdrawn without fur- 
ther molestation. 

The battery marched from there to Nashville, and thence to Louisville, Ky., 
with the army under Gen. Buell, reaching there on the 29th of September. On 
the 1st of October, it marched, with the army, in pursuit of Bragg, who had 
been foiled in his effort to capture Louisville, overtaking him, on the 8th of 
October, at Chaplin Hills, near Perryville, Ky. The Fifth Battery was hotly 
engaged with the enemy for six: hours, and was highly complimented by the Gen- 
eral commanding for its gallant conduct. 

The battery lost 2 men killed, IS wounded, 32 horses killed and crippled, 
and 1 ammunition-chest blown up by an explosion of one of the enemy's shells. 
From Perryville the army moved into Southern Kentucky, and thence to Nash- 
ville, Tenn., via Bowling Green, arriving at Nashville November 9. On the 24th 
of December, it was assigned to the Second Division of the Twentieth Army 
Corps. Od the 26th, the movements preliminary to the buttle of Stone River 
commenced, the battery, moving with its command, participating in the skir- 
mishes that took place while the army was getting into position. 

Early on the morning of the 31st, the right of our army was fiercely 
attacked by a vastly superior force, and was driven back nearly two miles, losing 
heavily in men and material. 

The Fifth Battery suffered severely, losing three men killed and sixteen offi- 
cers and men wounded, one mortally. Thirty-two horses and two guns were lost. 
The division commander, in bis official report, said. " Capt. Simonson managed his 
battery with skill and courage, and with it did good execution. He lost two guns, 
but not until the horses had been killed and the guns disabled." During the 
remainder of the battle, the battery, with the four guns it had left, did effective 

The battery remained at Murfreesboro until the 24th of June, 1863, when 
the army moved south with the intention of attacking Bragg at Tuilahoma, a place 
which he had strongly fortified. The battery was engaged in the action at Lib- 
erty Gap, on the 24th, and, in the skirmishing which occurred on our advance, 
up to the lid of July, when the enemy evacuated Tuilahoma, and it was occupied 
by the division to which the battery was attached. On the 16th of August, the 
army moved forward again, and opened the campaign which terminated after the 
bajtle of Chickamauga. The battery participated in these movements, and, with 
the rest of its command, joined the main army on the morning of the 19th of 
September. About noon on that day, the battery became engaged and fought 
till after dark, losing one gun and several horses. The battle was renewed early 
the next morning, and the battery remained in position hotly engaged until after 
two o'clock in the afternoon, when it was ordered to fall back, in doing which it 
lost another guu. On the 22d, it retired to the lines around Chattanooga, having 
lost one man killed, nine wounded and two prisoners; twenty-six horses and two 
guns were also lost. 

In November, the battery was ordered to Shell Mound, Tenn., to guard the 
river and road from Chattanooga to Bridgeport. To reach that point, it had to 
cross the mountains bordering the Tennessee River, called Waldron's Ridge, up 
which the men were obliged to draw the guns and caissons with ropes-^100 
men being required to haul one gun. The ascent of three miles was thus made 
in one and a half days. The battery remained there until February, 1864, when 
it moved to Blue Springs, Tenn., where it was assigned to Stanley's (First) 
Division of the Fourth Corps. It moved with its division, at the commencement 
of the Atlanta campaign, on the 3d of May, and occupied a constant position in 
the advance. It participated in the following named engagements during that 
campaign : Tunnel Hill, Rocky Face Ridge, Rcsaca, Adaitsville. Kiu-ston, Cass- 
ville. Pine Mountain, Kenesaw Mountain, New Hope Church, Hurst's Station, 
Peach Tree Creek, siege of Atlanta and Jonesboro. At Pine Mountain, while 
placing his battery in position. Capt. Simonson was instantly killed. A more gal- 
lant officer or braver man never lived, and his death was a great loss to our army. 
The shot that killed Lieut. Gen. Polk, of the rebel army, at Pine Mountain, was 
fired from one of the Rodman guns of the Fifth Battery. 

In January, 1864, fifteen men belonging to the battery had re-enlisted as 
veterans. On the 20th of September, the battery turned over its guns, horses 
and equipments to the Government. The veterans and recruits whose time had 
not expired were transferred to the Seventh Battery, with which organization they 
served until the 20th of July, 1865, when they were mustered outof the service. 
The non-veterans reached Indianapolis November 18, and were finally discharged 
on the 26th. 

The total losses to the battery during its term of service were — killed, 9 ; 
mortally wounded. 3; wounded, 48; died of disease, 21 ; prisoners of war, 3; 
total, 84. It lost in battle four guns and expended over sixty thousand rounds of 
ammunition. It renewed its armament three times during its term of service. 

For efficiency and good conduct, the Fifth Battery was surpassed by nd 
coinmand in the army. 

Second Lieutenant— William L. Hulse. 

Sergeants— James Fullerton, discharged November 12, 1803, for disability ; Samuel 
P. C. Freeman. 

Corporals— , Jose pints Armack, discharged November IK, lfM'2, for disaMlily ; William 
G. Robertson. 

Buglers— Claud C. Miller, discharged I'm- disability : William L. Hulse, promoted to 
Second Lieutenant. 

Privates— William I- Armstrong, promoted to Corporal; George Acker, Isaac Barr, 
Harrison Cramer, David Cool ; Daniel Culver, veteran, transferred to Seventh Battery; 


Samuel Culver, Jacob C. Clark ; John E. Douglass, promoted fo Corporal ; Joseph Davis; 
Harrison Imbody, veteran, transferred to Seventh Battery; Louis T. Vigina, veteran, 
transferred (o Seventh Battery. 

Nicholas Brut 1 , discharged Novemher 1-!, ISfi'J, tor disability. 

Thomas Cole, discharged January 6, 1868, for disability. 

Otis Heath, discharged fur disability. 

Anthony Kramer, discharged tVir disability. 

Patrick Ney, di-eliarged January 10, 1803, fur disability. 

Alonzo K. Boale, died at Nashville, Tenn., April 8. 1863. 

Michael McCarty. died at Chattanooga, Tenn., November 30, 18G3, of wounds. 

Arthur Peabody, died at Louisville, Ky., February 5, 1802. 


The Eleventh Battery was recruited at Fort Wayne, almost entirely, and 
bore upon its muster-roll the names of 222 men and officers from Allen County. 
It was mustered into the service of the United States at Indianapolis, December 
17, 1861, with Arnold Sutermeiater as Captain. Soon after its organization, the 
battery moved to Louisville, Ky., and thence, with Gen. Buell's army, to Nash- 
ville, Term., reaching that place on the 26th of February, 1862. The battery 
was armed with four four-and-a-half-inch Rodman guns, intended for a siege bat- 
tery. They were heavy to handle, and hard to move on the march, but they were 
the only arms at hand at the time, and the Captain took them with an under- 
standing that he was to have lighter guns as soon as possible. The battery moved 
with the rest of the army to Columbia, Tenn., and thence to Savannah and Pitts- 
burg Landing, to re-enforce Gen. Grant. On account of the bad condition of the 
roads and the weight of the guns, it was impossible for the battery to keep up 
with the other troops, and, consequently, it did not take part in the battle of Shi- 
loh. Arriving immediately afterward, it was moved to the front, and took an active 
part in the siege of Corinth, until it was evacuated by the enemy. In June, 
1862, the battery marched across Northern Alabama to Stevenson, where it was 
placed in position in the works, erected at that place for the protection of the large 
amount of stores that had been collected there. When the army marched north- 
ward in August, in order to prevent, if possible, Bragg's invasion of Kentucky, 
the battery accompanied it to Nashville, where it remained to assist in guarding 
that post. The battery remained there on duty, posted in Capitol Square, until 
February 10, 1863. The heavy guns of the battery were then exchanged for a 
lighter armament, consisting of four twelve-pound Napoleon guns and two three- 
inch rifled Rodman guns, and was ordered to Murfreesboro, and remained there 
until the 24th of June, when the forward movement on Tullahoma took place. 
After the evacuation of that place by Bragg, the battery was stationed along the 
'Nashville <fc Chattanooga Railroad, in important and exposed positions, until the 
16th of August, when it, with its command — Lytle's Brigade, Sheridan's Divis- 
ion of Mc'Cook's (Twentieth) Army Corps — moved in the direction of Bridge- 
port, Shortly after, it crossed the Tennessee at that place and moved southward, 
in the movements preliminary to the battle of Chick amauga. On the 19th, it got 
into position in our lines at Chickamauga, but was not actively engaged. On Sun- 
day, the 20th, about 10 o'clock, the whirlwind of battle struck the battery, and 
it was manfully resisted,, losing nearly one-fourth of its entire number of men in 
killed and wounded, and the two Rodman guns, Before the guns were aban- 
doned, fifteen of the twenty-four men that had charge of them were kilted or 
wounded, including four out of the six drivers, while ten out of the twelve horses 

Lieut. Williams was also wounded by a rifle ball through his right 
wrist. Col. Silas F. Miller, of the Thirty-sixth Illinois, who succeeded to the 
command of the brigade after Gen. Lytle was killed, on the same day, in his 
official report, says : " The rifled section of the battery in charge of Lieut. 
Williams, after doing splendid execution, had to be abandoned. The caissons 
were brought off, and the remainder of the battery was saved, only through the 
almost superhuman efforts of Capt, Sutermeister and his men." 

The battery fell back to Chattanooga with the army on the 22d of Septem- 
ber, and was soon after placed in charge of ten siege guns, in Forts Sheridan and 
Brannon, and did good service up to, and including the battle of Mission Ridge, 
on the 25th of November. It remained there until the 3d of May, when it took 
an active part in the Atlanta campaign, participating in many of the actions that 
were fought during the next four months, and was conspicuous for its splendid 
execution during the siege of Atlanta, where it had charge of eight siege guns. 
After the capture of Atlanta, the Eleventh Battery returned to Chattanooga, 
where it remained until November 21, 1864, when the non-veterans were ordered 
to be mustered out, but they were not finally discharged at Indianapolis until 
January 7, 1865. 

During the month of March, in 1864, a number of members of the battery 
had re-enlisted as veterans. On the 21st of November, they and the recruits of 
the battery, whose terms of enlistment had not expired, were transferred to the 
Seventh and Eighteenth Batteries ; each of those organizations remained at 
Chattanooga until they were ordered to Indianapolis for final discharge, the 
Eighteenth Battery being discharged June 30, 1865, and the Seventh Battery 
on the 11th of July following. 

Captain — Arnold Sutermeister. 

First Lieutenants— Henry Tons, reined March 25, 1803 ; William Green, appointed 
December 20. 18132; resigned Mav 20, 18112; John Otto, appointed March 20, 1803 ; 
Henry M. Williams, appointed May 30, 1863, resigned November 23, 1803; John H. 
Jacobs, appointed March 1, 1804. 

Second Lieutenants — John Otto, promoted First Lieutenant ; Henry M. Williams, 
promoted First Lieutenant. 

First Sergeant— Chas. R.Scott, promoted Second Lieutenant and died January 5, 1864. 

Quartermaster Sergeant — lohn II. EMers, promoted Second Lieutenant. 

Sergeants— George Thompson, died at HuntsviUe. Ala., July 21, 18G2; John Mc- 
Kiuley. promoted Second Lieutenant, H. H. Bickcll, Eli Rank, Waller Strallon; George 
Wallnmn, discharged October 21, 1802, fur disability. 

Corporate— D. 11. M. Phillnbatim, promoted Sergeant; Richard Biddick ; T. C. 
Gillock, promoted Sergeant ; George Kreig, promoted Sergeant j Francis Kelhtr, died at 

1803, for di> 

Chattanooga, Tenn., September 10, 1804 : John D, Mclirady, discharged June 10, 1803, for 
disability; Charles Dudley, died at Annapolis, Md., December 10, 18f'3, of wounds ; Peter 
Campbell, discharged June 2-"i, 1802. for disability; Albert Totten, discharged November 
21, 1802, for disability ; John J. Conklin. 

Buglers — William L. Andrews, promoted First. Sergeant ; William Edmonds. 

Seiler, John F. Crow ; Michael B.Ryan, discharged April 27, 

ham, died at Kingston, Ga., July 24, 1804. 

Caldwell, veteran, transferred to Eighteenth Battery; William 
inaferred to Eighteenth Battery; Ephraim Goodwill, veteran, 
Jacob Schuiittly, veteran, transferred to Eighteenth 
ied at Nashville, Tenn., July 27, 1804, of wounds- 
lis II. Bowers, Henry M. Brown, Samuel M. Cairns; 
al; John Clear, John Corcoran, Henry I. Darling, 
irider, Francis Grojohn, George Hnssart, James B. 
lhbs, John W. Hoke, Dallas P. Holbrook, Hiram F. 
■Her, promoted Corporal; Goltleih Kerchncr ; John 
,amont,. Joseph Eap-diire, Henry Liner. Francis Levan- 
ed Corporal ; Stacy McDonald, William McGrady, 
lin L. Moore, Daniel O'Orady, Christian Ouk, Adam 
Rupple, appointed Bugler ; Ureu/o Schuler, Will- 
■ .'.r .l-nne. Slioler, William Shelian, George Stall, 
n, Jacob Wilhelin, J. C. Williams, promoted Corporal. 
d June 18, 1862, for disability. 

nary 20, 1802, for disability. 
' 80, 1802, for disability. 
7 18, 1803, tor disability. 
a ■>. 1862, for disability. 
tomber 1, 1862, for disability. 
er 12, 1863, for disability. 

[iial I s . 1888, for disability. 

25, 1802, for disability. 
5, 1802, for disability. 
> 30, 1802, for disability. 

Privates— Henry W. Caldwi 
M. Chapman, veteran, transfer! 
transferred to Eighteenth Bat It 
Battery; James Ballard, vetera 
Lewis Bewley, Nathaniel B'ane 
Wellington Chwscn, promoted C< 
Philip Fetters, Robert Gill, San 
llendor.-oii. William lloU-s, J,,!, 
Jarvis, Theodore Johnson; Job 
Krons, promoted Corporal ; Ado' 
way ; John W. Morehouse, pr 
Patrick McMahon, Philip \lille 
PhilbihaoTo, rh'irlox <i'u ; Fa 

Rudolph I 
John W: W 
Robert Mc 

Jacob Watson, ill-,- 
Charles I. Willis, d 
Clark L. Wilcox, di 
James Johnson, mi 

Philander Spi 

April 20, 18G2, for disability, 
ruary 5, 1803, for disability, 
ne 25, 1802, for disability. 

,■:>. 1862, for disability. 

1 June 2-"., l-"_ for di-ahiliiy. 
■■I July 30. 1 '■'■2. for 'Usability. 
hut 5, I 1 -'.!, for disability. 
,]'i il 27. 1S03, for disability. 
larch 24. 1804, for disability. 

gust—, 1803. 

, Tenn., April 20, 1803, 

i„ June 17, 1802. 

April 8, 1802. 

— , January 23, 1802. 

Christian Annan, transferred to Eighteenth Battery. 
Ferdinand Ballon, IransferreJ to Eighteenth Battery. 
Henry I'.eamm-, tran-trrrcl to I i-ihtcenth Battery. 

Edward Uearaa, ti inaferred <•■ Eighteenth Battery, 
James Boden, ti Lnsferred to Eighteenth Battery. 

Alexander Bo,v--er ti aii-fcrred to Seventh Battery. 
John Balnur, lr:.nsfen ed to Eighteenth Battery. 
A. J. Cotterel, transferred to Eighteenth Battery. 
William H. CulMuill, transferred to Eighteenth Battery. 
Hiram Congleton. transferred to Seventh Battery. 
John Carls, transferred to Seventh Battery. 
Samuel Dougherty, transferred to Seventh Battery. 

Henry F. Drews. 

Elijah Dolloff, tr 
Richard Ehle, tr 
John Englert, tr 
Daniel D. Franc 
Charles S. Ferrit 
Orville B. Ferri* 
Jacob Felgar, tr: 
Almond II. Flim 
William Glenn, i 
Lewis H. Gardn 

sferred to Eighteenth Battery. 
isferred to Eighteenth Battery. 
Lsferred to Eighteenth Battery. 
isferred to Eighteenth Battery, 
transferred to Seventh Battery. 

tra id to Eighteenth Battery. 

transferred to Eighteenth Battery. 
isferred to Seventh Battery, 
transferred to Seventh Battery. 
Mislerred in Eighteenth Battery. 
, transferred to Seventh Battery. 

to Eighteenth Battery, 
•red to Eighteenth Battery. 
> Eighteenth Battery.' 

to Eighteenth Battery. 

Rudolph Iseli, t 

onsferred to Eig 

hteenlh Battery. 

Charles Ismer, t 

nth Battery. 

Jeremiah Irvin, 

Alexander Irvin 

Seventh Battery. 

Joseph P. Jerot, 

ghteenth Battery. 

■ansferred to Ei 

sferred to Eight 

rnnsfcrred to E 

ghteenth Battery. 

William P. Kin. 

all, transferred 

o Eighteenth Battery 

transferred to 

ighteentb Battery. 

Jasper Ludwig, 

ransferred to E 

gliteen.l, Battery. 

George Lamp ma 

n, transferred to 

!■ ighieeiith Battery. 

George W. Lind 

John Mcintosh. 

transferred to 8 

\euth Battery. 


William Millard, transferred to Eighteenth Battery. 
Martin Monasmith, transferred In Kiirhteenth Bat I pry. 
Herman Michalis, transferred to Eighteenth Battery. 
John A M i-'Ui. transferred In I iuhicenlh Battery. ' 
I vt-i l ran -rem I 1" LLditeenib Buttery. 

BenryJ Newoo' 

Herman Otto, tr 
George Bank, tn 
Charles E. Roger 
Martin L. Kandt 
Laban.I. Riley, i 

Joseph Sumler 
Woolsey H. Sa 1 
John Telly, tn. 


David Waltei 
Hcnrv Wchei 
Julius Younc 

isferred to Eighti 

> Fifteenth Battery. 

'iu'l.lecnlh Ballery. 
Eighteenth Battery. 

I, 18G3, for disability. 
iruary 26, 1863, for disability. 

. lb In 

Will in 
Henry Slater, disco 

Thomas Stoke?. <li-. 
James M. B. Snyde 
A. J. Bird, died'at 
Henry Blaze, killed 

Jiscliarged Deeember 2, 1868, for disability. 

insville, Ind., September 15, 1862. 

Chickamauga, Ga., September 20, 1863. - 
George W. Brooks, died at Ackworth, Ga„ June 7, 1864. 
William J. Coles, died at Chattanooga, Tenn.. December 16, 1863. 
Benjamin C. Challis. died at Hurfreesboro, Tenn., April 20, 1863. 
John W. Demerest, died at Nashville. Tenn., July 11, 1864. 
Lovetus A. Ferris, died at Chatlanonpa, Tenn., June 11, 18G4. 
Daniel Oplinger, died at New Albanv, Ind... July 10. 1864 
Thomas Stafford, died. 

James W. Kilpatrick, transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps. 
John Adam, unaccounted for. 
Adin Black, unaccounted for. 
James Brown, unaccounted for. 
Thomas Smith, unaccounted for, 


Allen County was represented l>y sixty-one men and officers, in the Twenty- 
third Battery, which was organized at Indianapolis, and mustcredjinto the service 

on the 8th of November, 1862. It remained there on duty, assisting in guard- 
ing the rebel prisoners confined in Camp Morton, until in September, 1863, when 
it was ordered to Easton, Ky., where it was assigned to Gen. Wilcox's division 
and accompanied that command to Knoxville, and participated with it " 
paign in East Tennessee, during the winter of ISiio-ti-i, including t 
ments fought at Knoxville and vicinity under Gen. Burnside. In May, 1864 
the battery was assigned to the Twenty-third Army Corps, under Gen. Schofield. 
and with it took part in the Atlanta campaign. After the capture of Atlanta, it 
was moved northward with its corps, and did good and effective service at the 
battles of Franklin and Nashville, and, after Hood's defeat, followed in pursuit 
of his army to Clifton, on the Tennessee River. From there it. proceeded 
with the Twenty-third Army Corps to Wilmington, N. C., and from there to 
Goldsboro, Raleigh and Greensboro, participating in the campaign made by 
Schofield's forces in that State. After the surrender of Juhn.son's army, the bat- 
tery was ordered to proceed to Indianapolis, to be mustered out, and, on the 2d 
of July, 1S65, the officers and men were discharged from the service and returned 
to their homes. 

Captain — James H. Myers. 

First Lieutenants— Luther S. Bought. 

First Sergeant— John G. Bright. 

Quartermaster Sergeant — John Knappenberger. 

Sergeants— Hiram C. Slater, Joseph C. Bowers, Osbo 
L. Nichols, died at Knoxville, Tenn., February 3, 18G4. 

igned August 16, 1864; Aaron A. Wilber. 

lL. Bell; John 

I T. Br! 

otcd ! 

Treep, Fre. 
geant; Charles M. Gtllett, promoted Ser- 
ibruary 13, 1853. 

Privates— Joseph Baldwin, Eugene, .lames (\ Chamberlain, John Cline ; Wall- 
ace C. Corbel t, promoted Corporal; Albert A. Dormus, Jacob Freeze, Joseph Gruler, 
Hiram Benny; Warren Jump, promoted Corporal ; John Kaylor, George W. Murqueret, 
Ansou Miller, Daniel Mallen, William King wait, Mnnnassa Rupert, promoted Corporal; 
.Ybi'.il.:..n L Sinner, promoted Sergeant : Joseph Warner. 

William Dii-'kerson. discharged February 2ii, I- 1 ".-', fur disability. 

Jacob Mur.pioret. discharged September l' 1 , 1>'.1, I'.n- disability. 

Isaac Patter-on, discharged September 10, lS'io. fur disabiliry. 

Henry Upsal, 'liseharged April 4, 1S03, fur disability. 

Daniel Volkert, discharged , by civil authority. 

G. Carothers, transferred to Eighteenth United States Infantry December 8, 


George W. Hunt, transferred to Eighteenth United States Infantry November 24, 

Alfred Baldock, died at Decatur, Ga.. October 1, 1864, 
Leonard Burrier, died at home February 23, 1864. 
Alfred Bueche, died at Tazewell, Tenn., December 14, 1863. 
Jehiel Gastin. died at Indianapolis April 19, 1S63. 
Jacob Gorrell. died at Indianapolis March 3, 1863. 
Levi Needier, died at Knoxville, Tenn., March 20, 1864. 
KIk:i Robeils. died January 23, 1863. 
John Swann, died November 1, 1862. 
Joseph Treep, died Deeember 13, 1863. 

, veteran ; George W. Darnel, Daniel France, Willie 




Residents of Allen County. 




m m . 






CnmmiiSflioner-i* annointment for ll.n Stnto 


Cover- f ib T t N Hi 

"t;z : ^2:, .:,::'. ::..;'/. ■ , .' 

.. Secretary and Acting Governor. 

l«l .T..m.- \V. Kcrrt.-ii , 


Acting Governor. 

: «£ S."o v '£;:::'y 

Uotltonnut Governor and Acting Govonior for one year. 

.:::::::: p::::::!SS!::::::jrA.' B ^23!!!:::.:":-. .. 

Lteutonnnt Governor and Acting Governor for one year. 

! ;! ! j r.M..ri..., 

l.i.'iiii-ii.nir Uwerriiir and Acting Governor. 

j^ujp i a :: .!'.■. fbVSi ' 

Lfeutanant Govornor and Acting Governor. 




rionry Monning 

Charles MeOulIoch 

Christopher Dosckcr... 

warns of iiif, i:\itfii sta i i:s w>\; hf rkci:i:>i:\taiivks. 

. Jonathan MeCarty.. 
William llockbill ... 

. Cbarlcs Case 

. Joseph K. Bdgertoi 








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W B Ilrook It D 

US' 1 H D 

Lewis Bcecher, M. IJ 

U I' a-.m.M D 

I. D. G. Nelson '.'.'.'."'".'.'".'.'. 

John *1L C ... '....'. ".".. ' '•'.' 


D. W. Burro.iKlis 


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W. S. Wood wor tli, M. H 

E. Slurgis, " Z'.'!.'.'.'.'.'.Z 

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J.H.Joaa, ;' ---■■••••■•- 

■ .J. DIM..," ::: 

W. U Drookj. 


)pb Allen ami Randolph-. 








con os E». 







■" ■"""■ 

Anthony I.. Davis 

Robert N. Hood... 
Allen Hamilton... 

osoph Holman.... 
Villiam G. F-wing. 
"homos Forsythc.. 

John Forsylhe.. | 
L. G. Tliompsou f 

Jenj. Cushman 

Joseph Hobnaii 

rhos. W. Swinney. 

Samuel Banna 

George F. "Wright.. 


\ Th«. K. BretLeDriJg*. 

Vllen Hamilton.... 

David Pickering... 
Tos. L. Swenuey... 

lohn P. Hedges... 
Joseph Bcrkey 

i .. 

luihony L. Davis 

toberl N. Hood... 

lobert Fleming... 

idward Coleiick.. 

Piatt .7. Wise 

Clement A. Reckers 

Juhn M. Koch... 
Jos. Mommer, Jr 

Villiam Rookhill.. 

[ * See note at 

< bottom of pngc. 


Nathan Coleman... 

■rands Alexander 

Christian Parker.. 

David McQuiston.. 

Robert Briggs 

s'elson McLain 

Kufus McDonald.. 
u illiam M Pai kei 

Soah Clem 

aines Wyman. 
Villiam Caswell... 

oseph Burkey 

\ L. S. Bayless. j 

I Starkweather... 

Ins. S. Hamilton. 
William Robinson. 

F. D. Lassellc 

Michael Crow 

Byron D. Miner- 
John A. Robinson 

Jacob Hillcgass... 
Jacob Goeglein.... 

'rancis Coniparet. 

ames Holman. 



Nathan Coleman. 

leubenJ. Dawson. 

I John Rogers. 
| Jos. Townsend. 

{.1. M. Will \ 

Wm. A. Jackson.. 
Wm. McLaughlin 

.1. W. McArthur.. 
Nathan Butler.... 

Wm. H. Goshorn. 

Horace B. Taylor. 

1 oseph Hall. 

«* Samuel S. Morss... 
S. M. Black 

1»45 Henry W. Jones... 


letue Pattce. 

Henry Iiudisill. 



1850 R. Starkweather... 

Thomas T. DeKay 
Oeliiuig Bird 

Alexander Wiley- 
Oliver R.Jefferds. 
Alexander Wiley.. 

Henry Monn'mg.. 
John Ring 

Wm. MoMullin... 

I " l 
{ Wm. Fleming. 1 

Joseph A. Stront... 
William T. Pratt... 

i ;: 

John McCartney.. 

Chns. A. Zollinger 
Joseph D. Hance. 

Henry Dickerson.. 

John Shaffer 

William Long 

John Begue 

Frank Gladio 

Peter Parker. 

William T. Daly. 


W. H. McDonald. 

T. M. Andrews. 

"' \ Frauds L. Fursi 

Augustus M.Webb 
William Gaffney.. 


1801 G. F. Slinclicomb 




1SI.-5 Henry .1. Rudisill 








11 1). Robinson ■ 
James IT. Smart... 

Isaac Hall. 
David H. Lipes. 

John C. Davis. 
Henry K. Turner. 




1877 Martin E. Argo... 



Michael Schmetze 
Jjohn M. Taylor. 

f Tlalt J. Wise. 1 
\ C. Munson.... |' 


Timothy Hogan. 




1863 Isaac W.Campbell. 

1864 " J 


1807 John G. Maier 

1808 " J 


1874JohnE. Hill 

1875 John Hamilton 




.„-, t.( J- Hamilton. 1 

181 ■' tJ.Lin gar.1. / 

William H.IIarle 

Daniel .... 
Daniel Shnrdo 

George Shookman 
Asbury B. Todd.. 

John Flaugh 

Asbury B. Todd. 

Daniel Manahan. 
las S. Ik-ller. 

George H. Ashley 
Ambrose Ashton. 
Jacob Baylor.... 


J. Knappenberger. 
Frank M. Schirm. 

Frank M.John 

Ira C. Whiting. 
J. W. Linden. 
Wm. Alderman. 
Ferd. McLanc. 

Alvin Hall. 
John Flickenger. 
Leroy Sprague. 

John Spindler. 

Sol. Benninghoff. 

Leroy Sprague. 
Mbert W. Brooks. 

f .IllHlicCS, - JKJM-ll Ml llltt 






AMM , 


P _. 





John Crofford 

Milton Waugh 

iVm. Harper 

F. A. Roy 

G. W. Rilter 


[Icnry Brown 

I'hos. S. Heller 
John M. Taylor.. 

I>. Iv (I'll. ,„ 

William Rider.... 
James McCiwy.. 

John Schoercpf ... 
James McCrory... 

B. Schnelker 

Klisha W. Green... 
rharlcs 11. Smith 

B. Sclmelker 


Loll s. Bayles... 

John Spninkle 

John Sprankle 

.1. W. Cartwriglit.. 


Abram Jackson... 

Henry L. Riley 

lohii McLare 

Jacob Mooney. 
Thomas Meades. 

Jacob Emerick 

John M. Shire 

George W. Schell.. 
Henry C. Shull.... 

Win. Branstetler... 
Jacob Lawrence.,. 

William Scott 


Joseph Roekhill,.. 

S. W. Bolyard. 

Charles M. Joly 

'.'.'.'p. E.O'Herrin 

Henry C. Zollinger William Glenn.... 


*.T, G. Clapseattle. 

C. L. Greenwell.. 

H. C. Hural. 


conyciPiijiEiD by col. cr. b. :do:dc3-:e. 

J 1J r> G- B3 S . 




iSS „c, M , 

co>t°,r L r ^ s . 



COM cou B t LEA8 


Bethuel F. Morris 
Miles G. Eggleson 

Charles H. Test... 

Gustavus A.Evarts 

Samuel C. Sample 
Charles W. Ewing 

John W. Wright.. 
Tames W. Borden. 

El/a A. McMahoi 

James L. Worden 
f R .e;» paws .. 

Sainul Hanna... 
Benj. Cuslnnan.. 

Wm. G. Ewing.. 
Nat'l Coleman... 

R. Starkweather 
Nat'l Coleman.. 

Anthony Davis. 



William N. Hood.. 



L. G. Thompson... 

David Rankin 

Michael Shirns... 
Marshall S. Winns 

J. H. McMahon.. 
Andrew Mczgor.. 

William J. Brown 
John B. Chapman 
Samuel C. Sample 

Hugh McCul'loch.. 

Joseph L.Jernegan 

i J. W. Wright 1 
I W. Wright f 

Phillip G. Jones. 

Reuben J. Dawson 
Samuel Slophlct... 


Kobert L. Douglas 

Glza A. McMahon 
Jos. Breckenridge 

James L. Worden 

Edward R. Wilson 
S J. Stoughton.. 

Aug. A. Chapin.. 
James H. Schell.. 

Roberts. Taylor- 
Joseph Daily 

Kob't E. Fleming. 

James W. Borden 
Jos. Breckenvidgc 

James W. Borden 


/ " 

i I. D G. Nelson. 


William S. Smith. 

Joseph A. Prance 

(James A. Fay} 
{ J. W. Borden j 

Jos. Breckcnridge 
James W. Borden 

Edward O'Rourke ^ ,;,[„,,, OKol f,. kc 

} •■ 

Niscph S. France. 
Samuel M. Hench 



William S. Edsall. 

■ \ 

Frank II. Wolke. 

Edwarl O'Rourke 


Allen Zullers 

Robert Lowry 

Jas. F. Morrison. 


M. V. B. Spencer. 


William Stewart. 

William Stewart. 
Samuel S. Moras 
E. P. Randall 

James L. Wordei 
Henry Sharp.... 
F. P. Randall!!! 

F. P. Randall . 
William Lytic.. 

• F. Wright.Jp. P. Randall.. 

.Jos. H. McMnkei 

0. P. Morgan 

William Lytic 

John B. Dubois.. 
Oliver P. Morgan. 

Roht. E. Fleming. 
S. M. Black, 
lloht. E. Fleming. 
William liockhill. 
S. M. Black. 
WiRium II. Prino. 
Joseph Morgan. 
Samuel Stophlct. 
Chas. Q. French. 

Henry R. Colerick. 

E. Ellis 

R. N. Godfrey 

A. C. Probasco... 
Christian Tresaelt 

C. Davis 

Moses Drake, Jr. 

T. Bourie 

K. L. Chittenden. 

S. P. Freeman- 

John M. Oodown. 

John H.Trentma 

.. F. P. Randall.. 
..'Charles Case.... 
,.]Wm. W. Carso 

Lewis W.dke. 

II. McElratrick I. H. Teller... 

Charles Forbes..;. .|S. C. Freeraat 
Conrad Nill \ George Humphrej 

W. II. Link 'John .1 (ilei 

M. Kir-.; 

tt, l.i 

i Sle 

II. M. Putnim W. S. Smith 

John Conger 'Jos. S. France.:.. 

T. P. Randall 

C. Piepenbrink R. S. Robertson. 

'Allen Zollars 

1. A. Droegemeyer " 

Charles M. Barlo 

L. Ncwbcrger 

L Zollers 

Henry Colarick.. 


John S. Mower... 
W. S. Gilkison..!! 
C. S. Brackcnridgt 

Orrin D. Hurd... 

L. T. Bourie 

M. Van Oeison.. 
Joseph B. Fry.. 
Thomas Mnnnix. 

Frank B. Vogel. 
Thomas Mannix. 
Frank B. Vogel. 

iseph Prii 

11. Hulkci 

John Orel 


i I. I '.ink , 
Charles I'.: 
Henry To 

William Liudeman 

P. McGce: 

Charles Uplegger 
Chrislopber Kelly 

W. Lindlag... 

P. Folahee 

W. II. Briant!!!!! 
IV L. P. Williard. 

Conrad Baker.... 
Dennis O'Brien.. 

II. M. Diehl.. 
E. B. Smith... 

C. Freeman. 
John B. Reckers. 
George Fisher. 
E. C. Pens. 


. Hugh McCulloch. 
. Sam'l H. Shoaff... 
. Philo Rumsey 

....Samuel EdsalL. 

Philo Kumsey.. 

jQseph Scott... 

iraoe lames P. Muns. 

Henry Sharp... 

nphrey M Hedekin 

184» Charles Miihlcr John Conger 

IMS .. P. P. Bailee 

l&il'llonrv Sharp W. H. Bryant 

185l!0. W. Jcffcrds lames Howe 1). P. llarlmnn Oehraig Bird 

1852Robert McMullen H. R. Colerick lames Humphrey | " 

185:l!john J. Trenlman Milton Henry lohn Drake ..James Vandegriff.. 

P. II. Taylo 
John Cochri 
Charles Pagi 
Samuel S. % 

William M. Moon. 

Charles Fink. 
A. McJunkin. 

Robert Armstrong. 
Henry Drover. 

1854 W. Bprger I Iveline.... 

186.') E. Boslic F. P. Randall 11. Baker 

1856'Thomoa Stevens... J. Ormiston. " 

1857 H. N. Pulliam W. Burger C.l). Bond.. 

1868 " " I 

1851IJ. Burl Ij. Trentman 'M. Cody 

1860 •• I 

1861 B. Slocum.. 

1862 >' " .. 

18S3H. Moaning 

1864 •• " .. 

1865 '• IW. Waddin 


. M. Hedekin.. 

.J. Orff 

..I. M. Miller.. 

11. Merman... 

C. Orff 


T W. T. McKean.. 

ISC 1 .' A H Carrier 

1870 •• I 

1871 •• I " 

1872 •• I 

1873 W. T. McKean H. N. Putnam.. 

is; i 


1877 C. Riese.. 

1878 •■ .. 

M. Hedekin.. 
11. II Tower.. 

. White... 

|M. Cody !.". 

W. T. McKean M. Hamilton!! 

C. D. Piepenbrink 

P. Hoagland.... 
B. W. Oakley.. 
I R. Prentiss.. 
L. Dcssnuer.... 

E. L.Chittenden. 

F. Nildlinpel. 

Ij. IV. Breekenridge 
W. Taglmeyer. 
W. Meyer. 

lohn Arnold W. II. Link 

C. W. Allen 

W. T. Trait W. McKinley.. 

.A. M. Webb.. 

M. Baltes.. 
I. Breen..!. 
.1. Ryan 

J. P. Wise. 


C. Becker. 

A. C. Beaver. 
II. II. Kimball. w 

H. Graffe 
Charles Munson. 

..A. E. Scheie 

. Edgerton P. S. Underbill.. 

I. Cochn 

MoPhail II. II. Kimball |P. 

uel Hnnnn'....! G. II. Wilson... 

1'. [Ioht I 


. C. Becker.... 
. 0. II. Wilson 
. D. Harding.. 

. IV. II. Withers. 
.J. M. Reedmillei 


G. Jncoby.. 

1807.1. Mcf/ M. Hogan 

1868 ■■ " 

18"i'.'T. Hogan N. C. Miller... 

I. Sohepf I. 8. Goshorn.. 





1876 •• . 

1877 " 

1879 J. Welch.! 

" '1. Jacoby ... 

.S. DeWold C. Tre ,cl.. 

•W 'C. Tarn 

. U. B. Stropc .' " 

J. E. Grahar 

. I.. Poi 

" J. Mobr 

0. DeWald ! George Link 

C. Tremmel ! '" 

0. E. Brndway... 

1. Item II. Schone 

. II. Witlenburg.. 
.. A. T. Dryer 

W. B. Fishci 
II. Schnclkei 

I. II. .lines.. 

.1. W. Vordermark. 

Robert Lowry was electa! City Recorder in 1844, to fill vacancy. 

December 2, 1870, J. G. Noll elected to suceued A. T. Dryer, deceased. 



It has become the custom in these latter days, in the arrangement of histor- 
ical matter, to treat the facts presented topically, and certainty with great show 
of propriety. The more rational process, considered with reference to the method 
of a half-century since, would seem to accord essentially with the plan of treating 
each topic as an entirety, instead of arranging a series in chronological order, giv- 
ing disconnected facts in the order of their occurrence. It lias been the purpose, 
in the preparation of this department, to appropriate to each township a complete 
review of its separate or individual history, embracing in its boundaries primi- 
tive and successive settlements ; the career of the pioneer men traced from actual 
standpoints, from the lonely cabin in the wilderness, in the progress of years, to 
the stately mansion ; from the unbroken forest to the broad and generously culti- 
vated fields. Incidentally thereto, the reader will be able to discern the changes 
which time has wrought in the methods prescribed by necessity, whence have 
proceeded the grand scale of improvement on exhibition to-day. Indeed, it has 
been contemplated to make the history of each township complete in itself, with 
its individual relation to the county as a whole. To accomplish this work satis- 
factorily, the aid of numerous persons resident, in these several civil jurisdictions 
has been brought into requisition and their information utilized in analyzing and 
digesting the material essential to a correct and reliable local history. It is 
believed that by such means only can we expect to produce a work which will 
in the future be recognized as authentic and complete. 

Below are recorded the names of those in the several townships who have 
rendered essential service in the collation of the material embodied in what has 
been written under appropriate beads. To these especially, and to many others 
generally, the editor herewith tenders his grateful acknowledgments. They are 
those who have rendered the most efficient assistance in the preparation of the 
township histories of Allen County, and are as follows: 

Perry Township— Horace F. Dunten, William T. Hunter, Jacob Hillegass; 
T. M. Andrews, Dr. E. G. Wheelock. 

Cedar Creek — Peter Notestine, John Pring, John Dever. 

Springfield— Isaac Hall, Estes Howe, John D. Reichelderfcr, Dr. F. K. 
Cosgrove, Sr. 

Scipio — Robert Dorsey. 

Maumee— Jacob Saylor. 

Milan— Alvin Hall, Charles Shriner. 

St. Joseph— Hon. Christian Parker. William McClure, Adam Pettit. 

Monroe— Noah Clem, John Friedline, J. B. Niezer, Dr, W. A. Connolly. 

Jefferson— Alanson Whitney. 

Adams— L. M. Rogers, 0. D. Rogers, Henry Burgess, Dr. M. F. Will- 


This township was organized on the 31st of May, 1824, and its boundaries, 
at that time, embraced the whole of Allen County proper, and was only reduced 
to its present limits after the settlement and organization of the other townships. 
The settlements in this township were, technically, the primary settlements of 
Allen County, of which Fort Wayne was the common center and the attractive 
point of history. Properly, then, it may be said that the settlements in Wayne 
Township, as such, should' only b^onsidered from the date of its organization, 
since, prior to that time, the arelr^is known and designated by the generic title 
of Fort Wayne, or primitively, Ke-ki-ong-a. It might, also, with propriety be 
said, on the other hand, that the history of those points, anterior to the date of 
their organic existence, should be alike applicable to all together. Hence, we 
refer, first, to 


In 1798, C. F. Volney, the French philosopher, in his route to Detroit from 
Vincennes, Louisville, Cincinnati, and Frankfort and Lexington, Ky., evidently, 
came by way of Fort Wayne. In his " Indian Character," he describes a route 
which leaves but little doubt of his presence here. In conversation, however, 
with Little Turtle, at Philadelphia, through Wells, an interpreter, he elicited 
many facts showing his wonderful sagacity and astonishing penetrative powers, as 
well as the remarkable whiteness of his skin, i. e., " While talkiug to Mr. Wells, 
I was not inattentive to the chief. Not understanding English, he took no part 

in the conversation, hut walked ubutit. plucking out liis hairs from his chin, and 
even from his eye-brows. He dressed in the American style — in a blue suit, with 
round hat and pantaloons. I desired Mr. Wells to ask him how he liked his 
clothes. 'At first,' said he, ' they confined my limbs unpleasantly ; but I have 
got used to them, and, as they defend me against, the meat and the cold, I now 
like them well enough. 1 Tucking up his sleeves, he showed me a skin, between 
the wrist and elbow, whose whiteness surprised me. It differed not at all from 
my own ; my hands were as much tanned as his. His skin was as soft and fair 
as a Parisian's." " As to your numbers," said the chief, " your increase is quite 
inconceivable. More than two lives, supposing eighty years to each, have not 
gone by since the whites first set foot among us, yet already they swarm like flies, 
while we, who have been here nobody knows how long, are still as thin as deer." 
Finding his thoughts going in this track, I asked him why they did not multiply 
as fast. ' Ah, 1 said he, ' our case is very different. You whites contrive to collect 
upon a small space a sure and plentiful supply of food. A white man gathers 
from a field, a few times larger than this room, bread enough for, a whole year. 
If he adds to this a small field of grass, he maintains beasts, which give him all 
the meat and clothes ho wants, and all the rest of the time he may do what he 
pleases; while we must have a great deal of ground to live upon; a deer will 
serve us but a couple of days, and a single deer must have a great deal of ground 
to put him in good condition. If we kill two or three hundred a year, 'tis the 
same as to eat all the wood and grass off the land they live on, and this is a great 
deal. No wonder the whites drive us every year further and further before them, 
from the sea to the Mississippi. They spread like oil upon a blanket; we melt 
like snow before the sun. If things do not greatly change, the red man will 
disappear shortly.' " 

On November 24, 1819, Capt. James Riley, having left Ins surveying- 
grounds in Ohio, visited Fort Wayne, which he describes with much minuteness. 
In speaking of the location of the fort by Gen. Wayne, he says : 

'' At every step in this country, every unprejudiced mind will, more and 
more, admire the movements and achievements of .he army conducted by this 
veteran and truly wise and great, commander, by occupying Fort Wayne, the 
communication between Lake Erie and the Ohio, through the channel of the 
Maumee and the Wabash, which is the shortest and most direct water route 
from Buffalo to the Mississippi Kiver, was cut oil' or completely commanded." 

Portayi: Canal. — He also spuke of a canal across the portage from St. 
Mary's to Little River: 

" Through a part of the above-mentioned swamp, which is very extensive, 
a canal might very easily be cut, six miles long, uniting the Wabash to the St. 
Mary's a little above its junction, and, from what I saw and learned from others, 
it is my opinion that the swamp might afford water sufficient for purposes of 

Prospects ami Surroundings. — He says further: 

'• The country around Fort Wayne is very fertile, the situation is command- 
ing and healthy and here will arise a town of great importance, which must 
become a depot of immense trade. The fort is now only a small stockade. No 
troops are stationed here, and less than thirty (30) dwelling-houses, occupied by 
French and American families, form the settlement. But as soon as the land 
shall be surveyed and offered fop sale, inhabitants will pour in from all quarters 
to this futur/th..r»u-hfaivb.-tw.-u rh- Iv-i and tie. Mi i . i| ] i Ktv.r. 

On the 14th of November, 182(1, in a. letter to the Hon. Edwin Tiffin, Sur- 
veyor General, Capt. James Riley said: 

" I was induced to visit this place for curiosity, to see the Indians receiving 
their annuities and to view the country. While here at that time, leveled the 
portage-ground from the St. Mary's to Little River, and made some practical 
observations, as aftertiine has shown them to be." 

He writes that the St. Mary's has been almost covered with boats at even 
freshet for several years then past. He describes this as "a central point, com- 
bining more natural advantages t.i build up and support a town of importance, as 
a place of deposit and trade and a thoroughfare, than any point he bad seen in 
the Western country." He said at this time there were, assembled about one ^ 
thi.u-ind whites fr-'Ii! <>hi» Mb-ln-iiu li lima :iwl New fork, to trade with the €■ 
Indiaus. OutiB* payment and tint tit. v hr-ii-hi whisk v in abundance, whi<* they * 

dealt out S the [ndiani and kepi them c mally drunk and unfit for bKSiuesw 1 

Horse-racing, drinking, gambling, debauchery., extravagance and waste were the 
order of the day and "night, and the Indians were the least savage and mofc*^ 
i Christianized, and the example of those whites was too indelicate to mention. 1 ' 



This he thought could be remedied by " a speedy survey of the lands, and, 
thereafter, a quick sale from the mouth of the Maumee to Fort Wayne, and 
thence down the Wabash, by which a speedy settlement would take place and 
rive ;i spur and energy to agriculture, commerce and mauufaetures." He also 
suggested ■• that it be laid out in lots and sold, and the money applied by the 
President, and give a place and lands on which to erect buildings of a public 
character for ' THIS FUTURE empoeium OF Indiana.' " In 1820, this same pioneer 
purchased at the land office at Piqua, Ohio, several tracts of laud at the " Kappids 
of the St. Mary's," or "Dkvii.'s LtAOE-GuoUND," and therein June, 1831, 
removed his family. In 1822, he built a grist-mill, and laid oft a town ( Will- 
shire), in honor of a friend. During this year ( 1 S24 }, be surveyed for the United 
States all this region uf country on both sides of the St. Mary's, in Indiana, 
including Fort Wayne ; also about twenty townships between the Maumee and 
St. Mary'a Rivera. 

About 1821, the Rev. Isaac McCoy, of the Baptist Missionary Society, 
here established a school for the education of Indian children — the first s'chool 
ever kept at Fort Wayne. 

In the month of June, 1822, Lewis Cass and H. R. Schoolcraft, the histo- 
rian, having left Detroit in a canoe, navigated their way down the lake to the 
mouth of the Maumee River and then up to Fort Wayne, and, stay- 
ing a day or two here, hired their canoe to be hauled on wheels across the por- 
tage to Little River, descended that downward to the Mississippi, then up, on an 
exploring expedition, to its source. 


Maj. Whistler, commander, and his two daughters ; George Hunt and his 
brother, John E. Hunt, a clerk to George, who was Sutler; Mrs. Laura Sutten- 
ficld and husband, Col. William Sutlenfield; Lieut. Curtis and the soldiers. 


In 1814 came Dr. Daniel Smith, from Lancaster, Ohio, and with him 
returned, from Cincinnati, Ohio, John P. Hodges. 

In 1815 came Robert Forsythc, afterward Paymaster in the United States 
Army, then on his way from Detroit, via Fort Dearborn, accompanied bv Cbou- 
don-nai, an Indian chief. Mr. Forsythe was en route for West Point. At this 
point, they, with William Suttenfield, took Chief Richardville, then a hostage 
here i and held) to Wapakonnetta, and thence to the treaty of Greenville. This 
chief was reluctant to go. Maj. Whistler, however, ordered them not to leave 
him until delivered at Greenville. 


In 1815, Fort Wayne was rebuilt, the limber being cut oft* the grounds now 
occupied by the residence of Samuel Hanna, deceased, and to the north of same. 
The timber was hauled by oxen. Ropes instead of chains were used. Raised 
by the troops, into officers' quarters, Commissary Department, block-houses, 
etc., etc. 

The pickets were twelve and one-half feet long, and were put in sets_of 
six, with a cross-piece, two feet from the top, let in and spiked. A trench, two 
and one-half feet deep, was dug to let them in, which made them stand ten feet 
high. A part of the old pickets were replaced by new ones. 

The fort was located on the bank of Maumee River, at about where now is 
the, crossing of Cky and Main streets. The tract around the fort, called the 
" Military Tract," embraced all of what is known as Tuber's Addition, but 'ook 
in all grounds extending north to the river, the east line of Taber's Addition 
north to the Maumee, the west line north to the St. Mary's. (See Historical 


The original plat of the city of Fort Wayne was laid out by John T. Bnrr 
and John McCorkle in August. 1822, and recorded in the office of the Recorder 
of Randolph County, of Winchester, and subsequently in Recorder's Record A, 
page 316, of the records of Allen County, containing 118 lots, with three streets 
running north and south on a variation of 3°, Ho' west of magnetic north, namely, 
Calhoun, Clinton and Barr; five streets running at right angles to same variation, 
namely, Wayne, Berry, Main, Columbia and Water streets. The public square 
was laid off iu this plat, with Court street on the east side of the same. This 
plat, which was recorded on the 10th day of August, 1833, was' surveyed by 
Robert Young, of Piqua, Ohio. 


This addition was laid out by the Commissioners and ree 
Record A, page 315, containing seventy lots and fractional 1. 
immediately east of and adjoining the original plat. The lots 
either side of La Fayette street, between Berry street and St. J 
taining Water, Columbia, Main and Berry streets from the origin; 
August 1G, 1833. 

fried in Recorder 

This addition was laid out by Cyrus Taber, and recorded ii 
Record A. page 452, and contains forty lots including all of the l 
lying between the south bouudary of said trait and the canal. Mai 
streets were continued through from the County Addition. 

lilitary tract 
i and Berry 

Nora.— Thbj plat luia bbon separated (rum the book nnu probably lost. 

tion was lain off by G. W. & W. G. Swing, and recorded in 

"nl B, page 199.* The addition, however, contains thirty-four 

>nal blocks, 27S lots, including all fractional lots. 

Cass, Swing and Fulton streets were laid out to run north on a magnetic 

bearing of 15° 3(1' west. Jefferson, Washington, Wayne, Berry, Main and Pearl 

streets continued west from the original plat. Lewis street was laid out south of 

Jefferson and parallel with Lewis street. 


Hanna's first addition was laid out by Samuel Hanna, and recorded in 
Recorder's Record B, page 1-17; and contains 293 lots, including the fractional 
lots. Clinton, Barr, Clay, Monroe and Hanna. with a continuation of La Fay- 
ette street, were laid out on a magnetic bearing of north 15° 3D' west. Wayne, 
Washington and Jefferson streets were continued west from the original plat. A 
street named Madison was laid out north of and parallel with Jefferson street, 
running from Ban- street west. 

This addition was laid off by William Rockhill. and recorded in Recorder's 
Record C, page 464, containing 1S2 lots, including fractional lots. 

Rockhill, Jackson, Van Buren and Market (now Broadway) streets, were 
laid out to run north 15° 33' we.>t of magnetic north. Washington, Wayne, 
Berry, Main and Pearl streets were continued west from Hwing's Addition. The 
lots were laid off to the bcrme hank of the canal ; a space on either side of Mar- 
ket, between Main and Berry, was left for a market space. 

In September, 1 829, when Fort Wayne .had made considerable" progress in 
improvements, and the accumulations incident to a new town eligibly situated, 
possessed of many of the elements of prosperous growth, and, withal, well to do 
in the self-respect of her citizens, had been developed, the provident people of the 
locality bethought themselves of the propriety, at least, if not the advantages of 
incorporation. Hence, pursuant to a notice to that effect, an election was held on 
the 7th of September, 1S29, to determine whether Fort Wayne should then and 
there be incorporated. The result of that election is set forth in the following 
certificate : 

neoling of the 

I do hcrehv certify tlin 
on Monday. the Til, day Si 

town of Fort Wayne, in the county of Allen, and State of Indiana. 

Given under lay hand and seal, this 20th day of September, 1829. 
Attest: William N. Hoon, [seal.] 

.Ions 1'. Hedges, President of said Meting. 

Clerk- of said Meeting. 

In furtherance of the object contemplated, an election for town officers was 
held on the 14th of the same month, which resulted in the choice of the follow- 
ing, as set forth in the accompanying certificate : 

At an election held in 
of Abner Gerard. Esq., in 
Domini eighteen humlrc.l ami twenty-nine. we. the President and" Clerk o'f said eieclion, 
do hereby certify th.c Hugh Hanna, John s. Archer. William i;. Gwing, Lewis G. Thomp- 
son and John P. Hedges, were duly elected said Trustees for one year ensuing, and until 
their successors are elected and qualified. 

Given under our hands this 2bth day of November, 1829. 
Attest: Besjamix Abcukh, 

John P. Hedges, President of said Election. 

of the town of Fort Wayne, 
n hundred and twenty-nine, 
orporating sahl 

at the I,-: 

Clerk of r. Election. 


janization took effect from and after the election and qualification of 
the officers chosen pursuant to the law governing such incorporations. Fort 
Wayne, under this system of government, succeeded, as most other towns simi- 
larly situated, increasing in area and in population, in a measure satisfactory to 
the governors and the governed, except, perchance, the few who were little dis- 
posed to regard the rights of others, and, in consequence, were subject to the 
penalties of violated laws. For many years, the status of public improvement 

was not the si coiiiin. -ridable. Of publb buildings there were few, and the 

streets were little better than the ordinary thoroughfares of the country. Not- 
withstanding this apparent drawback, there was a fair show of prosperity, as 
shown by the following review of the prospects and probable future of Fort 
Wayne in 1838: 

[rnoM " DAWSON'S tijies," I860.] 

" About the 6th of March, 1838, as we neared the town of Fort Wayne and, 
rounding the turn of the Piqua road at a risejkthe ground about 100 rods south 
of the present crossing at the Union RailroarTWpot, we beheld the steeple of the 
old brick Court House, which stood on the spot where now is dug the founda- 
tion of a new and spacious one on the public square, our feelings were delight- 
ful. Friends were to be greeted, and we were to enter on the highway of life, 
and do for ourself, though early in our eighteenth year, and with only $10 and a 
horse to begin with ; yet, better than all, a thorough English rudimental educa- 
tion. We could not see the town, but a few fields near by, the state of the 
road, the spire, were evidences of a settlement. Indeed, the town was not visible 
until we reached the high ground at the curve in the Piqua road, just west of Allen 
Hamilton's residence, in front of the residence of the late Col. Spcucer, a 
few rods south of where the Catholic Cathedral now stands. There was nothing 
seen except the old and unfinished Catholic Church and parsonage hard by.which 
stood where the Cathedral is, and which is yet standing near by, a relic of the 
past, and iu whose walls is some of the munificence of Francis Comparet and 
John B. Bourie, both long since deceased, and who, though" Frenchmen, were as 


1(1 ,C F\^Y^E/YK1INITT^ 

^ V 4 





Street Commissioner. 

Ft. Wayne. 


F GOEGl.Eif;. 








pure patriots as the city ever afforded. The latter we knew intimately for many 
years, a candid friend, a hospitable and enterprising citizen. 

"Looking to the right of Calhoun street, from the Catholic Church, we could 
see a large plat of ground, just laid off by Judge Hanna, the shrub oak of which 
then had been but recently a large quantity, and just cut down, leaving multi- 
tudes of stumps, so thick as to make horseback riding unsafe through the plat. 
The first house to the left was what Dr. C. S. Smith now lives in, on Lewis street, 
west of Calhoun, south side, occupied then by Zenas Henderson, but, in two or 
three days thereafter, as the residence of Col. Spencer, who, with R. J. Dawson, 
both now deceased, had purchased it. Just south of the residence of Capt. Rob- 
ert Brackenridge, now also deceased, and in which he lived from and including 
that year, until he died, in May, 1859. The whole space north and to the left of 
Col. Spencer's new home was a field with fence standing around it, but just for 
the first time turned into a common, and leaving Col. S.'s residence far in the 

the east of Calhoun street was a low, black frame, 
exactly north and on the corner across Wayne street from where the Mayer 
House now stands. The first on the left was a like frame, just opposite and 
nest where Sully's Store now stands [northwest corner of Wayne and Calhoun 
i house between either of these and the respective corners north. 
'On the southeast corner of Berry and Calhoun streets Btood a low frame 
iy a frenchwoman, Mrs. Minnie, and west across the street, where 
grocery just burned down [I860] stood a large two-story log, occupied 
by John P. Hedges. Where the Recorder's office now is, the southwest corner 
of the public square, was the county jail, a small, insecure structure, inclosed with 
a high board fence, and a jailer's house attached, in which Joseph Berkley, 
Sheriff, lived. At the northeast corner of the public square lived Col. Spencer 
on a leasehold, and in a pretty good frame house, attached to which was his 
Receiver's office, he then being Receiver of Public Moneys at this place. But 
this house Col. S. in a few days vacated, and removed to his country residence 
above alluded to, and his old house was at once turned into a tavern, and kept 
by Amos Compton, from Willshire. 

" To the right of the public square, on the lot now occupied by Reed's liv- 
ery si able [present site of Foster Brut her.-;' store], and that north of it, now owned 
by the Odd Fellows [the post office], were two old frame buildings, both ten- 
anted, and at the old well now lately honored with a pump, was the old-fashioned 
well-sweep, used to draw water from the earth, and then gave as pure a beverage 

. " On the corner of Berry and Calhoun, where Miller's brick is [MeDougal's 
Block], was a row of shed-roofed yellow shanties, 51 £ feet on Calhoun 
and 170 on Berry; these were built by Henry Work, now of Plymouth, Iod. 
[deceased in 1879], and rented to obscure families, and who often made the 
neighborhood offensive by their quarrels and uneleanliness. * * * On 
the southeast corner of Main and Calhoun stood a low frame, used then as a 
blacksmith-shop by Philip C. Cook. At the alley south, where Riser's store 
stands, was a buteher-shop, kept by Peter Kiser, then, as now, a plain, blunt man, 
but of much liberality. Across the alley was a blacksmith-shop, kept by Louis 
Wolkie, now Maj. Wolkie. On the corner of Columbia and Calhoun (the south- 
east corner), where Moehring's store is, stood a low frame, in which was a large 
grocery, kept by Benjamin Smith, now deceased. Nest and east of Smith, was a 
log house, in which Tom Moore, the barber, kept. Where Jacobs' shoe-store is 
now (the southwest corner of Columbia and Calhoun), stood the same building. 
and in it Taylor, Freeman & Co. kept a very large dry-goods store ; the firm was 
composed of Philo Taylor, now deceased, Samuel 0. Freeman and Royal W. 
Taylor. On the corner where Reed's drug store is (northwest corner of Colum- 
bia and Calhoun streets), stood a two-story brick store, the best in the place,? in 
which Capt. John B. Bourie and John Peltier kept a large store. To the west 
of this were some small frames, and where Gray's leather-store is, stood a large 
frame, lately before occupied by Col. Hugh Hanna, now of Wabash, Ind. And 
to the west, where Hill & Orbison's warehouse is (now Sniick's agricultural 
depot), stood the Masonic Hall, a two-story brick, in which was kept the Sentinel 
office, and in which lived a family or two. Opposite stood, as now stands, the old 
brick, then a tavern, called the Franklin House, kept by Mills & Taylor; to the 
west, a leather-shop, belonging to the tannery then carried on by Paige & Fry. 
This tannery was located on the southeast corner of Columbia and Harrison. To 
the east stood the present frame occupied as a part of the American House, then 
the residence of Francis Oomparet. To the east stood a cabinet-shop, kept by 
Tiiikham. Between the southwest corner of Columbia and Calhoun 
e Evans' corner is, were no buildings, escept an old frame, where the 

and whei 

er story used as a 
: spent a term that 

ner, where Town- 
o), stood the old 

ffice is, opposite where P. Kiscr is now, the lov 
and the upper for a summer school, and in which -n 
ndera Mr. A. Campbell and Alexander McJunkin. 
" Passing east ahuiLr Columbia street, on the northeast c 
ley's Block now is (northeast corner of "Columbia and Calht 
brick ' Mansion House,' then kept as a hotel by Col. J. H. McMakf 
deceased ; nest and east, and where Sharp's hatter-shop is, stood a little frame 
building, we think, kept cither by Lafliti & Webster as a grocery, or by Carter & 
Porter as a hat-shop. East of this stood a large brick, covering the front ground 
dow occupied by Meyer &, Bro.'s drug store, Falk's liquor store and Lauferty's 
clothing store, north side of Columbia, between Calhoun and Clinton; this was 
occupied by James Post, an old citizen, and was long known and still remem- 
bered, as the 'Post House.' Across the alley and east of the ' Post House,' 
was a frame store, occupied by John E. Hill & Co., and in which the County 
Becorder's Office was kept. And where now A. D. Brandrift' keeps store, on the 
nest lot, standing a few feet back from the street, was a low frame, in which the 
post office was kept for many years, by Capt. Henry Rudisill, and as forming a 
part of that venerable dpot, we associate the name of Capt. Oliver Fairfield, 

proverbial among all our people. Next 
i which Dr. Haxford kept an escellent 
ie inferior buildings, among which were 
h. Near the corner (northwest 
house, a store, owned by Ham- 
Iton, Cyrus Taber and Thomas 
Columbia and Clin- 

whose industry and accommodation 
and adjoining was another low fn 
drug store. On the east of this were som 

corner of Columbia and Gliuton ), stood a b 
ilton, Taber & Co., the firm being Allen 
Hamilton. On the corner opposite (the n 
ton), was erecting Barnett &, Hanna's Block, afterward 
Building, since burned down, the most spacious house, then, in all the Northwest. 
In the little old brick now standing east of the then new block, lived W. H. 
Coombs, attorney at law. A small tinshop was kept next by Lewis & Marsh, 
and then a drug store. On the spot where Cottrel's saloon is, the proprietor of 
this store was Dr. Lewis Beecher, now dead, a learned medical practitioner, a 
blunt man, but carrying a big heart, which never grew obdurate, His widow 
and family yet survive him. On the nest lot east was a low frame, in which 
Lyman A. Bellamy kept a shoe store. Where Colerick's Hall is, was a frame, 
where the Staplelbrd's kept store. Next east was a log house, once the residence 
of Gen. Jonathan MoCarty. but. then occupied by John Jamison as a clock-shop. 
Near this, on the east, G. F. Wright and John B. Dubois kept a dry-goods store, 
and on the corner, Barnett and Hanna (perhaps Barnett & Sinclair). On the 
northwest corner of Barr and Columbia, across Barr street, or on the northeast 
corner, was Wines & Farrand, who kept a store in a log house, then and before 
called the ' Suttenfield House.' Passing up to where the canal basin is now, was a 
boatyard, kept by James W. Deneal, and among the noted men who worked 
there was Capt. John Whitaker, now Governor of Oregon, and we imagine him 
now in the boatyard sawing on his old fiddle the ' Arkansas Traveler. 1 On the 
west side of Columbia, close to the canal then being dug, i 
by James W. Deneal. Crossing to the southwest corner of Columbia 
La Fayette, we found the beginning of a row of low shanties, which extended 
west to the east corner of Barr, where was a log house in which Lane & Stevens 
kept store, and where Hedekin's store now is. The shanties were poor indeed, 
and in most of them lived a hard crowd; in one of them, Michel Hedekin kept 
a grocery and provision store, and in another was kept the Canal Land Office, M. 
F. Barber, Clerk. On the southeast corner of Columbia and Barr, was the 
Washington Hall, the distinguished hotel of all the North, then kept by Samuel 
Sowers, and kept well, too. It was at these corners where the principal busiues 
was then done, and where it continued for many years. Passing west, we found 
a row of frame shanties in which were tailcr-shops, whisky-shops, etc. ; and back 
of where Mongeot's brick is now was the old ballroom, to reach which was not 
"he night. It stood alone, and when the company had reached 
tost excellent purpose. Next to and east of the Wells Build- 
ing, which lately burned down, on the south side of Colombia, between Barr and 
Clinton about midway, and which was then being built, stood a low storeroom in 
which Thomas Pritchard kept a grocery. Pritchard was an Englishman of 
refinement and benevolence, and now a princely merchant of Portland, Oregon. 
The Wells Building was that year put up, and was a most capacious affair, and 
well kept as capacious. A ballroom was prepared in the upper story thereof, 
which at once supplanted the old one. This house was called the 'Saloon,' a 
name which, at that time and at that place, attained use in the town of Fort 
Wayne, the proprietors of which were Thomas J. Lewis and John Euibry. 
Across the alley and to the west, stood a small office, in which Lucien P. Ferry 
had a law office. And next stood a large frame, -the property of the Hon. C. W. 
Ewing, now deceased. This was marked by being shaded by a very large apple- 
tree which stood on its east side. This building was burned in August, 1 S f o. 
and with it our law library and effects, and by which fire the apple-tree was 
killed. In the building lately burned down, and west of that now owned by Mr. 
Waggoner, S. & W. S. Edsall kept a large dry-goods store ; and on the west lot 
stood the log house recently burned down, which was W. G. Ewing's residence; 
and on the corner west stood a large frame st^re, recently occupied by D. Lance- 
ford as a saddler's shop, but then as a store, kept by (southeast corner of Clinton 
and Columbia) Madison Sweetzer. On the opposite corner west ("southwest 
corner of Clinton and Columbia), was a low frame, in which Anthony Lintz lived 
and kept a small shoe-shop. West of this, were some groceries and shops carried 
on by l T. Hoagland, Draper and Taylor,' as the sign read. Next to it, and 
here Maier's new brick and Nachtrcib's hat store are, was kept a bilha 

and grocery, by D. Lasse 
house of Francis Compa 
office occupied by Thomas 

anly ; 


j shop, kept by Da 

,ewis G. Thompson 

trd burned down. 

. first, the tradii 

abbed White Raeeooo, 


uld do credit 
irld. It w 


>tood back of the dn 

>d he 

nd tin- 

the M 

of the 

do it. l Lo, the poor 
. low brick at the time 
f the Branch of the State Bank. 
iel McGinnis; and next west, a 
and 0. W. Jeffords kept a drug 
Dr. Thompson died in 1844 or 
* * His residence then 

Some other buildings, hut uoim- 
corner of Calhoun and Columbia 
igistrate dealt out justice (J. B. 
ise ' Columbia Street Courts.' 

Dubois, J. P.), and from which derived the pli 

" On the north side- of the uaual, where the gas-works are, stood a brewery, 
owned and carried on by "George Fallo, a French German, whose beer got a repu- 
tation from the peculiar manner in which old George set the fermentation to 
work ; this, however, was hearsay, but it was often told and never denied ; let 


be no 


,1,080 who drank his boor toll the rest. Along the canal east, to where Rudisill's 
woolen-factory now stands, were many log cabins, mostly occupied by trench 
people, and, indeed, it was no unimportant pari of the town, as it was at the land- 
in" wiiich was where the St. Marys bridge shakes the shore; bore, in the spring 
of the year were arriving and unloading cargoes of whisky, flour, bacon, pota- 
toes etc shipped from St. Mary's, and. which had been hauled therefrom Dayton, 
Piqia and other places. We do not think that any arrivals took place after that 
Bpring by river. 

'•' Following up the north side of the canal, were a few houses located along 
the bank of the slough, through which now is discharged the water which pro- 
pels the City Mills. If we remember aright. Henry Sharp lived about where he 
does now, north of Townley's Block, and Capt. John B. Bourie at the north end 
of the Calhoun street bridge, then a high bridge with approaches extending halt 
a square each way, where Dr. Brooks now lives, southwest corner of Calhoun and 
Water. These, we believe, constituted all who lived thereabout, and the names 
of whom we now remember. , 

"The main road north led out of Calhoun street, and crossed the St. Marys 
inly bridge in the county, a part of the trestle-work of which may 
the river at that spot. This was owned by a company, was a toll- 
is kept by an Americanized Irishman, John Simonton, father of 
nonton, our worthy but eccentric fellow-citizen, who, in his youth, col- 
lected the tolls at the rate of 3 cents for each footman, (i cents for each horse- 
back rider, 12 cents for a horse and wagon, and 15 cents for a double team. A 
few rods beyond the bridge, the road divided, the Mongoquiiinng, now Lima, road 
leading to the right, crossing Spy Hon southwest of Rudisill's Mill, intersecting 
the other road at the mill. The Goshen or Wolf Lake road, bearing to the north- 
west, crossed the feeder at Hinton's, where the present bridge is, at the end of 
Wells street ill Blooming.lale. at which place a hospitable Englishman named Hin- 
too kept the ' Bull's Head Inn.' taking its name from the picture of a bull's head 
on his huge sign-board, an idea doubtless conceived in the ' old country.' 

" The Maumee River was crossed at a rocky ford just below the junction of 
the two rivers ; the going-in place being now plainly seen from the bridge, being 
indentations in the west bank, the going-out place being under the east end of the 
bridge, and now entirely obscured by the action of the water. In this connection, 
it is Veil to say that the lord is now covered up by the rise caused by 
one mile below, which then did not obstruct the crossing. 

" Cuming back to town, we found on the corner of Calhoun 
wesl corner I, the yellow frame building seen yet back ot Merge 

then ow 1 ami occupied I'V F. D. Lasselle. The next south w 

built in 1833, by Gardner Wilcox, and which stands on the same spot, being the 
same lately occupied by L mis Peltier as a coffin-shop, on the present site of Root 
S Co - store. On the west end of the same lot. facing the alley, was a large car- 
penter and joiner shop, occupied by Henry Williams and Ely Q. Davis. Mr. 
Williams is now the senior member of the firm of Williams & Huestis, now 
Huestis & Hamilton. On the spot where we now write, and where our present 
office i- Sidel's Block i. stood a nice frame house, then the residence of John E. 
Hill; across and south of the alley were the remains of a building, which had 
then but recently hen, boned, presenting the same appearance that it does now. 
[i wa- .hi t iii~ l"t that Oil Spencer, in 1.839. began to build the American House, 
afterward called the Spencer House, which he finished in 1840. South of the 
American House lot, stood a frame house owned and occupied by Capt. William 
Stewart, since torn away and a splendid briek erected in its stead. We add that 
the brick is torn away, and B. Trentiuan's store erected on the site. Next south 
was a frame house occupied as a residence and bakery by one Joshua Housmau, 
a German; and then Work's Row, before described. 

" Turning now at Miller's, northwest corner of Calhoun and Berry, we go to 
the west along Berry street, and, at that day, might have seen a large car- 
penter-shop, owned by John Rinehart, where Dr. Daily's resilience is, the present 
site and the building 'of the Anderson House; and then across the street, a little 
east, an old frame occupied by James Barnett. ' Uncle Jimmy,' who was as hos- 
pitable and In. nest a man as the country afforded, and whose swear-word ' by 
Hedges Molly,' was the nearest we ever knew him to come to profanity. A few 
years afterward, he built west of the alley, a few feet from his old place, and after- 
word ended a lung life therein ; this building is still standing ( 1S79). The next 

thing of west was Shawnee Run, which is now barely visible on the west 

side of Harrison -true,, to the west of the Berry Street Methodist Church, and 
which i- DOW confini d to a ditch through town, and through which but little 
water now passes. This ditch is now confined to a briek sewer. Owing to a 



and Main (south- 

t,'s beer-shop, and 

i cabinet-shop, 

ditch which is opened ( 
city, this ditch discharg 

uth of the free schoolhouse, at the southwest side of the 
s itself into a small creek to the southeast of the grave- 

"Sbawnee Run was once quite a branch, or creek, full of deep holes, and 
from which large fish were taken, before the year in which we write, and even 

. .. u i were known to be taken therefrom. This run crosses Main street, 

east aide of Harrison, and under Columbia street, south of the canal basin, and 

, - :harg, ler the basin through a culvert, and into the St, Mary's just above 

the new iron bridge. An iron bridge was, at the time this article was penned, 
across the river on the road to Bloomingdale. 

" West of Shawnee Run, on Berry street, we recollect but two houses; one 
was owned and occupied by Benjamin Smith, and stood where P. Hoagland now 
lives, a little east ; and the other by Dr. Lewis Beccher, just across the street, and 
amid lb.- hazel-brush ; this house is still standing. The traveled road left Berry 
street immediately on the west of Shawnee Run, and bore southwest along the 
high ground or bank of the run, through a vast thicket, leaving where the new 
free scl Ihouse i- to the right, about which place commenced a race-track, which 

tided al where the south side of the graveyard is. This road, in the spring of 
the year, afforded a most pleasant walk, and we recollect of often meeting 

it lovers, hand in hand measuring the distance out, and, we suspect, sighing 
that it was so short between town and what was then considered out. of town. 
Along this road from where the free school is (Jefferson Street School), and 
including a large scope up and about the round-house (Wabash Round-House), 
and from that to and including the graveyard and a part of what is now 
Hanna's Addition. West of the Bluffton Plank Road ( Broadway) was a pigeon- 
roost. In the fall of that year, the noise of the pigeons flying each night sounded 
like the approach of a violent storm, and the frequent report of musketry of 
sportsmen gave one strange feelings. Our friend, John Hamilton, will recolleot 
this. , VT 

" All west of the old plat was then called • Ewingtown. Near the present 
residence of W. S. Edsall, southwest corner of Main and Cass streets, stood the 
frame of an inclosed building called the Methodist Church, and which, for want 
of funds, was not completed, and, from its great distance out of town, was deemed 
an ineligible site. Hon. William Rockhill bid a small resilience just opposite his 
presentresidence, on the south bank of the canal. Mr. William Rockhill resided 
for many years in a yellow brick house which still stands on the corner of Greeley 
and Van Buren streets, Lot 7, Reed's Addition, and all south and west of this 
was a cultivated field— that is, so much as is RockhiU's Addition. The old frame 
house on the south bank of the canal, just west of the foot-bridge ; this foot- 
bridge was a high bridge across the canal on Ewing street, and had steps at 
either end. The house referred to was on Lot 1, Block 8, Ewing's Addition, the 
present site of August Reiling's shop, belonged to the Ewing family, and a little to 
the southeast of this house, and in the common, stood the paling which inclosed 
the grave of Col. Alexander Ewing. the father of G. W. Ewing, W. G. Ewing 
and Charles W. Ewing. 

'• We bring the reader back to the southeast corner of Calhoun and Berry, 
and proceed eastward. The first house on the corner, we said, was occupied by a 
Frenchwoman ; the next then is the next now, and was then occupied by Moses 
Yearin the town gunsmith. Mr. Yearin subsequently moved his shop to a small 
brick on the east side of Maiden Lane, immediately south of Main street, where 
he continued in business for many years afterward. John Majors lived then, as 
he does now, next east, in a state of celibacy and as one of the unsophisti- 
cated members of the ' Bachelor's Club.' Mr. Majors' location was on the pres- 
ent site of Evans' wholesale house. The house next and east, was on the southwest 
corner of Clinton and Berry. This lot is now owned by the Baptist Church. On 
this corner lived, in a log house, the widow of Abner Gerrard, who yet survives 
i as she does yet, 1 S79); ' having struggled hard with a large family and raised all 
to respectability, etc., she finally moved far West, leaving behind a large circle oi 
well-wishing friends. 

" On the opposite corner, the southeast corner of Berry and Clinton, also stood 
a log house, which was afterward removed to give place to the First Presbyterian 
Church. The next stands yet, and was occupied by Mrs. Brown, a Frenchwoman, 
well remembered by many. The next was a small frame on the lot now noted by 
a large willow-tree. On this spot lived Robert Hood, a man as well known as 
any in this region, at that time ; in his nature were combined good sense and hos- 
pitality, and as large a vein of dry humor as ever we saw in one man ; the anec- 
dotes concerning him and his eccentricities are most numerous, and when told by 
one qualified to do it, never fail to call out a hearty laugh. 

" On Market Square, where the new Market House is, stood the old frame 
which now stands to the south on the square. This old market house was used 
for some time after as an engine-house. Maj. Edsall lived on the next lot east, 
where D. H. Colerick now lives, and next where he lives now was Capt. 0. Fair- 
field Then came the old First Presbyterian Church, now the Lutheran, since 
torn away, of which the Rev. A. T. Rankin was the Pastor. In the basement of 
this church was kept a select school by Rev. W. W. Stevens, now Squire Stevens, 
and Alexander McJunkin, now deceased, in which school we spent the spring 
months of that year. East of this stood the present residence of N. B. Freeman, 
then occupied by Rev. Hoover, a Lutheran minister. Distant east of this stood 
the hotel now called the Kime House— then the Dahman House, just rendered 
celebrated for having been the scene of a serious conflict, between the Irish then 
laboring on the canai, and die Germans, who held a dance there on a certain occasion. 
In this conflict one German was killed, and Dahman had bis nose nearly severed 
from his face, the mark of which he carried to his grave. 

" The onlv house, as we now remember, which stood east of this, was one that 
Btood about where John Burt now lives, on the east end of Wayne street, then 
occupied by W. L. Moon, a location which was considered ' clear out of town. 
Coin.- hack west, on the north side of Berry street, the first building we found 
was exactly north of the Presbyterian Church, now Lutheran Church, which was 
made of lo»s from the old fort, and raised to the square of the second story, and 
which was finished early that spring by Daniel Reed, who had just removed here 
from Richmond, and taken charge of the Register's Office under appointment of 
President Van Buren. This hpuse is now the residence of Benjamin Saunders, 
Es,,., then a clerk for his' cousin, Thomas Pritchard. Mr. Siunders was after- 
ward in the bakery business, and subsequently a Justice of the Peace. 

,: Between that and the alley west were two small frames, and across the 
alley lived— in a house now occupied by the Rev. Ruthrauf— Henry Cooper, 
Esq., attorney at law, a self-made man, a profound lawyer, a good citizen and an 
honest man. Our friend, whose memory we cherish, and with whom we for 
several years traveled thisjudicial circuit in the practice of law. 

" West of Mr. Cooper's, in a red house, now on the third lot east of the 
northeast corner of Berry and Barr, lived John B. Dubois, now called the ' Old 
Squire," then a magistrate and a merchant. On the opposite corner west lived 
Jud"c Hanna, in the finest house in all the region, which house is now standing 
at the west end of the same lot, a specimen of palatial grandeur of other days. 
That square, or rather that part now occupied by Miller's board yard, immediately 


opposite the First Presbyterian Church, and eaafc along Berry street, was a willow 
swamp, standing deep under the water the whole year, and totally impassable, 
except when frozen over. Indeed, fish were found in it, and wild ducks made it 
a frequent resort, and a few years before the period of which we write (1800), it 
was so deep as to float canoes, and two deer were killed therein by five hunters. 
Iu the lumber-yard, Madden, Kecfer and Romine murdered a man by the name 
of Dunbar. It originally dischargee! across south of where the post office is now, 
corner of the alley, on the west side of Clinton, south of Columbia street, and out 
very near the southeast corner of Columbia and Calhoun, and into the Shawnee 
Run about where Columbia crosses that run. 

" Allen Hamilton lived then in a large frame just across the street north 
from the present branch of the Bank of the State, now Fort Wayne National, 
then the branch of the State Bank, which was that spring completed and occu- 
pied. Hugh McCulloch, Cashier; M. W. Hubble, Teller. 

" Benjamin H. Tower and Johnson Miller then carried on a cabinet shop in 
a frame stand where John M. Miller's large factory is, in the same building which 
now stands to the west of the factory, about where Hattersly is now. East, on 
the next lot, lived L. 6. Bellamy, and beside him on the east, where the large 
apples may now be seen, in a little, old log house, lived Judith Shores. * * On 
the corner nest — the southwest corner of Main and Barr — in the old, yellow 
frame still standing there, lived Stearns Fisher, then Engineer-in-Cbief of the 
W. & E. Canal, and now of Wabash County, Ind., since deceased. On the 
opposite comer north was a little, low, log house. Thomas Juhnson, Esq., now 
deceased, lived in the old frame which still stands on the third lot from the corner, 
on the north side, and the large locust-trees in front are those which Mr. J. 
brought from La Grange County in 1836, and which were then so small that he tied 
them on the pad of his saddle, ami brought them home. On the spot where Mr. 
Hedekin now lives was the old Council House. Where Henry Baker now lives, 
southeast corner of Main and La Fayette, was a shop, we think built by John 
Brown, the blacksmith. That which is now the ' Old Fort House,' on the north- 
east corner, was then the late residence of Capt. Robert Brackenridge. Between 
that and the ' Old Fort' was a solitary small frame, occupied by a family, name 
now forgotten, and then the l Old Fort,' or rather one building of it, tenanted by 
some Irish family. The pickets were mostly taken up, the lines were, however, vis- 
ible, and the old well then in use. The flagstaff stood in the center, but it was 
broken off about half-way up. The canal was then being dug at that point, and 
eastward, aud when the scasou for labor began, hundreds of Irishmen, and horses 
and carts, could be seen at one view. 

" Nothing of great interest transpired that year, except the breaking of the 
aqueduct over the St. Mary's River — where the 'stone mills' are — caused by a 
flood, and the rebuilding of the same, and the trial of Asa Crapo for killing a man 
at Bull Rapids. 

" The social aspect of the place was good. It did not fall to the lot of any 
Western town to be favored with a better society, although much evil prevailed, 
owing to the unscrupulr.usncss resulting from Indian trading, rum drinking, etc. 
Society was a mixture of French, Indians and Americans, witli hut a single 
negro, Burrell Reed, a boot-black, a factotum, whose usefulness was generally 
appreciated, whose goodness of heart was proverbial, and whose laugh, loud as a 
young artillery. And, notwithstanding this mixture, it was a most agreeable 
place to live in, for true hospitality was a marked feature in society, and which we 
are proud to say has its living representatives still here to distinguish the place." 

$uch is a sketch of ?^ort Wayne as it appeared over forty years ago. And, 
as we close, we draw the curtain over it, and present the same place as it is now, 
a city with thirty, or thirty-five thousand souls; with its magnificent churches, 
with spires towering up hundreds of feet; its several spacious and commodious 
schoolbuuses; its almost innumerable homes and palatial residences, with inviting 
lawns; its immense manufactories, with millions of capital; its solid fronts of busi- 
ness houses; its railroads stretching out in every direction; its banks with busy 
capital ; its streets and sidewalks graded and paved ; its beautiful shade-trees 
arching over its streets from side to side, making in all a delightful as well as a 
metropolitan city. 

With Fort Wayne as Mr. Dawson saw it in 1838, it would not be presump- 
tuous to suppose there existed, at that date, elements of growth and prosperity 
warranting the enlargement of its corporate domain, and the utilization of the 
abundant facilities for business to be developed in the near future. At that date, 
even, a city charter and the corporate powers therein guaranteed were subjects of 
frequent converse among the good people of this, then, embryo city. These 
expressions were expressions of a manifest want in the community, and were not 
slow in assuming form and proportions. Hence, at the session of 1839-10, of the 
Legislature of Indiana, a script draft of such a charter as was demanded by the 
people, drawn by Hon. F. P. Randall, was presented for the consideration of that 
body. On the 22d of February, 1840, having, been previously passed, it was 
approved by the Governor, aud became a law unto the people for whose advan- 
tage it was prepared, and who were ready to be governed by its provisions. This 
charter provided for the election, by the people, of a President (or Mayor) and 
six members of the Board of Trustees (or Common Council), and the election of 
subordinate officers of the Board or Council. The following were the first officers 
chosen : Mayor, George W. Wood ; Recorder, F. P. Randall ; Attorney, F. P. 
Randall; Treasurer, George F.Wright; High Constable, Samuel S. Morss ; 
Collector, Samuel S. Morss; Assessor, Robert E. Fleming; Market Master, 
James Post; Street Commissioner, Joseph McMeken ; Chief Engineer, Samuel 
Edsall; Lumber Measurer, John B. Cocanour; Aldermen— William Roekhill, 
Thomas Hamilton, Madison Sweetzer, Samuel Edsall, William S. Edsall and 
William L. Moon. 

Since that time, the city government has continued, changing and modifying 
s of the organic law accordingly, as the Legislature or the interests 

of society made necessary. An idea of the growth of Fort Wa 
period of its incorporation as a city to the present, may be fairly glflj 
population of the city in 18511. which is shown by the census roporl 
4,282. In I860, ten years later, a population of L0.319 is showu 
it is stated at 10,480. With alike ratio of i 

show little short of 50,000. Indeed, the indications are favorable to the expecta- 
tion of a much larger showing. 

The present condition of Fort Wayne, however, is best ascertained from an 
actual showing of its elements of enterprise, its business agencies and facilities, its 
public buildings, newspapers, churches and their congregations, its public schools 
and other educational facilities, its manufacturing establishments, their capacity 
and what they bring forth; its business houses, its railroad accommodations, etc. 
Let the following presentation best exhibit what Fort Wayne has accomplished : 


Private Schools. — The hist school, of which any account appears, was a mis- 
sion school, taught by Mr. McCoy, in the old fort, about the year 1821. He was 
assisted by Mr. Montgomery, and by Mr. and Mrs, Putts. Mr. McCoy was sent 
out as a missionary to teach the Indians, but he also made it his duty to instruct 
such white children as chose to apply to him. Mr. and Mrs. Potts afterward 
taught in a house situated on the banks of the St. Mary's River, just below the 
present site of French, Hanna & Co.'s woolen factory. The village at that time 
consisted of but eight or ten families, hence the school must have been small. 
Hugh B. McKeen, then recently from Detroit, succeeded Rev. McCoy, and 
taught a snndl school iu the old fort during part of the years 1823 and 1824, but 
just how long cannot now be ascertained. He subsequently removed to Logans- 
port and engaged iu the Indian trade. 

The first sclmolhouse ever erected in Fort Wayne stood on a lot adjoining 
the old graveyard, in the rear of the site of the present jail. The house was built 
in 1825, and was known as the County Seminary. Here, for many years, were 
the young of the place taught to make them wise, and ■' thrashed," may he, to 
make them sweet tempered. Mr. John P. Hedges taught in this building as 
early as 1820. and was, perhaps, the first teacher ever employed to take charge of 
the school. About this time, Mr. Henry Cooper, who afterward became a lawyer 
of considerable reputation, taught a school in the upper story of a log jail, which 
stood in the southwest corner of the public square. Light and air were admitted 
through the iron grates of the two small openings called" windows. The floor and 
walks were of hewn logs, and the seats were of the rudest description. There 
are, probably, but few persons now in Fort Wayne who attended this school. Mr. 
Hedges was followed by Mr. Boggs and others, but the exact length of their 
respective reigns cannot now be accurately ascertained. 

Mr. Aughinbaugh, who had, for a short time, been teaching in the old 
Masonic Hall, taught in the Seminary in 1832-33. He was followed by Small- 
wood Noel, in 1834, and by James Requa in 1834-35. In 1833 or 1834, Mr. 
Boggs taught a small school in a building that stood on Columbia street. Myron 
F. Barbour taught in the Seminary in 1835-30, and Mr. John C. Sivey, now of 
Wabash, Ind., in 1836. Mr. Barbour was a popular and successful teacher, and 
from him some of our leading business men received their earlier instruction in 
wisdom's ways. 

It is related that, about this time, a certain person wished to teach in the 
Seminary. It was necessary that the teacher should hold a certificate of qualifi- 
cation from the Board of Examiners, to one of whom, R. E. Ference, can now be 
referred for the authenticity of the story. The Board, believing that the 
candidate was not quite as correct in his habits as he ought to be, determined to 
submit him to a very severe examination, and thus subject him to a failure. 
They accordingly brought into requisition all the old spellers, arithmetics, etc., 
that could be found, and proceeded to polish their wit on the grindstone of letters 
in preparing for the onset. The fight commenced, and in about forty minutes the 
doughty schoolmaster had " floored " the committee, books and all, and the license 
was issued. 

In the spring of 1830, Miss Mann, now Mrs. Secretary McCulloch, and Miss 
Hubbell, now Mrs. R. W. Taylor, came to Fort Wayne to teach school. They 
found no schoolhouse in which to commence operations, and they concluded to 
open a school in a room in the old Court House. After teaching here a short 
time, they were employed to assist Rev. Jesse Hoover, who opened a school 
August 2, 1830, iu the basement of the Presbyterian Church, near the corner of 
La Fayette and Barr streets — the first church edifice erected in the city. Miss 
Hubbell subsequently taught a school in a house now standing on the southwest 
corner of Barr and Main streets, aud afterward in the old Treasurer's office, which 
stood on the northeast corner of the public square. Mr. Hoover was succeeded, 
in 1838, by Rev. W. W. Stevens, as Principal, aud Alexander McJunkin as 
Assistant. Mr. Stevens afterward built a house on Washington street, in which, 
assisted by bis wife, he taught for several years. 

Mr. McJunkin was, for many years, the prominent teacher of the city. He 
built a house, now standing on La Fayette street, between Berry and Wayne 
streets, in which he taught, almost uninterruptedly, until 1852, at which time he 
became connected with the Pittsburgh Railroad Company. He was the best 
known of any of the teachers of the times, and is remembered with feelings of 
gratitude by many of our citizens whom he interested in study, and for whom he 
labored so faithfully and so successfully. He was a fine scholar, a good Instructor 
and a strict disciplinarian. 

In the fall of 1S45, Mrs. Lydia Sykes came here, under the auspices of the 
Presbyterian Society, to open a seminary for young ladies. It was intended to 
make this school a permanent institution, but the failing health of Mrs. Sykes 
obliged her to abandon the school, after it had been in successful operation a year 
and a half' Mis. Sykes was succeeded by Rev. James Green, who came to the 



-. -„ icifi Mr Green taunht at first, in the building on Uio corner of La Fay- 

Str/r*,^.* in a brick I s, Wa^n,™ street, now 

occupied by Mr. Rupert, and subsequently. „,,. I ltol . .n a house on the come, 
of Burr and Washington streets, now occupied by Mrs. Kownn. | 

Many other small schools were taught ilnnn- these years by various pels..,. , 
„ ,„„ ,„av he mentioned Miss Susan Clark, now Mrs Moras; Miss 
Wautk Miss Sophia Henderson, afterward Mrs. Lnssalle, and Miss Lot., now 

""' Methodist College was opened in 1849, under the charge of Prof. A. C. 
Huestis and has been continued, with some interruptions, to the present tune. 

The Presbyterian Academy, now used for the Harm;,, Stroe School was 

opened in August, 18.",::. 1 was in char,c of Henry McC,in.c , IW»1 

Jacob LaniersC Assistant. The school was kept open most of the I „,c U..I.1 ISO 

Lar"e and well organized church schools, under Catholic and 
Lutheran 1 " auspices, have been established at various times, and are now m success- 

fi ' 1 0V nl7u Mic SdWs.-Hugh MeCulloeh, Charles Case and William Stewart 
the first Trustees appointed under the law of ISM, found themselves n, i,c, y „ 

over four thousand people, with 1,21111 school children, a tuition fun, of 8 no 

buildin- nor school appliances and not a dollar to buy them. Renting Mr. 
Ml, olio's house in the cast, and one from Mr. Hurlburd in the yves en, of 
own "hey empleyed Mr. Mahurio and his sister and Mr. and Mr.. Hurlburd as 
te-?,W ' This was the beginning of the public school system of Fort Wayne. 

In 1853, a vote, taken in compliance with a petition of the citizens, to raise 
a special fund by taxation, was lost. In 1855, the Trustees determined to .build 
a s ihoolhouse east aod west In 1856,the sites of the present Clay and Jcflcr.-on 
buildin-s were purchased and the contract for the east building let in port,,,,,-. 
Iron, time to time, as persons were found willing to take the risks, and on Feb- 
ruary 9 1857. their efforts were crowned with success m the completion and 
dedication of the Clay building. The Rev. George A. Irwin was appointed 
Superintendent and at once proceeded to organize and grade the school.- as far as 
possible In September of this year, the Trustees, with the aid of several citizens, 
who for this purpose voluntarily mortgaged their private property, proceeded to 
the erection of a building in the west end of town, which was finished and occu- 
pied in the winter of 1 S5S-59. For eight years, these were the only public school 
buildings in the city. . . . 

In 1863. Mr. Irwin resigned his position and became a Chaplain in the. 
army He was succeeded by S. S. Green, who remained two years. At the end ot 
his "term of office, the first class was graduated from the High School. It was a 
class of marked ability, and two of its members are among our present corps ot 

CaC The new School Board, appointed under the amended school law by the City 
Council in 1863 selected James H. Smart, of the Toledo schools, to succeed Mr 
Green resigned June 13. He had already created a reputation for ability in 
teat-bin" and organization, and immediately entered upon a thorough and syste- 
matic effort toward the aeeorate aod practical grading of the schools, bringing the 
work within a reasonable number of years, and, at the same time, elevating the 
standard to the highest possible level. In this he was eminently successful. 
From this time, the growth of the public schools, both in numbers and popu- 
larity was steady and rapid. The high esteem in which this system is now held 
is largely due to the wise administration of Mr. Smart, and it is with pleasure 
that the present Superintendent, his immediate successor, at that time one of the 
Trustees, avails himself of this opportunity to put upon record his high apprecia- 
tion of those labors. 

In 1866, lots werepurehi 
room building erected. Two 
necessary to use the third. 

The following year, lots were purchased in the west, central and southeast 
portion of the city ; the Washington and Central Schools, two substantial brick 
buildings, erected and opened in September, 1S6S. 

The Hanna School, after the plan of the Washington, followed in 1869; 
also the enlargement of the Hoagland building to twice its original size. The 
villages of Bowserville and Bloomingdale were soon after added to the city, the 
latter having a one-roomed school building to which, in 1872, two rooms were 

During the same year, the German Reformed School was transferred to 
the charge of the Board, their building rented, and, soon after, a second story 
added thereto. 

In 1874, districts were added to the city on the north, east and south, each 
containing a small schoolhouse, and an additional building rented on the north 
side for a German school. The Hoagland School was again enlarged, the three- 
room buildiog of 1866 now becoming one of twelve rooms, and the Hanna School 
changed from a one to a three room building. 

In 1S75. saw the erection of a substantial and convenient eight-room brick 
building in Bloomingdale, consolidating all the North Side schools. 

Mr. Smart, having been elected State Superintendent of Public Instruction, 
left to assume the duties of his new office in the early spring of this year, and 
the present incumbent was elected the June following. 

In 1876, the crowded condition of the Hanna School compelled the erection 
of a building similar to the Bloomingdale, and a like cause, in 1877, necessitated 
the remodeling of the Hanna and Washington Schools into eight-room buildings. 
A large addition was also made to the Central School, and the interior arrange 
ment/ changed so that the third story in now a hall capable of sealing 1,400 
persons and readily convertible into four recitation-rooms. 

In 1867, Mr. Smart, seeing the necessity of training teachers with special 
reference to the wants of our schools, opened a school therefor, tbe success of 
which was soon evident. In 1877, the instruction in this school was limited to 

uth of the railroad, and a plain frame, three- 
is were opened at first, hut it soon became 

nrimary teachers, and a second school was opened for those in the intermediate 
grades. Of the one hundred and one teachers in our present corps, fifty-three 
have been educated in these schools, a large proportion ot the others being gradu- 
ates from our High School; and the character of their work gives the best 
evidence of the advantages derived from such training schools 

Much of our success is doubtless due to the pleasant relations at all times 
existim- between the Trustee. Superintendent and teachers and to the infrequent 

,i,a :: both in the Hoard of Trustees and corps of teachers. The former has 

been "practically unchanged for many years, Mr. Edgerton having served for six 
Mr lloedand'f'or eleven, Mr. Morgan for sixteen, and the present Superintendent 
for ten years; while many of the teachers have an almost equally long record ot 

"' The^'colored" question has been satisfactorily settled by incorporating the 
children in the districts and grades for which their advancement fits them. 

As regards the employment of special teachers for the studies of music 
drawing, readme and writing, after an experience of several years, it is found 
that not only in these studies themselves, but still more in their influence on tne 
other branches, the improved results secured more than compensation for the 
additional outlay. , _ , i:„i,„j 

In March 1878, moved by various considerations, the trustees abolished 
the name of High School, as exciting opposition and carrying no strength, and 
divided the course into primary, intermediate and grammar grades. It is not 
intended either to lower the standard or reduce the extent of the work The 
curse of study pursued, while by no means faultless, has yet proved itself a 
valuable one by the success which our graduates have obtained, both in the 
biober institutions of learning and in the professional and business walks of life. 
It is the constant endeavor of those in charge to make such use of the means 
and appliances in their power as will be productive of the greatest aood to the 
largest numbers. . io-jq to ,-, „ D 

The condition of our schools at the opening of the years 1878-7 J is as 
follows- Buildings, 9; teachers, including pupil-teachers, 101; rooms occupied 
for study and recitation, 82. Course of study: 4 primary 4 intermediate, 4 
lmmar-12 years. Number of pupils enrolled for year 1877-78, excludl, g 
'transfers and re-enrollment; 2,315 primary ; S54 intermediates ; IS, grammar- 
total 3,356. Graduates: High School, 156; Training School, 9, ; total 253 

The following is a summary of report made by Superintendent Hlllegass to 
the State Superintendent of the public schools for 1879 - 

Total number of pupils admitted to the schools within the year: white, 
male 5 604- white, female, 5,341 ; total white, 10,945; colored, male, 13; col- 
ored.' female.' 17; total colored, 30; grand total, 10.975 ; average daily attendance 
7 431 ■ number of districts in which school is taught, 180 ; total number graded 
schools 5- number of township graded schools, 2 ; average length ol school, 174 
.lavs - number of teachers employed, males. 134, females. 1S4 ; total, 320 ; aver- 
aoc compensation per day of teachers in townships, males. SU,3 ; female, S1.4| ; 
in towns, male, 83.19; female, $1.90; in cities, male, $4.94; females, $2.48 ; 
general average, male, $3.25 ; female, $1.95. 

Account, of revenue for tuition: amount on hand September 1, 1878 
<5i; •-, o.VI 05 - amount received in February, 1878, 40,283.87 ; amount received 
in June 1879, $51,806.17; miscellaneous receipts, $1,880 74 ; total revenue fi.r 
tuition S165 930.43; amount expended since September 1, 18 1 8, 8,12,332.55 ; 
amount now on hand, $73,597.88. ,.-,„, u ,,«,<, 

Account of special school revenue: amount on hand, September 1, 1878, 
$36 4SII.67 ; amount since received, $45,736.61; total, 882 217.28 ; amount 
expended shoe September 1, 1878, $37,945.96; amount now on hand 144,271.32. 
General statistics : number of schoolhouses, brick, 50 ; frame, 138 ; 
total 188- estimated value of schoolhouses, including grounds, seats, etc., 
S3-1S <-5; estimated value of school apparatus, including maps, globes, etc 
SS 530 ; total estimated value of school property, S356.S0:, ; total estimated 
special school tax. S15.S-f7.72; number of volumes in township libraries, 3,687 ; 
number of volumes taken out during the year, 1,091 ; amount paid Trustees for 
nnnaoin- educational matters, $1,970 ; number of schoolhouses erected during 
the year, 13; value of the same, $13,498; number of township institutes during 
the year, 82. 


The old Jesuit missionaries that may have visited Fort Wayne when it was 
a mere tradim'-post have left here no record of their labors. The few Catholics 
that resided here were visited, for the first, time on record, on the 3d of June, 
1 S3II by V cry Reverend Stephen Theodore Badin, the first ordained priest in the 
United States. He was then Vicar General of the Dioceses of Bardstown, Ky., 
and Cincinnati, Ohio. At that time (1830 I, the State of Indiana was within 
the limits of the Diocese of Bardstown, the Bishop of which was the Rt. Rev. 
Benedict Joseph Flaget, consecrated November 4, 1810. His first coadjutor was 
Rt Rev John B. David, consecrated Bishop of Mauncaslro August la, 1819 ; 
and his second coadjutor was Rt, Rev. Guy Ignatius Chabert, consecrated Bishop 
of Bolivia July 20, 1834, whilst his third coadjutor was Rt. Rev. Martin John 
Spalding, consecrated September 10, 1848, Bishop of Langonc, after the See ot 
Bardstown had been transferred to the city of Louisville, in the same State ot 
Kentucky. _ ,. , , . 

The same Very Reverend Steven Theodore Badm repeated his visits to 
Fort Wayne in 1831, offered the holy sacrifice of the mass and preached in the 
residence of Francis Compare!, Esq, and, in 1S32, when he performed the func- 
tions of his ministry in the residence of John B. Bequette, Esq., whose wife is 
still living in Fort Wayne at the present day. 

The next priest who visited this city was Bev. Picot, then Pastor of the 
Catholics of Vinccnncs, Knox Co, Ind., September 25, 1832. Then Very Rev- 
erend Steven Theodore Badin was again in Fort Wayne December 25, 183.S 



Rev. Boheme also, in 1832. Very Reverend Steven Theodore Badin in 

1833 and 1834. Rev. Simon P. Laluuiierc, who died when Pastor of the Cath- 
olics of Terre Haute, visited this place in 1835. Rev. Felix Matthew Ruff, in 
1835. Rev. I. F. Terrooren, in 1835. Rev. Father Francis, stationed at 
Logansport, visited the Catholics of Fort Wayne in January, February, May, 
June, July and August, 1836. 

The first priest permanently appointed Pastor of the Catholic congregation 
of Fort Wayne was Rev. Louis Muller, who took possession in August, L836 
and remained until the 16th of April, 1840. 

In 1838, Fort Wayne was visited by the Rt. Rev. Saintly Simon Gabriel 
Brute, first Bishop of Vincennes. In the beginning of 1840, Bishop Guyne- 
mere de la Hailanidiere, second Bishop of Vincennes, appointed Rev. Julien 
Benoit Pastor of St. Augustine's Church, Fort Wayne, having to attend 
La Gro, Huntington, Columbia City, Warsaw, Goshen, Avilla, New France, New 
Haven, Besancon, Hesse-Castle and Decatur. His first assistant was Rev. 
Joseph Hamison, a saintly young priest, who died at Logansport in the early part 
of 1842. His second assistant was Rev. Joseph Rudolf, who died in Olden- 
burg, Franklin County, after many years of hard missionary labors. His third 
assistant was A. Carius, who remained but a short time, and is now Pastor of 
Junction City, Kan. The fourth was Alpbonse Munschina, who is Pastor of 
Lancsviller Vincennes Diocese. The fifth was Rev. Edward Fallcr, who is now 
in Tell City, Vincennes Diocese. Under Father Faller the German speaking part 
of St. Augustine's congregation built a church and a schoolhouse, and that formed 
the first German-speaking congregation in Fort Wayne. Rev. Edward Faller 
was the first Pastor of the new church, placed under the patronage of the Mother 
of God and called St. Mary's. The division took place in 1849. 

In 1865, St. Paul's Church (German) was built, on West Washington street, 
and formed another congregation, under the rectorship of Rev. Edward Koenig. 
the present incumbent. 

In 187 1 , the Germans living on South Hanna street built St. Peter's Church, 
and formed a third German congregation, having for its Pastor Rev. John 

The three German congregations have their own schools, and give a good 
religious education and training to about eight hundred children. 

The first undertaking of the Pastor of St. Augustine's Church was the fin- 
ishing of the church which had been begun by his predecessor. He very soon 
after erected sehoolhouses for girls and for boys, and obtained the Sisters of Prov- 
idence and the Brothers of the Holy Cross to direct those schools. They have 
been in a flourishing condition from the very beginning, and both schools educate 
now more than seven hundred pupils, when the Bishops of the Province of Cin- 
cinnati considered that the Diocese of Vincennes was too large, and a division 
should take place. 

Fort Wayne was selected as the See of the new diocese. Rt. Rev. John 
John H. Luers was appointed first Bishop of Fort Wayne, and was -consecrated 
January 10, 1858. He governed the diocese until June 29, 1871, when he died 
suddenly, in the city of Cleveland, Ohio. 

The successor of Bishop Luers is Rt. Rev. Joseph Dwenger, the present 
incumbent. He was consecrated April 14, 1872. 

St. Vincent's Church, Washington Township, Allen Co., Ind., was built in 
1845, and rebuilt in 1861. 

St. Louis' Church, Jefferson Township, Allen Co., Ind., was built in 1847, 
and rebuilt in 1 874. 

The Pastor of the Cathedral (placed under the patronage of the "Immacu- 
late Conception." and not any longer under the invocation of "St. Augustine") 
is the Rt. Rev. Joseph Dwenger. Bishop of Fort Wayne, and he has for Assistant 
Pastors Very Reverend J. Benoit, Vicar General; Rev. Joseph Henry Brammar 
and Rev. James Hartnett. 

The first Pastor of St. Mary's (German church) was Rev. Edward Faller; 
the second, Rev. Joseph Wentz, and the third, the present incumbent, Rev. 
Joseph Rademacher, who has for Assistant Rev. Charles Steurer. 

The first and present Pastor of St. Paul's Church (German) is Rev. Edward 

The first and present Pastor of St. Peter's Church (German) is Rev. John 

The members of the " Cathedral " Church number very near 4,000 ; St. 
Mary's, 2,500 ; St. Paul's, 700, and St. Peter's, 800. 

The church it worth 81,000,000 or 81,000 only, is all the 
same for us, and we leave the valuation of it to better judges than clergymen 
generally are. 

All the church property in the Diocese of Fort "U ayne ( and in all the dioceses 

of the United States) belongs to the Bishop, who has a deed of trust for the same. 

The Diocese of Fort Wayne, established in 1S57, comprises and includes 

all north of, and including, Fountain, Montgomery, Boone, Hamilton, Delaware, 

Randolph and Warren Counties, Indiana. 

Officers of the Diocese of Fort Wayne: Rt. Rev. Joseph Dwenger, D. D., 
Bishop ; Very Reverend Julien Benoit, Vicar General ; Rev. Joseph Rademacher, 

Total number of priests in the diocese, 97 ; clerical students, 16 ; number 
of churches, 108; number of chapels, 20; churches now being erected, 4; hos- 
pitals, 3 ; religious institutions, 15 ; university, 1 ; orphan asylums, 2 ; female 
literary institutions, 17 ; parish schools, 54; Catholic population, 80,000. 


Catholics of dilierent nationalities worshiped in the old frame church located 
i the property now occupied by the Cathedral. In 1849, the German Catholics 
rmed themselves into a separate congregation and built a small brick church 

near the corner of Jefferson and La Fnyotte streets, now enlarged and used as a 
Sisters' House and Parochial School for girls. The large brick church now in 
use was built 1858, boys' school in I860. The first Pastor was Rev Edward 
Faller; recent Pastor, R L -v. Joseph Rahemacher; Assistant, Ii L >v Charles Steurer 
Membership, 1,500. Children in school, 330. 


The Young Gentlemens' Sodality was organized January 14, 1875, at Cath- 
olic library Hall by the Rt. Rev. Joseph Dwinger, D. D., and Rev. Joseph 
Brammer, P. P. The following officers were elected for one year, 1875 : Frank 
V. Cour, Prefect; George A. Fry, First Assistant; William Hosey, Second 
Assistant; John H.Fitzgerald, Treasurer; William Reed, Sacristan - PeterJ 
ballon, Secretary. 

Officers for 1876.— Peter J. Fallon, Prefect; James Bowers First Assist 
ant; John H. Fitzgerald, Second Assistant; William Keou-h Treasurer- 
William Eecd, Sacristan; Martin J. Moynihan, Secretary 

Officers for 1877 -George A. Fry, Prefect; William Beed, First Assist- 
ant; James Mowers, Second Assistant; Peter J. Fallon, Treasurer' Patrick 
Quinn, Sacristan ; R. P. McCarthy, Secretary. ' 

Officers for 187S.-B. P. McCarthy, Prefect; William Beed, First Assist- 
ant; John Heed, Second Assistant; Frank V. Cour. Treasurer; John Nellie™ 
Sacristan; Frank McNulty, Secretary. " neuigao, 

Officers for 1S79.-B. P McCarthy, Prefect; Joseph Littot, First Assist- 
ant; Anthony Golden, Second Assistant; Peter J. Fallon, Treasurer- John 
Nclligan, Sacristan ; George A. Fry, Secretary. 

Rev. Joseph H. Brammer filled the office of Spiritual Director and exofficin 
President for the years of 1*75-70 and '77 ; the Bev. James Hartnett filled the 
same office for 1878-79. The Society is in a flourishing condition, numbering 
in memberships 200. all unmarried young men. Amount of property and money 
on hand, S400. Its object is to receive both spiritual and charitable benefit 

St. Vincent De Paul Society was organized December 15, 1878 at the 
Catholic Library Hall, by the Bev. Joseph II. Brammer. The above named 
Society was organized solely to relieve the poor of the city, irrespective of relig- 
ion, nationality or party. The Society paid out, during the winter of 1879 
S9oO, leaving a balance in the treasury of §125. 

The following officers were elected for one year : President, John H. Bran- 
nan ; Vice President, Kilhun Baker; Recording Stcrclary, John G. Null • Cur 
responding Secretary, John Molir, Jr.; Treasurer, Henry G. Grafl'e. Number of 
nu'iiihers, 160. 

The La Fayette Benevolent Society, organized for the mutual benefit of its 
members and the widows and orphans of deceased members, was chartered Feb 
ruary 16, 1861. Its chatter members were the following : MM Augustine H 
Carier, Claude F. Erne, Xavicr Valrofi, Francois Bel cot, Louis f Bourn t 
Francois S. Aveline, Francois D. Lasselle, Jean Bapliste Chauvey et Jules' 

The Society occupied F. D. Lasselle's hall, on Calhoun street, cast side 
south of Main, on Lot No. 79 [O. P], until April. 1864, when Mr. Lasselle 
died. Afterward, the meetings were held in Anton Fisher's hall on East Main 
street, on Lot No. 88 [O. P.], until May, 1871, when they moved to John Tav- 
lor's hall, west side of Barr street, south of Main, on Lot 91. This was tlie 
place of meeting until January, 1876. From that time unto the present, the 
hall has been in Foster's Block, on Court street, and is one of the largest and 
best furnished halls in the city, having a well-selected library of French works 
by authors of known merit. It is one of the oldest institutions of the kind in 
Fort Wayne. A. H. Carier has been its President from ihe date of organiza- 
tion. The Society is now independent, but was formerly owned by the Onion 
Generals. The membership is fifty-sis. 

The Fort Wayne Catholic Library Association was established July 14 
1871, and incorporated August 4,1874. The Association is controlled by a 
Board of Directors, namely, Bev. Joseph Brammer, John Ring, John G Noll 
Emerge A Littot ml Philip J. Siaghfcn, wh- are also the :l:crt;r members! 
The officers arc : President, George A. Fry ; Treasurer, George A. Littot ■ Sec- 
retary, John G. Noll ; Librarian, Philip J. Singleton. 

It is a circulating library, with nearly five thousand volumes. The hall is 
in Walkie's Block. 

St. Joseph Benevolent Society is one of the Cathedral societies. It was 
organized May 2, 1874, and pays its sick or disahled members S3 Der week The 
charter members were Frank H. Wolkc, P. S. O'Eourkc, Manin A Noll James 
Fore, Thomas Morgan, William B. Walters, A. F. Schoenbcin, George A.' Littot 
Charles A. Blee, Jerome G. Stuter, Louis Gocquel, George A. Fay and William 

Irs present officers are : President, Thomas J. Hutchinson ; Vice President, 
P. O'Byan ; Secretary, Oscar Ncttelhoust; Corresponding Scerctarv P s' 
O'Eourkc; Treasurer, William Baker. 

The present membership is fifty, and the amount of stock, including monev 
is SS00. 

The first services of this denomination held in Allen County, of which there 
is any account, were conducted by the Rev. James Holman — a local minister of 
that Church, who came to this county in 1824, and owned a farm in what is 
now known as " Nebraska," or that part of the city of Fort Wayne on the 
north side of the St, Mary's River, between the aqueduct and Lindenwood 
Cemetery— in his dwelling-house, a log cabin. Eev. James Hargraves, who was 
a traveling missionary in Northwestern Ohio and Northern Indiana, was the first 
regularly ordained Methodist Episcopal minister that preached in Allen County, 


visitin- Port Wayne probably about 1827 or. 1828 the first time, and conforming 
his visits until 1831. Services were conducted by him, wherever a convenient 
place could be found, sometimes in the old brick aohoolhouse that stood near 
the corner of Harrison and Water .streets, sometimes in carpenter shops, at times 
in the dwellin-s of members, and occasionally in what was known as the " McJuii- 
kin Schoolhouse," that stood on the east side of La Fayette street, between 
Berrv and Wayne streets. Under his niini>l rations :i class was formed here, and 
a Church wis organized. In 1832, when Miss Eliza Hamilton came to Fort 
Wayne the class "consisted of six members, as follows: Judge Robert Bracken- 
ridge and wife, James llolman, wife and daughter, and Miss — Alderman, now 
Mrs Simon Eilsall. Miss Hamilton illustrates the difficulty which the little 
Church experienced in finding a place in which to huld worship, by the state- 
ment that one Sabbath the entire congregalion visited four different places before 
they found one suitable. Mr. Hargraves was succeeded by Rev. — Griffin, who 
preached here in 1832. In 1833, Fort Wayne was included in a ciroult, and 
the Rev Amiisa Johnson, with some one else, whose name cannot be ascertained 
from the material at baud, was assigned to the charge of it. They preached 
here alternately, once a month, during 1833-34, The Church gradually increased 
in numbers and' strength, and in 1840 erected 'a house of worship, a frame build- 
in" that was located on the same ground the present Berry Street Churcli 
stands ou. Rev. Stephen R. Ball, who was the regular Pastor of the Church 
here in 1838-37, retired from the active labors of the ministry soon after, and 
located in Fort Wayne, was a very zealous worker for the Church, and to his 
labors at that time the Church was largely indebted for its prosperity. 

The first Presiding Elder that ever visited Fort Wayne in an official capacity 
was Rev James Armstrong. His district comprised all of this State north of 
the Wabash, and lie was succeeded by Rev. James Hargraves. The Church 
grow and prospered, and in 1849 a sufficient number withdrew to organize 
another Church, known as Wayne Street Church, and built a beautiful church 

edifice, and now surpasses the parent Church in membership and wealth. In 

still another Church was organized, to meet the growing demands of the residents 
of that part of the city known as South Wayne, known as "Centenary" Church, 

an( j j n s til| another Church was organized, to meet the demands of the 

residents of Bloomingdale, and known as Third Street Church. 

The following table shows the present standing of the Church in Fort 


DKteof T,,l„l 

organize- mentber- 

tion. ship. 

Vulue of 
cuurrli tm,Dt'rl.Y 


B St cl 

1830 ! 168 
1849 321 



L. A. Eetts. 

A. E. Makin. 



Rev. A. Marine, Presiding Elder, Fort Wayne District. 


was organized June 21, 1866, A. J. Wells, Pastor. Service held in the engine- 
house. Contract let and church building commenced December 31, 1866. 
Cost, $990.90. Frame building, 25x40. Of that amount, Berry Street Church 
members paid 8350. 


Mission in Bloomingdale formed in 1874. Church, brick, built and dedi- 
cated in 1876. Nice church. 


was organized on the 12th of December, 1872, by Rev. Jason Bundy. The 
original" members were W. I,. Steward, Mary Steward, William Herdle and John 
Hall. Trustees— John Hall, William Hurdle and W. L. Steward. Treasurer, 
George Fisher. Names of Pastors— Rev. Jason Bundy, 1872; M. Patterson, 
1873; H. Russell, 1874; Daniel Burden, 1875; A. H. Knight, 1876 ; G. 0. 
Curtis, 1877; Robert McDaniel, 1878-79. Present membership— Full mem- 
bers, 20 ; on probation, 10. They have a church edifice of 40x50 feet 

Hon. Jesse L. Williams, in his admirable sketch of the early history of 
this Church in Fort Wayne, in speaking of the efforts of those friendly to this 
branch of the Church, in advance of a regular organization, alludes to the 
missionary work performed by Rev. Father Ross, who, from 1822 to 1826, 
preached five times in this place, and spoke of a society here at those times as 
especially unpromising. By this father, however, good seed was sown, which ere- 
long germinated and produced fruit. 

In December, 1828, Allen Hamilton, then Postmaster, feeling an anxiety to 
enjoy church privileges, was instrumental in securing the services of Rev. 
Charles E. Furman for missionary work in Fort Wayne. Mr. Furman arrived 
here on the 13th of November. 1820, and, in a communication to the Missionary 
Rooms in New York, dated February 20, 1830, he says: " From this place 100 
miles in every direction it is a perfect wilderness. * * * This 

county only contains seven or eight hundred inhabitants, between three and four 
hundred of whom live in town. I never knew, for the same number of inhab- 
itants, in any place, so many attendants upon the preaching of the Gos- 
pel. * * * There are about seven or eight who have been professors of 

religion in our Church before, and I think a church might now be formed of at 
leasT a dozen members. * * * The people are all hospitable, and 

have more intelligence and liberality of feeling than any similar town I have 
found in the country." Mr. Furman remained here only six or eight mouths, 
but left a good impression. Rev. James Chute came here in June, 1831, "and, 
on the 1st of July following, at the request of the few Presbyterians then 
residing here, organized the ' First Presbyterian Church of Fort Wayne,' con- 
sisting of eleven members. On the 4th of October, 1831, the Church was 
received under the care of the Miami Presbytery, whose place of mealing was 
some one hundred and twenty miles distant. 

" Of the first members of this Church, two were half Indians, who had 
before, in 1820, joined the Baptist Church under the labors of Rev. Mr. McCoy, 
missionary to the Indians at this post. They were nieces of ' Little Turtle,' the 
celebrated war chief of the Miamis. * * * They were daughters 

of Capt. Wells, who, at the age of twelve years, had been taken prisoner in 
Kentucky, and adopted by the Miami tribe. 

" The want of a place of worship affording reasonable comfort was here a 
chief hindrance of church progress for the first six years. Six or eight different 
rooms were occupied successively within this period. The religious services 
connected with the organization were held in the open air under a rude shelter of 
boards, nfiar the junction of Columbia and Harrison streets, on ground now 
occupied by the canal basin. For a time, the little brick schoolroom, about 20x25 
feet, then standing some two hundred feet southwest of the present county jail, in 
a cluster of sumac shrubbery, was the place of worship. Then the Masonic 
Hall, on the site of the Hill & Orbison warehouse, a room perhaps 20x40 feet, 
was occupied until driven out in June, 1833, by the advent of the first printing 
press. Next, a carpenter-shop on the north side of Columbia street, where 11. 
W.Taylor's storeroom now stands, was for some length of time the sanctuary. 
At the close of each week's work, the shop was hastily transformed in its adapta- 
tion from material to sacred use by removing the shavings and adjusting the 
benches, minus their backs, with the work-bench for a pulpit desk. A small 
room on the opposite side of the street was for a short time used, as was likewise 
a room in the old brick tavern on the same street. * * * Such 

were the wanderings and sojouruings of the little congregation until, in 1837, 
they found a home and a resting-place in their own church building, the small 
frame forty feet square, near the east end of Berry street, since occupied by the 
English Lutherans. * * * In this little frame church were organ- 
ized both the Synod of Northern Indiana and the Presbytery of Fort. Wayue." 
The corner-stone of the present edifice was laid with appropriate ceieumnirs 
in October, 1845, and the building formally dedicated in November, 1S52. The 
Pastors have been Rev. James Chute, from the organization to the 28th of 
December, 1835; then Rev. Daniel Jones filled the pulpit from April, 1836, to 
August, 1837 ; Rev. Alexander T. Rankin from October, 1837, to September, 
1843; Rev. William C. Anderson, temporarily, from the spring of 1844, about 
six months ; Rev. H. S. Dickson from November, 1S44, until the fall of 1847 ; 
Rev. Lowman Hawes supplied for the ensuing six months, when, in August, 
1848, Rev. J. G. Richeldeffer became Pastor and remained until 1851; Rev. 
Jonathan Edwards until July, 1855, when he was succeeded by Rev. John M. 

The Rev. John M. Lowrie, D. D,, continued Pastor of the Church from 
November, 1856, until his death, September 26, 1867. During a period of 
declining health preceding his death, he was assisted in his pastoral duties by the 
Rev. H. M. Morey. The pastorate of Dr. Lowrie extending to nearly eleven 
years, covered a time of rapid growth for the city, and, under his able and faith- 
ful leadership, aided by wise counselors and efficient, helpers in the session and 
membership, the Church grew from 171 to 318 members. During the time, in 
1863, the church building was enlarged by an addition, which doubled its former 
capacity; and, subsequently, a mission was established on Holman street, and 
initiatory steps taken for the organization of another Church, to be called the 
Third Presbyterian. In December, 1867, a colony of thirty-seven members of the 
First Church, with others, was organized into the Third Presbyterian Church, 
with the Rev. Nathan S. Smith, who had managed the mission, as Pastor. The 
First Church people — one of them, Mrs. Allen Hamilton, having already contrib- 
uted the lot, valued at S2,000 — immediately proceeded to erect the present Third 
Church building, which stands at the corner of Calhoun and Holman streets, and 
completed it, fully equipped with all the conveniences of rooms, at a cost of 
S15.O00. In the mean time, the Rev. Thomas H. Skinner, D. D., had been 
called to succeed Dr. Lowrie in the pastorate, and had entered upon its duties. 
Dr. Skinner's pastorate began in April, 1868, and ended in October, 1871, when 
he resigned to accept a call to the Second Presbyterian Church of Cincinnati. He 
was followed by the Rev. David W. Moffat, who was called from the West Street 
Church, Georgetown, D. C, and whose pastorate of the First Church began May 
1, 1872, and continues at the present time, October, 1879. In the fall of 1872, 
the First Church established the mission in Bloomingdale, Fort Wayne, the lot 
and building erected upon it costing §2,500. Besides giving to miscellaneous 
causes, aiding heal enterprises and continuing, in times uf need, to help the Third 
Churcli, the contributions of the First Church to the general benevolent objects 
of the denomination have been, for many years, among the largest of the Presby- 
terian Churches of the State, and, indeed, of the West. The present number of 
members is 390. The church edifice, during the past summer, has been renovated 
and improved, and, outside and inside, presents a very neat and tasteful appear- 


This Church (situated on West Berry street) was organized May 5, 1844, 
by Rev. Henry Ward Beccher, and consisted of twelve members. It was known 
as the New School Presbyterian Church until after the union of the Old and 


New School Churches. On June 4, Rev. Charles Beecherwas invited to become 
stated supply for one year. He remained as stated supply until April 28, 1850, 
when he was installed as Pastor. He went East the same summer for rest and 
for the benefit, of his own health and that of his family, having suffered much 
from the malarious diseases of the place, and, through the importunity of his 
friends, was persuaded to dissolve his relation with the Church and remain in the 
East. He resigned August 30 of the same year. Mr. Beecher was a zealous 
worker in the Redeemer's cause. This being his first charge, he confined himself 
very closely to his studies and gave the congregation much food for thought and 
investigation ; and his peculiar manner of presenting Gospel truths invariably elicited 
the attention of his audience, so that much of the seed of truth that was dropped 
yielded fruit in the salvation of souls. The six years of his labor showed a result 
of an increase from twelve to one hundred and two members. The house we 
now worship in was built the first years of his ministry and much of the financial 
help was obtained through his exertion. After Mr. Beecher's resignation, Rev. 
Isaac Taylor, David C. Bloose and Rev. Mr. Ray preached for brief periods — 
about six months each. In June, 1852, Rev. Amzi W. Freeman was called as 
stated supply and remained two years. The time intervening between Mr. 
Beecher's resignation and the acceptance of the call by Mr. Freeman were years 
of great spiritual dearth in the Church, and Mr. Freeman, not having the peculiar 
gift needed for the condition in which he found the Church, did not succeed in 
uniting the hearty interest and sympathy of its membership in the work of the Lord. 
In November, 1854, Rev. E. Curtis was called as stated supply, and 
remained as such until May 3, 1856, when he was installed as Pastor, and 
remained as such till October, 1860, when he was dismissed at his own request. 
Mr. Curtis commenced his work with the Church after having many years' experi- 
ence in the Master's service; and by his faithful teachings and his genial Chris- 
tian influence while ministering with the people of his charge were many hearts 
in sympathy with him in the service of the Lord ; and the bond of union in 
that service was very reluctantly dissolved between Pastor and people. But, 
believing his work done here and willing to follow wherever the Master indicated, 
he accepted another field of labor, leaving this Church much benefited by his six 
years' faithful service. Sixty-six were added to its membership while he was 
with us. 

In 1861 , Rev. W. R. Palmer was called as stated supply, and remained two 
yeals. Mr. Palmer was a very earnest worker in the cause of the Redeemer, and 
availed himself of every opportunity (not always wisely) to present the detnamls 
of the Gospel. Sixty-six were added to the membership of the Church the short 
time ho remained as supply. 

In May. 1806, Rev. George 0. Little was called as stated supply, and remained 
as such until May 3, 1868, when he was iustalled as Pastor, and resigned August 
18, 1870. Mr. Little commenced his ministry with this Church under very 
favorable circumstances, having the congregation harmoniously united with him, 
and with an ambition to excel, he infused a great deal of vitality into the mem- 
bership, so that in the first few years of his work it became necessary to enlarge 
the church building, and at the same time the parsonage was bought, which 
added much to the value of the church property. During the second year of 
his work the Church was so blessed of the Spirit that a revival of great magni- 
tude took place, and resulted in a large increase to the membership. But unfor- 
tunately for the Church, Mr. Little's demands from the congregation increased 
more than it was practicable to respond to, and necessarily resulted in having the 
relation as Pastor dissolved, and also causing a division of the congregation, which 
led to an organization of a Congregational Church. 

Rev. T. W. Erdman was called as stated supply, November, 1870, and 
remained as such until June, 1874. When Mr. Erdman took charge of this 
Church he found it v- ry much disturbed, from the effects of the division caused 
by the Congregational element going out, and some members calling for letters to 
unite with other churches. It seemed as a providential interposition of the 
Lord in sending Mr. Erdman at that time to restore quiet and order, he knowing 
and preaching Christ only as the Crucified One for all the maladies of sin, pre- 
senting the revealed Word of Truth in its simplest and most practical need for 
saint and sinner, so that the Church was much blessed through the manner as well 
as the matter of truth taught. The members were much revived, and many were 
added to its numbers during the short period of his ministry. The (ilenwood 
Chapel was dedicated by him, to be used as a Sabbath-school mission, and the 
work done there had much of his sympathy and help, and from its numbers 
many were brought into fellowship with the Church. But believing that the 
Lord had a more important work for him, he resigned, and entered upon another 
field of labor. 

Rev. Joseph Hughes was called as stated supply, July, 1874, and remained 
as such for two years, and resigned to go to Europe. This being Mr. Hughes' 
first charge, he had to labor under some disadvantage in following so able an 
expounder of the Scriptures, but having the sympathy and co-operation of the 
membership of the Church, his work was blessed in a great measure, to the 
increasing of its numbers. 

Tile' present Pastor, Rev. W. H. MeFarland, had a unanimous call from the 
Church and congregation in June, 1S76, and was installed as its Pastor in October 
following, and has since then given his devoted services to the Church, with 
entire satisfaction to its membership, and with the blessing of the Great Head of 
the Church there have been many added on profession of faith in Christ, and 
there has also been a large increase from those uniting by letters of recommenda- 
tion from other Churches. This Church has a membership of about two 
hundred. The Sunday school connected with this Church is in a very prosper- 
ous and harmonious condition. The number of pupils enrolled aggregate about 
i wo hundred and forty, including the two Mission Chapels (Glenwood and St. 
Joe), -which are connected with this Church. Mr. Thomas C. Caldwell is prin- 
cipal Superintendent. 


The First Baptist Church in Fort Wayne was organized in 1837, six or 
seven men and ten or twelve earnest Christian women covenanting together for 
God's worship and service, upon the basis of New Testament truth. John Fair- 
field, Mrs. Jane Fairfield, his wife, Richard Worth and his brothers William and 
David and their wives, Mrs. Anne Gerard, who is still living ; Mrs. Elizabeth 
Morgan, James Emboy, Sr., and several members of his family ; Jeremiah 
Mason, U. S. Armstrong, E. M. Ferris, and their respective wives, were among 
the earlier members of this Church. 

Previous to this — indeed, as early as 1820 — Rev. Isaac McCoy, a mission- 
ary among the Indian tribes of this State, appointed and sustained by the 
American Baptist Missionary Union, came lo Fort Wayne and preached the Gos- 
pel, as he had opportunity, to all that he could reach, and taught such children as 
would come to a school that he opened, as well for white people as Indians. Mr. 
McCoy's preaching was blessed to not a few ; so that, in the course of that sum- 
mer, five persons were " buried with Christ in baptism," in the Maumee. In con- 
sequence of serious prevalent illness, the mission family and their associates were 
transferred to another position, in November, 1822, and no other Baptist minister 
seems to have been accustomed to preach here regularly for more than a dozen 
years, till Rev. Messrs. J. W. Tisdale, J. L. Moore, and one or two others, came 
to have regular appointments, that resulted, after awhile, in the organization 
already mentioned. Mr. Tisdale was the first Pastor of the little flock, and his 
ministry was both effective and successful. 

The Church has had many ministers, who are remembered with grateful 
affection; among them, Rev. Messrs. Tisdale, Gildersleeve, J. H. Dunlap. H. D. 
Mason, J. D. Meeson, U. B. Miller, G. S. Stevens, and the present Pastor, Rev. 
J. R. Stone, who has been with them now nearly eleven years. 

As mi"ht have been expected, the Church has had varied experiences and 
fortunes — seasons and epochs of prosperity and enlargement, with intermediate 
times of trial, adversity and reverses — that have all served to give strength and 
firmness, maturity and power, trust in God and confidence in His covenant, 
promises and gracious purposes. They have now an eligible house of worship on 
West Jefferson street, worth {20,000, free from debt, a membership of 25(1, a 
Sunday school of 150 upon its register, and a congregation that will compare 
favorably with others in intelligence, social position, moral and Christian charac- 
ter and personal worth. Their Pastor is Rev. J. R. Stone ; their Sunday-school 
Superintendent, Mr. H. N. Goodwin ; their Deacons are William Carter, Nathan 
Sibray and A. S. Prescott, and their Trustees, John M. Wort, W. Carter and P. 
A. Randall, Esq. Their prospects are good, their position, their zeal and their 
hopefulness encouraging and full of promise. 

The Protestant Episcopal Church was organized May 27, 1839, when the 
following named gentlemen were elected Vestrymen: Thomas Brown, William L. 
Moon, James Hutchinson, Samuel Stophlct, Dr. Merchant and W. Huxford. 
The organization was effected through the instrumentality of Rev. B. Hutchins, a 
missionary of the Protestant Episcopal Church, who came here about that time, 
and was installed as the first Rector but owing to some difficulty arising between 
him and the Vestrymen, the organization was discontinued. 

On May 25, 1844, the Church was resuscitated under the name of Trinity 
Church, with the following officers : Jacob Hull, Senior Warden ; Peter P. Bailey, 
Junior Warden; Lucien P. Ferry and R. M. Lyon, Vestrymen; Elias Worth- 
ington, Clerk, and I. D. G. Nelson, Treasurer. Rev. Benjamin Halsted was 
elected and took pastoral charge of the Church. 

June 3, 1844, P. P. Bailey was elected a lay delegate to attend the Episcopal 
Convention to be held at Richmond June 7, 1844. August 13, 1844, Russelus 
P. Jones was elected delegate to attend the Episcopal Convention at Indianapo- 
lis September 5, 1844, for the purpose of electing a Bishop of the Diocese. He, 
however, resigned and Elias Worthington was elected to the position August 31. 
April 7, 1845, the following officers were elected: Peter P. Bailey, Senior 

Warden ; Baldoo, Junior Warden ; R. M. Lyon, Elias Worthington and 

J. H. Keisted, Vestrymen, and John Conger, Clerk. 

In November, 1846. William Rockhill offered to donate a lot upon which to 
build a church, with the understanding that SI, 000 should be subscribed to build 
it. Failing, however, to raise the money at that time, a lot was afterward bought 
for $85 on'the northwest corner of Berry and Harrison streets, where the first 
church was built. 

Rev. Mr. Halsted resigned as Rector and was succeeded by Rev. H. P. 
Powers, of Ypsilanti, Mioh., April 6, 1848. He soon resigned, and an invitation 
was sent to the Rev. J. S. Large of the Diocese of Michigan. The following is 
an extract from the letter sent to him : 

" Our parish is small, but we have the hopes of a respectable-sized congrega- 
tion when we shall be favored with one to administer to us in holy things. We 
have a small church, finished and paid for. We have just placed in the church 
a fine-toned organ of four stops, which is also paid for. We have no embarrass- 
ments—being out of debt. The population of our city is almost five thousand 
and constantly increasing. We cannot doubt of the rapid growth of the church 
under the efforts of an active and zealous missionary of the Church. * * We 
are without services and are most anxious to have the vacancy filled before the 
close of navigation. May we ask for an immediate answer." 

The invitation was accepted, and Mr. Large took charge November 21,1848. 
A large addition was soon made to the church, largely increasing ils capacity, and it 
was formally consecrated by the Rt. Rev. Bishop Upfold May 23. 1850. Mr. 
Large continued with the Church until the summer of 1857, when he was suc- 
ceeded by the Rev. B. C. Pattison, who remained, however, but a short time, and 
was succeeded by the Rev. Stephen H. Battin, of Cooperstown, N. Y. Mr. 


Battin rem lined with the Church Until itobsr, 1863, when Joseph ^S Lar 
unanimously eleoted is Raotor, he accepting at once at a salary of 11,000 

erected b 
Mr. La 

church was purchased at the south- 
a cost of $8,000, and a new church 
it I. 1866, at a cost of $21,050. 
372 when he resigned and the Rev. 
■ ■: ir at a salary of $2,000, which lie 

Colin C. Tale was u monslj Bleoted Roc 

accepted and oo^nned olg- *™ J m 18ffl _ ThUwa300ca . 

ChS "noVr* SlSon^'XSd M^l 1839 by the'saine 

Rector, the r..llowm« per*.,,, , iving it Mr. and Mrs. Bonnet Mrs Howard 

and Mrs. Mary II. Hutchins. The first Communion in Trinity Church was 
administered b/tbe Rev. Halsted on the Fifth Sundry after Trinity (July 7), 
1844, to seventeen persons. -'.-mi up n,„,i,ll 

The present officers are: I. D. G. Nelson, Senior Warden -F^ ; Randall. 
Junior Warden; J. K. Bdgerton, W. II. Withers, S. B. Bond, W. E. Hood, 
w l rw,!,,,, at. .1. S. Irwin and D. B. Angell, Vestrymen ; W. K Hood, 

Clerk, and W. L. Cojnahl 


., I 1). Bond, He 
C. L. Hill, Joseph S 
W. H. Walker and Pi 
Vestrymen, asking tha 
of this parish, be established, in ord 
Calhoun street. It was unanimously 
herd was organiz 
regular Pastor for 


869 a petition simicd by C. D. Bond. William H. 
K I ■.'■rt'.n I). P. White, S. B. Bond, W. II. Nelson, 
Son °John' S.Irwin, A. P. Bdgerton, John Ryall, 
Bailey, was presented to the Rector, Wardens and 
•ionization of another parish, within the jurisdiction 
nnmodate the people residing east of 
,d the Church of the Good Shep- 

[ was una mi ^..uw., »".- 

:d. It is in a state of quiescence at prcseut and has had 

> tin 


The first Lutheran congregation in this county was organized in the year 
1834 and was Composed of about twenty German families, who had settled in 
this city and immediate vicinity. The Rev. Mr. Huber, who was the first reguhir 
Pastor lab .red here sm-ccssMlv until the year 1830, when he was succeeded by 
the Rev. Mr. Wyneken, who remained until 1845, the latter being assisted by 
the I-rv Mr. J.T..KTS llnug oiil -;,:■-. t tl at tine _ 

The first church edifice erected by the Lutherans in this city was a small 
frame structure, built in the year 1840, upon the site of St Paul's Church on 
Barr street Here they worshiped until the year 1846. Up to that time, the 
increase in the congregation had been encouraging, but not remarkably rapid. 
In the year 1845, Lutheranism received a great impetus by the arrival in this 
city of' Rev William Sillier, D. D., who assumed the pastorate ot St. raul s 
Church in the beginning.of that year. Dr. Sillier brought to the discharge of 
the laborious task of building op a new and feeble Church, a vigorous and well- 
disciplined intellect, riehlv stored with theologic and classic lore. Possessed of a 
firm belief in a deep love for the doctrines of his Church and zealous for their 
propagation, he at once addressed himself with vigor to the great work before 
him Under his acceptable ministrations, the old Church soon proved to be too 
suiail for the rapidly increasing congregation, and therefore a new and more com- 
modious edifice became a necessity. Accordingly, in the year 1S-M.-4,, the Ban- 
Street Church was erected. This answered the purpose for which it was built 
very well until the year 1858, when it was found that the congregation li id again 
outgrown its place of worship, and the church was considerably enlarged. Then 
again in 1862; it was enlarged to its present proportions, 

° The wonderful growth of the Church in this county is undoubtedly largely 
attributable to the efforts of Dr. Sillier. Endowed by nature with a strong con- 
stitution and a large degree of energy, he wis well qualified for the great, and 
trviii" physical labor inevitably connected with the duties of a pioneer minister. 
Endowed, moreover, with superior and vigorous intellectual faculties, which had 
been highly cultivated and carefully disciplined, he was peculiarly fitted for the 
difficult "task of organizing and developing the Lutheran Church in a new country. 
For upward of a "quarter" of a century he labored incessantly. Coming here in 
the dawn of manhood, he spent the prime of his life in our midst in the service 
of his Master, and his labors bore unmistakably the imprint of divine approval. 
In ihe "reat success which Dr. Sihler achieved here, he was efficiently assisted, 
successively, by such pious and learned divines as Foellinger, Rent/.. Stcphan and 
the Rev. W. S. Stubuatzy. This latter gentleman came here in the year 181.2, 
and, from that time until 186S, was the co-Pastor of St. Paul's Church. In 
1867,. he received a call from a large and prosperous church in the city of Balti- 
more. The acceptance of this calf would hive opened up to him a wide field of 
■ usefulness and he felt it his duty to go there. Upon the communication of this 
determination to the (aggregation, a general protest against his leaving was uttered 
and a pledge made, that if he would' remain, a new congregation would be organ- 
ized and a church built. As this plan seemed to meet with universal approval, 
Mr. Stubuatzy consented -to stay. 

emaniel's chdrch. 
In pursuance of the pledge noted above, the org 

n»a new church. Nine- 
' ... 1 -rounds purchased, and a building 

1 .... Q Becker, Jf! Thi -.<'!' Meyer, F. Briter, 

1. r D Drost 1 B. Breimeyer, was appointed, with 

„,., an edifice to cost hot exceeding $26,000. Capt. A. 
Jo irmeistet wa appointed architect. The foundation walls were put up in the 
Spring of 1868, and the corner-stone was laid on the 15th of June, the same 

year, with appropriate ceremonies. The walls of the building were put up during 
the summer of that year, and put under roof in the fall. The woodwork, paint- 
in° ornamentation, etc., had been done since the beginning ot the year. 

The church is situated on the corner of Jefferson and Union streets. It is 
a briek structure, purely Gothic in style of architecture, and ornoiform m shape ; 
is 125 feet in length, of which the tower vestibule occupies 18 feet, and the altar 
niche 20 feet. The width is 50 feet in the nave and 80 feet in the cross, ihe 
altar niche is flanked on the one side by the sacristy and on the other by a lect- 
ure-room each bein" 18x20 feet in dimensions. In ihe center front and project- 
in" is a beautiful and graceful tower 180 feet in height, surmounted by an ele- 
»-i7i't .-ilt cross. The base of the tower, which is 18 feet square, constitutes the 
main entrance of the church, while to the right and left of it are side entrances 
leading into spacious vestibules that connect with the body of the church, and 
also by means of a broad stairway, with the galleries. Besides these three 
entrances, there are two more in the arms of the cross, which lead directly into 
the body of the church, as well as to the galleries. The sealing capacity ot the 
church including the galleries, is about twelve hundred, but it could easily be 
crowded up to fourteen or fifteen hundred. The cost of the church, exclusive ot 
the organ, which was $4,500, and the altar furniture, was $26,000. This sum, 
except $6,000, which was allowed by St. Paul's Chureh, in consideration of the 
surrender 'of their interests in that property by the members of Emanuel s 
Church was raised by the members of the new Church. 

The ScJmoh.— Recognizing the great truth that a proper education of the 
mind is secondary in importance only to the education of the heart, early attention 
was .riven to this important subject. The first sehoolhouse was built in 1847, 
near "the church, and placed in charge of George Wolf. But, as with, the 
Church, so with the school. From a small beginning, it grew rapidly with the 
march of time, until the little school of one or two classes and one teacher has 
developed into several splendid institutions, with a sufficient number of superior 
instructors, and divided into several departments, each being filled almost to over- 
flowing with well-trained scholars. 

Concordia CWfcyc— This institution, too, had its day of small things. 
Thou"h it had a migratory and precarious existence for three or four years pre- 
viously we will begin our sketch in 1849. In that year, the congregation of St. 
Paul's Church purchased Woodlawn, the beautiful country seat of Col. M. S. 
Wines then lately deceased, situated about a luilo east of the etty, on the old 
Piqua'road. Being removed thither, new life was infused into the institution, 
and under the general supervision of Dr. Sillier, assisted by the valuable services 
of such men as Profs. Walther, Bivend, Cramer, Fleichmann and Selle, it grad- 
ually Mew in favor with the German Lutherans of the Northwest. The corner- 
stone of the edifice was laid in July, 1856. On the 16th of November, 1857, 
the institution was opened, with the following Faculty : Prof. Suterme.ster, 
Principal; Prof. Cramer, Prof Kanz, Prof. Fleichmann, Subordinates. Ihe 
institution was founded as an academy, by the German Lutherans of the city and 
surrounding country. The Lutheran Church of the city subscribed over $3,000, 
and large additional amounts were given by the surrounding country. From 
time to time, additions were made to the old building, and new ones were erected 
as the demand for increased accommodations became apparent, at an aggregate 
cost of more than 865,000, at length producing one of the rAMt commodious, as 
well as most complete, among the similar institutions in the West. Up to lobl, 
both theology and the classics were taught. In that year, however, a re-organiza- 
tion took place. A Normal department was formed, and placed under the super- 
vision of Profs. Fleishmann and Selle. This department occupied rooms, 
temporarily, on Clinton street, between Maid and Columbia, but was removed 
two miles south of the city, on the Piqua road proper, the same yeir, where it 
remained until L863, when it was again remivel to Addison, III., at which point 
there is a flourishing Normal Institute. In 1862, the theological department 
proper was removed to St. Louis. In addition to the regular college course, stu- 
dents are still, however, instructed in the lower branches of theology, and pre- 
pared for the Theological Seminary at St. Louis, where they are graduated. 

Here as elsewhere, when civilization had, in a measure, superseded savage 
society, and the domain of humanity was in the ascendent, the spirit of liberal- 
ism bean to exert itself in the development of untrammeled thought, the motive 
force which first induces the recognition of the universal fatherhood of God and 
the coram m brotherhood of man. Hence, at an early day in the history ot 
Fort Wayne, there were many who cherished an abiding faith in the doctrines 
which distinguish the branch of Christian worshipers known as Uniyersalists. 
At first, these opinions were entertained quietly, and there was no display in 
their manifestation, beyond the fireside and the homo circle. Erelong however, 
additions lo the number of liberal, advanced thinkers were made by the advent 
I of new settlers, coming from older settlements in the Eist and South. As early 
as 1835, there were a few open advocates of the doctrines of this Church. At 
that period, few preachers of this denomination were to be found in Indiana, and, 
as a consequence, there were few opportunities for development, other than the 
1 oufrowtb of reflected example. In 1841-42, many advocates were to be loan. I 
in the community who were willing and anxious to have a representative who 
should minister to the spiritual wants. Then, the people inhabiting the valley 
of the Upper Wabash had such a ministering agent, in the person of the Rev. 
Erasmus Manford, now of Chicago, editor of M,;,f,„;V* .l/,ir/,,--,V, who delivered 
his messages to anxious hearers whenever and wherever called. Accordingly, at 
the suggestion of Dr. Lewis G. Thompson, one of Fort Wayne's oldest and most 
respected citizens, Mr. Manford came to this city and delivered the first sermon by 
a minister of that persuasion, at the Court House, on the evening of September 
7, 1843, which was largely attended and elicited much interest. He preached 

St. Pauls Lutheran Church. Parsonage & School Building Ft. Wayne. Ind. 

St. Pauls Lutheran Church. Parsonage & School Building Ft. Wayne. Ind. 




{Formerly Member of Congress.) 

Hon. Samuel Brenton was born November 22, 1810, in Gallatin County, 
Ky., and was the son of Robert and Sarah Brentou. His early educational 
advantages were limited ; but, while quite young, he developed a desire for 
knowledge, and availed himself of every opportunity for increasing his stock 
of learning. 

He entered the ministry in the Methodist Church, in 1830, and remained 
connected with it until his death; but, in 1834, lie located on account of 
ill health, and, while living near Danville, Ind., he took up the study of the 
law and engaged in an active and successful practice for six years, taking a 
high rank in that profession. In 1841, hid health having become restored, he 
left his practice and returned to the active work of the ministry, being sta- 
tioned at Crawfordsville, Perryville, La Fayette, and finally at Fort Wayne, 
where he labored until he lost the use of the right half of his body from par- 
alysis. . 

He was elected to and served two terms in the Indiana Legislature, as 
Representative from Hendricks County, during the sessions of 1838-39 and 
of 1840-41. He was appointed Register of the Land Oflice at Fort Wayne 
in 1849, and held that position for several years, and until he was elected to 
Congress in 1850. In that year, political strife ran high, and when he was 
nominated by the Whigs, the race was considered almost a hopeless one ; but 
he entered into the canvass with a vigor and energy which surprised his 
opponents, and the campaign resulted in his triumphant election. He proved 
a faithful representative and public servant, and so well were his constituents 
pleased with his course during his first term, that he was re-elected in 18"4 
and 1856. His public duties and the arduous labors of his campaigns prov )d 
too much, however, foT his feeble frame, and he died before the expiration of 
his last term, on the 29th of March, 1857, at his home in Fort Wayne. 

He was married, at Crawfordsville, Ind., on the 3d of July, 1832, to M as 
Eliza Holmes, a daughter of Judge Andrew Holmes and Sarah Holmes, of 
Shelby County, Ky., who yet survives him. 

He became a member of the Order of Odd Fellows about the year 1847. 

He was a man of very strong character, never afraid to express his opin- 
ions, and always having opinions upon the subjects of his day. He was one 
11 who knew the right, and, knowing, dared maintain." Although self-edu- 
cated, he was a good scholar, a model orator, and a superior theologian. 
Withal, he was a thorough Christian gentleman. In every position in lite, as 
clergyman, lawyer, congressman and citizen, he was just, fearless and ener- 
getic in the performance of his duties, public and private, and justly earned 
the respect of all even of those who were his political opponents. He illus- 
trated the maxim that " an honest man is the noblest work of God," and 
those who survive him may well take lessons from the life and character of 
Samuel Brenton. 



Dr. George T. Bruebach was born at Grossalmerode, Germany, in the year 
1830. He received what is there termed a preliminary education, but here 
would be considered quite an extended course, in the Gymnasium, at Cassel, 
#city of considerable importance, and then the capital of the Electorate of 
Hesse, now a part of the Prussian Empire. He remained there, engaged in 
preparatory study, from 1840 to 1849. After passing the examination of 
maturity, i. e., the examination required for admission to study either theology, 
medicine or jurisprudence, he entered the University of Marburg in 1849, 
and commenced the study of medicine and natural science, and passed the 
examination in natur.l rcience in 1851. He then left Marburg and entered 
the University of Wurzburg, in Bavaria, where he continued the study of 
medicine. At that time, the University numbered among its professors such 
medical celebrities as Virchow, Scauzoni, Kolliker, Marcus and Texter. 

Here he remained until 1853, when he returned to Marburg for further 
study and final examination, and, on the 23d of December, 1854, graduated 
there as Doctor Medicinse, Chirurgae and Artis Ob-tetricije. For a number 
of years following his admission to the ranks of the medical profession, he 
was one of the assistant physicians at " Laudkraukenhaus zu Cassel" until 
1858, when he was induced, by the representations of friends and especially of 
a sister residing in America, to emigrate. He located at Fort Wayne soon 
after his arrival, and devoted himself to the active practice of his profession. 
He soon acquired a place in the front rank of our physioRns, and, for twenty- 
one years, has enjoyed a large and lucrative practice, not only among those 
of his owu nationality, but among all classes who recognize merit and : edical 
skill. He is a hard student, faithful in his attendance upon his patients, 
and deservedly popular in a large circle of acquaintances and friends. 

- - - :■.- 

kZ^^-J .at ^o^C / &&*&**£■ -i 





AD AM 8 TP. 

D.E.O. HER I N , 



again, at the same place, the nest evening (Saturday), also on Sunday, the 10th, 
morning and evening. All these meetings were attended by a very large audi- 
tory, wh , from the attention given the speaker, were at least in partial accord 
with him. A series of meetings were held during the week following, developing 
the presence of numerous believers in that liberal faith in the city. As the out- 
growth of these meetings, or the earlier expression of similar evidences of belief 
by citi/.L'ns, a discussion of the leading features of Universalism was held between 

Mr. Manford and Rev. , of the Episcopal Church, occupying two 

days. This 'occurred during the week between the IHh and 18th of September, 
1843, the result of which, while it was no doubt satisfactory to the friends of 
both disputants, was the more general dissemination of the peculiar doctrines of 
each among the people. After that time, Mr. Mattford preached here frequently. 

Afterward, from January, 1841:, Rev. B. F. Foster, then Pastor of the 
Church at Terre Haute, preached here with some degree of regularity during 
most.of the year following. About the same time, Rev. J". M. Day, a citizen of 
Fort Wayne, did some missionary work in the interest of the denomination. 
At a later date, in 1848-49, Rev. W. J. Chaplin labored here and subsequently ; 
but, so far we now know, an organization was not effected. Since that time, 
several other ministers have sojourned here temporarily, their labors being 
attended with greater or less success. The work of permanent organization was 
not accomplished until the advent of Rev. M. Crosley, who thus relates its history. 

"The Universalist Church of Fort Wayne was organized on the 24th of 
October, 1875, with twenty-two members. Rev. M. Crosley visited Fort Wayne 
and preached in the hall over the First National Bank, on the 2Dth of August, 
before, as the State Superintendent of Churches in Indiana. The prospect 
seemed to be good to affect an organization of the kind. The efforts were con- 
tinued, the Hebrew brethren tendering the use of their old synagogue for the 
time being, free of charge. The offer was accepted, and meetings were held right 
along. Mr. Crosley 's services were secured regularly fur September and October, 
during which time efforts were made to organize a Church and make arrange- 
ments for one year. The organization was, in due form, effected, and Rev. Mr. 
Crosley secured as Pastor of the young society. 

The constitution adopted for the government of the Church provided for 
nine Trustees, which were selected as follows: R. C. Bell, S. B. Sweet, A. Hat- 
tersly, F. H. Sleeper, R. F. Keith, B. D. Miner, E. A. Horton, Rudolph Werch 
and Adam Liuk. R. C. Bell was made President; F. H. Sleeper, Secretary, and 
S. B. Sweet, Treasurer. 

" Mr. Bell has served as President ever since, and S. B. Sweet is still Treas- 
urer. W. H. Hackct is (he present Secretary, and has served three years. Rev. 
M. Crosley is still Pastor, and has just entered upon the fifth year of his pastor- 
ate with encouraging prospects. The membership of the Church at the present 
time is sixty-five. The congregation averages about one hundred. A prosperous 
Sunday school is run in connection with the Church." 

Since the above was prepared, Mr. Crosley has severed his connection with 
the society here, an account of which is given in the following item from the 
Fort Wayne Gazette of December 24, 1879 : "Rev. Mr. Crosley, for the past 
five years Pastor uf the Universalist Church in this city, has severed his connec- 
tion with the Church, and will leave the city, on Friday, for his new home in Utica, 
N. Y. No citizen of the city has ever been more universally loved and respected, 
and, wherever he goes, he will carry the kindest memories of a multitude of our 
citizens with him. His resignation was accepted by the Board of Trustees on last 
evening. Rev. W. 0. Brooks, State Missionary, will fill the pulpit next Sabbath." 


was organized, in 1S48, by A. Oppeuheimer, Sigismund Redelspeimer, J. 
Lauferty, F. Nirdlinger and others, the congregation, for several years after, 
meeting at the house of Mr. Nirdlinger. The membership increasing, in 1857, 
so as to be beyond the capacity of their former place of meeting, a building on 
Harrison street was purchased and subsequently dedicated to the purposes of a 
synagogue. The first Rabbi was Rev. Solomon, who officiated until 1859, when, 
leaving here, he located in La Fayette. His successor was Rev. Rosenthal, 
who remained here only about two years, at the end of which time, Rev. E. 
Rubin was called to fill the vacancy, continuing at present to occupy the place. 

In 1874, the congregation erected a magnificent temple, one of the finest in 
the West, the old synagogue being too small, making a larger one necessary. 

The present officers are: Marx Frank, President; Julius Nathan, Vice 
President; M. Lamlcy, Secretary: Joseph Lindman, Treasurer; Trustees, A. 
Oppenheimer, A. Wolf and Dr. J. M. Rosenthal. 

Emeek Beratha.— This Lodge was organized April 23, 1865. The Mutual 
Endowment was established three years later, and has now a membership of eighty 
persons. lb has paid benefits to the amount of -33,040 ; to widows, SSb'G ; Orphan 
Asylum, $926 ; indigent brethren, §60S, making a total of 85,440, inde- 
pendent of the Lodge's yearly donations to the Orphans Asylum of §150. Seven 
children have been sent from this place to the Orphan Asylum in Cleveland. 

The Order of B'nai Brith.— Founded November 1, 1843. The founders 
were Dr. Merzbatheo, Henry Jones, Joseph Oths, William Renan. The first 
was the New York Lodge. 

There are 310 Lodges in the Order, divided into seven districts— First, New 
York; Second, Cincinnati ; Third, Philadelphia; Fourth, San Francisco ; Fifth, 
Baltimore; Sixth, Chicago; Seventh, Memphis. The fund of the Order is 
$600,000; membership, 30,000; benefits paid, §250,000. 

The Emeek Beratha Lodge meets every first and third Sunday in each 
monih. The present officers are : Marx Frank, President ; Henry Brooks, Vice 
President; Charley Nathan, Monitor; A. Gluckman, Assistant Monitor; Rev. 
E. Rubin, Secretary; M. E. Strass, Treasurer. 


Plymouth Congregational Church was organized September 20, 1870. The 
following are the names of the original members : George W. Durgin, Jr., Phcbe 
Stephens Durgin, Ophelia B. Lawrence, John Gilbert, Mrs. Harriet Lona Gilbert, 
Wilson Shannon Buck, Mrs. Elsie Margaret Buck, Benjamin H. Kimball, Mrs. 
Sarah R. Kimball, Laura A. Kimball, Mary E. Kimball, William P. Kimball, 
Samuel W. Kimball, Mrs. Ann Kimball, Jenny Kimball, Barnum W. Chapman, 
Mrs. Sarah Chapman, Mrs. Maria Poole, Mrs. Kate Percy Smith, Effingham T. 
Williams, Orrin D. Hurd, Allen Hurd, C. C. Churchill," Mrs. Ella D. Churchill, 
Mrs. Hannah C. Douglass. The names of the Pastors are as follows: Rev. 
John B. Fairbanks, who served live years; Rev. Anselm B. Brown, who served 
about one year, and Rev. Joel M. Seymour, present Pastor. 

The church edifice was erected in 1S71-72, and dedicated in September, 
1872. It is a frame building, situated on the corner of Washington and Fulton 
streets. Its dimensions are 35x60 feet, with a seating capacity of 400. The 
vestry and audience-room are on the same floor, and can he thrown together when 
occasion requires, thus making this church a very convenient and pleasant place 
of worship. The cost of the edifice was §5,500. It was designed as a chapel, to 
be enlarged when the growth of the Church shall require it. 

The present membership of the Church is eighty-one. The membership, 
though small, is vigorous and active. The Church is practically out of debt, and 
its prospect for growth and usefulness is promising. 



;ssity of a cemetery for the burial of the dead of the city and vicin- 
ity of Fort Wayne, which had been the subject of some solicitude for several 
years, reached a point at last that fully awakened the citizens to the fact that the 
only public burial ground of the city, which but a few years previous had been 
located beyond the limits of the city, was rapidly filling up, and, instead of being 
a quiet and retired place and ;i suitable repose for the remains of the dead, was 
soon destined to be in the midst id" the bustle and confusion of business and 
amusement, and that, too, without an opportunity of extending the grounds to 
meet the necessities of the future. 

The public also became awakened to the alarming fact that, in the' original 
purchase and sale of the grounds for burial purposes, no provision bad been made 
by fixing the price of lots at such rates as would secure a sinking fund, by set- 
ting apart a portion of the sales to keep up the grounds after the lots were all 
sold, or, indeed, any other provision that would secure it from further desecra- 
tion. It was also seen that the seeds of neglect were already sown and the bar- 
vest ripening — decay and destruction had commenced, whieh began to grieve the 
hearts of those whose relatives and friends were deposited there. The graves 
were already being trampled upon by man and beast, monuments and other evi- 
dences of departed manhood erected by sorrowing friends, it was evident, were in 
danger of being defaced, and with it their memories perish and be soon for- 

The experience of the past was a sufficient warning to the future that some 
place should be selected at a suitable distance from the city, that would prevent the 
danger of its being disturbed by encroachments from its too near proximity to 
the prospective growth of the city in any contingency, and, at the same time, of 
such easy access as to he within the reach of all. Numerous public meetings 
were held by the citizens, and various places suggested. Their location, with 
reference to the roads, crossing of rivers, canals and railroads, the ease of access 
on the one hand arid the impediments on the other, the adaptation of the grounds 
for the purpose of interment, the quality of soil, and all other matters supposed 
to have a bearing upon the Bubject, were from time to time discussed, until the 
most zealous became wearied and discouraged with the prospect of selecting a 
place that would give general satisfaction. 

In tins condition matters remained for several months; but the necessity of 
the case was pressing itself upon the minds of reflecting persons with such 
earnestness that the different locations, with all the arguments in favor and all 
the objections urged aaftnat them, were canvassed with much freedom and with 
a determined uill that a location inn*t be made, having as few objections and as 
many advantages as possible. Fortunately tor the public, the minds of several 
of our citizens soon drifted in the same direction, who secured, at the earliest 
possible moment, the grounds now occupied for the purpose, which are so univer- 
sally admired by the many thousand persons that visit them, amid the wonder 
and amazement of everybody how it was that grounds adapted in such a wonder- 
ful degree in agricultural purposes should have remained in a state of nature, on 
the wry herd' i- nf tin- city, so loo- a time, as if by Divine appointment, to be 
consecrated as the "city of the dead." Its beautifully diversified surface, with 
undulating hills, ravines and valleys, fixing as it were the very bounds of every 
section, in such an admirable manner us to leave the scientific gardener almost at 
fault to suggest improvement in the execution of his skill. The soil is mostly 
dry and peculiarly adapted to burial purposes, either for vaults, chapels or single 

On the 5th day of July, 1 85 &, Jesse L. Williams, Hugh McCulloch, Charles 
D. Boud, David F. Oomparet, Royal W. Taylor, Allen Hamilton, Alexander M. 
Orbison, John E. Hill, Pliny Hoaglaud, Alfred D. Brandriff, Ochmig Bird and 
Isaac D.G. Nelson purchased the property set forth in the Articles of Association, 
for the sum of 87,027.50, the title for which was to be taken in the name 
of Jesse L. Williams, for the use of the company, which was duly deeded to the 
President of Lindenwood Cemetery by the said Jesse L. Williams, on the 14th 
day of May, i860. 

The land, when purchased, was in an exceedingly wild condition, nearly the 
whole ground bring covered with a thick growth of underbrush, and what i-< DOW 
the approach or entrance was an impassable marsh. About sixty-five acres oft of 



the south end of (lie ground was pat under fence, to be occupied for bunal and 
ornamental purposes. All within the inclosnre adapted for burial purposes was 
surveyed into nineteen sections, designated by letters, Irom A to S, inclusive. 
Sections B. J? and H were laid off into burial lots. 

In accordance with the Articles of Lssooiation, the Trustees met at their office 
in Fort Wayne, on the 14th day of May, I860, for the purpose of eleoting the 
fir-t officers under the organization, which resulted in the election of Isaac D. G. 
Nelson ns President, and Charles D. Bond as Secretary and Treasurer, which offi- 
cers have been continued to the present time. The wily change in the Board of 
Trustees since the organization was the election of Oliver I'. Morgan, on the Sth 
day of August, ISOIl! ill the place of David F. Comparct, who sold his interest to 
sai'cl Morgan and resigned as Trustee. 

The whole expense incurred for improvement, at the time of the election, 
including clearing, fencing, engineering, etc.. amounted to 81,841.52, which, 
added to the first payment on the land purchase, made a total of 83,748.39, 
which had been advanced by the stockholders. On the 30th day of May, 1800, 
the grounds were duly set apart for sepulchral purposes, with solemn and inipos- 

In this connection, and as being identified with the early history of this 
enterprise, it is proper to say that John W. Doswell has been Superintendent and 
Landscape Gardener IV. .in the commencement, and to him the cemetery is much 
indebted for the handsome improvements made upon the grounds. The Company 
is also very greatly indebted to John Chislet, Esq., Superintendent and Landscape 
I tardenei of Alleghany Cemetery, for his skill and excellent taste in laying off the 
m-minds mieinally. and for his many practical suggestions in its management, 
ikholders are under many obligations 
jrfcicles of Association, which challenge 
or valuable legal advisory information 

ate sections with 
; of keeping 
ts as to add 

■ided into lots 

To the Hon. Joseph K. Ivh.-crton. the stockholders 

for the carefully drawl I well-digesti i Articles ..I' 

the approval of every lot-holder, ami also for valnablt 
in the original organization. 

Laying ";< ''"' *"'(/.:..<.— It has been the rule thus far to lay off alternate 
sections to be occupied for burial purposes, leaving th 
most of the timber upon them. This adds Bomewhat to the cxper 
up the grounds, I. nt. at the same time, so scatters the improyemi 
interest to the diversified scenery in riding and driving along the av 
the same time, give future generations the benefit of lets equal, if n 
those nowsold. These sections laid off for burial purposes were subdi 
of different shapes, corresponding with the form and make of the gr 
in size from :;"" square feet to as many thousand, to suit, (he wants and abilities 
of different-sized families. Single interments and smaller-sized lots are also furn- 
ished tor the use of strangers and others not requiring full-sized lots. Ample 
provisions has also been made for the burial of the poor and friendless (i without 
money and without price." 

Adaptability and Fitness of tin- Grounds for the Purpose. — The selection 
of grounds for this use away from the busy throng, amid the grove and the forest, 
is so in keeping with the feelings of our nature to seek seclusion under affliction, 
that we are involuntaiily reminded of the Patriarch Abraham, who, at the death 
of Sarah, said to the children of Hcth, " I am a stranger and sojourner with 
you ; give me possession of a burial place with you, that I may bury my dead 
out of my sight. And Abraham came to her tent to mourn and weep for her ; 
and for four hundred shekels of silver he purchased the field of Ephron and the 
trees that were thereon, and the cave of Machpelah, which was at the end of the 
field, for a burying place." Jacob also said to his children, " Bury me not in 
Egypt, but wit'h my fathers in the cave of Machpelah, that is in the field Ephron. 
There they buried Abraham and Sarah his wife ; there they buried Isaac and 
Bebecca his wife, and there I buried Leah." 

The Egyptians and Persians bury their dead also in large fields and plains 
surrounded by trees, and the ancient Gernmus buried their dead in groves conse- 
crated by their priests. And even the Turks adorn their cemeteries with beauti- 
ful avenues, studded with cypress to shade their walks. So in all ages and io all 
countries, to a greater or less extent, burial locations, decorated with trees, shrubs, 
planes and flowers, have been made the resting-place of the dead. But it is only 
within a few years that the public ruin 1 has been directed to the location and con- 
struction of eeineleiie- in this country, upou a scale appropriate to the fitness of 
man's destiny and redemption. 

The burial ground should not only the the cemetery for the dead, but also a 
seminary of learning for the living, when appropriately laid out in suitable lots 
with walk.- and carriage lord- leading to bold scenery wdien it can be obtained, 
and to each dell or more humble shady nook. When such grounds are hand- 
somely etub ■Hi.-heJ and developed by the slight touches of the band of art and 
planted with trees, shrubs, vines, etc.. many, perhaps, for the first time, will be 
moved with higher emotions and loftier conceptions of the Author of their being. 

But not s,, with visits made to the deserted and neglected graveyard as we 

haston away after depositing t